Metabolism: Cell Membrane and Protein Synthesis
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Kinetic energy is energy in action, while potential energy is stored energy.
Structurally variant atoms, which have the same number of protons (and electrons), but differ in the number of neutrons they contain
Atomic weight of an element is approximately equal to the mass number of its most abundant isotope.
is based on the concentration of H+ ions.
Which of the following is not a subatomic particle? – molecule
The bond formed when shared electrons occupy a single orbital common to both atoms within a molecule.
Isotopes of the same element have the same atomic number but differ in their atomic masses.
The atomic weight is only an average of relative weights of an atom and its isotopes, and it may vary from the weight of a specific isotope.
Which of the following is not one of the three major types of chemical reactions? Hyperbolic
Which of the following is not one of the three basic steps involved in enzyme activity? Because their catalytic role renders most enzymes ineffective after their initial activity, a cell must produce large amounts of each enzyme in order to perform effectively
Select the statement about mixtures that is correct.
A solution contains solvent in large amounts and solute in smaller quantities
What are the two fundamental roles of DNA?
To direct protein synthesis, and replicate itself before cell division.
Organic compounds are covalently bonded and they always contain oxygen.- False
What type of chemical bond does sodium, element 11, form with chlorine, element 17? -ionic bond- sodium has a atomic number of 11- and 1 electron on its shell-loses one so the second shell is stable. Chlorine has a atomic number of 17- accepts sodium electron
0=0 means double bond
What is a dipole? a polar molecule
Which bonds often bind different parts of a molecule into a specific three-dimensional shape? Hydrogen
Covalent bonds are generally less stable than ionic bonds. False
Hydrogen bonds are comparatively strong bonds.- false
Which of the following is an example of a decomposition reaction? MgO2 → Mg + O
A chemical reaction in which bonds are broken is usually associated with.. the release of energy
Amino acids joining together to make a peptide is a good example of a(n) ________ reaction – synthesis
Mrs. Mulligan goes to her dentist and, after having a couple of cavities filled, her dentist strongly suggests that she reduce her intake of sodas and increase her intake of calcium phosphates in the foods she eats. Why? Sodas are strong acids that can dissolve the calcium phosphate in bone and teeth.
Why is it possible to safely drink a solution that contains a 50:50 mixture of equal concentrations of a strong acid and a strong base, either of which, if ingested separately, would be very caustic and damaging? Salt and water are formed when a strong acid and base are mixed.
A 65-year-old patient came to the emergency room with complaints of severe heartburn unrelieved by taking a “large handful” of antacids. Would you expect the pH to be relatively high, low, or normal for the patient’s stomach contents, and why? The pH would be high. Antacids are basic, and too many antacids would result in a relatively alkaline state
Buffers are essential for stabilizing the pH of body fluids. The pH of blood is stabilized by naturally occurring buffers.
What is the most abundant and important inorganic compound in living material? Water
Which of the following is a neutralization reaction?
Which property of water is demonstrated when we sweat? high heat of vaporization
Buffers resist abrupt and large changes in the pH of the body by releasing or binding ions True
A 64-year-old man is admitted to the hospital for nonhealing pressure ulcers in his heels. He has been bedridden for 10 years because of a degenerative muscle disease. Which type of organic compound would be an important part of his diet to promote wound healing, and why? Proteins, as they are the basic structural material of the body, and are essential for growth, repair, and maintenance of tissue
The major function of RNA is to carry out the genetic instructions for protein synthesis
What is the primary energy-transferring compound of the body? ATP
In general, the lipids that we refer to as oils have ________. a high degree of unsaturated bonds
Which of the following is not true of proteins?
They appear to be the molecular carriers of the coded hereditary information
Carbohydrates are stored in the liver and muscles in the form of ________.
Which of the following constitutes a long chain of simple sugars? Polysaccharide
What level of protein synthesis is represented by the coiling of the protein chain backbone into an alpha helix? Secondary structure
Carbohydrates and proteins are built up from their basic building blocks by the removal of a water molecule between each two units
Which statement about enzymes is false? Enzymes raise the activation energy needed to start a reaction
Lipids are a poor source of stored energy. – false
A dipeptide can be broken into two amino acids by dehydration synthesis. False
Salts are always ________.
Apoptosis is programmed cell suicide, but cancer cells fail to undergo apoptosis. True
Which of the following would not diffuse through the plasma membrane by means of simple diffusion? Glucose
The carbohydrate of glococalyx acts as a identification for the lipid membrane
Which of the following describes the plasma membrane?
Which of the following is a principle of the fluid mosaic model of cell membrane structure? Phospholipids form a bilayer that is largely impermeable to water-soluble molecules.
Osmosis- is the diffusion of a solvent, such as water, across a selectively permeable membrane.
Which of the following is a difference between primary and secondary active transport: In primary active transport, the transport protein gets phosphorylated; in secondary active transport, the transport protein is not phosphorylated.
Which organelle is responsible for building proteins? – ribosomes
Why is the selective permeability of the plasma membrane essential for normal cell function? Selective permeability allows cells to exclude some substances and allow others to pass into or out of the cell
Your patient has the flu and reports 5 to 6 loose stools a day. He has experienced an isotonic fluid volume loss. What does “isotonic fluid loss” mean? Water and electrolytes are lost in equal proportions.
You are giving a tap water enema to a patient. An adverse effect of the tap water enema is water intoxication. Why does tap water cause water intoxication? Tap water is a hypotonic solution, and thus more water moves into the body and the cells, causing water intoxication.
A red blood cell placed in pure water would swell and burst
Which of the following statements is correct regarding diffusion? The greater the concentration gradient, the faster the rate of diffusion
Passive membrane transport processes include -movement of a substance down its concentration gradient
In osmosis, movement of water occurs toward the solution with the higher solute concentration
A process by which large particles may be taken into the cell for food, protection of the body, or for disposing of old or dead cells is called phagocytosis
The nucleolus: is the site of ribosome assembly in a cell.
DNA replication is performed by DNA polymerase
In certain kinds of muscle cells, calcium ions are stored in smooth er
The main component of the cytosol is water
contain acid hydrolases that are potentially dangerous to the cell
The functions of centrioles include organizing the mitotic spindle in cell division
Only one cell type in the human body has a flagellum.-true