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Maslow’s Theory

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This paper discuss the decision making processes a consumer makes when purchasing a product or Service. It requires a consumer pass through all the stages of the Industrial model depending on the size of the purchase. Sometimes customers skip or reverse some of the stages. For example, if I bought a favorite hamburger, I would recognize the need (hunger) and go to the purchase decision. I would skip information, search and evaluation. This model is used when making larger decisions such as buying a computer, buying a car which requires some deeper thought and deliberation. Marketers have been using this approach combined with Maslow’s hierarchy of needs conceptual model to generate ideas for developing product design, features ,advertising and other promotional techniques in the business world..

A general industrial model of consumer decision making processes consists of identification Of need/want; task orientation; information search; evaluation of options; purchase decision; past Purchase evaluation. This model is important for anyone making marketing decisions it makes the Marketer think about the whole buying process rather than just the purchase decision (where its to Late for a business to influence choice). Successful marketing persuades a prospective client to Purchase the product or service you are selling. One of the most effective ways to accomplish this Is to appeal directly to one or more of his/her basic needs. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs can be Used as a guideline in which to target marketing efforts, stating that success depends on meeting one Of Maslow’s identified needs. Maslow’s needs hierarchy is the foundation for many psychological Approaches to marketing. (Schaffer, 1995).

MASLOW’S MODEL 4 Abraham Maslow created the hierarchy of needs model in which he divided into basic needs (e.g. physiological, safety, love, and esteem) growth needs (cognitive, aesthetics and self-actualization). The lower level needs must be satisfied moving to the higher level growth needs. When these needs Have been satisfied, one may reach the highest level called self-actualization.

Every individual have a desire to move up the hierarchy toward the level of self-Actualization Unfortunately, your progress can be disrupted when you can’t meet lower level needs. Our life Experiences such as loss of a job, divorce, loss of a business, etc. may contribute to the change in Levels of the hierarchy.

Maslow noted only one in a hundred people reach the level of self-actualization because our Society rewards motivation primarily based on esteem, love and other social needs. The example Of the person that has reached self-actualization is Bill and Melinda Gates with their foundation which Have (4) four values optimism, collaboration, rigor, and innovation

The original of needs five stage model includes;
1. Biological and physiological needs – air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc. Example of this type need is food, McDonalds corporation. McDonalds marketing strategy for more Than 50 years was “Be the fun, friendly place for families.” McDonald’s changed their advertising Strategy to “I’m Lovin it” with youthful pictures with modern music. If you convince the consumer “you deserve a break today” at McDonalds. The consumer will probably purchase a Big Mac or other Sandwich. (Anonymous 2005).

2. Safety needs protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc. MASLOW’S MODEL 5 Example of this type of need is security, Allstate Insurance Company known for “You’re in Good Hands with Allstate”. The slogan featuring “24” actor Dennis Haysbert introducing “Our Stand” Takes a strong stand for consumer interest with the many advantages with buying insurance Protection from Allstate. (Businesswire 2003).

3. Belongingness and love needs- work group, family, affection, sororities, fraternities Example of this type of need is belonging to a group such as a sorority Delta Sigma Theta’s Mission is one sisterhood empowering communities through committed service. (PR Newswire 2011).

4. Esteem needs – self esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige Managerial responsibility, etc.
Example of this type of self-esteem needs is going back to school at AIU to feel better about Yourself and to improve your standard of living.
5. Self-Actualization needs – realizing personal potential, self fulfillment, seeking personal growth And peak experiences.  Example of this type of need is self-fulfillment having been successful now you want to give Back to the world to make it a better place to live in, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The hierarchy of needs identified above the five primary areas of needs experienced by Most humans. Maslow theory was that as man meet the needs at the first level, he moves toward The next, then the next and so on. Maslow’s needs hierarchy is a reasonable focus for modern Marketing efforts The potential marketing implication of Maslow’s theory is that your ability to Appeal to one of the motivational drivers determine your potential for success.

A example is Services such as massage treatment or custom tailoring may be marketed successfully to those in The fourth or fifth level of Maslow’s hierarchy because these people are driven by the needs for Increased self-esteem and realizing their full potential. The same marketing campaign will not Appeal to humans on the first level, they are driven by the most basic of human needs, food, water, And other elements of survival. A prospective customer driven by Maslow’s second needs level, Safety and security, might be persuaded to buy a new car if you convince him/her that it is safe for The family, reliable and well rated in consumer reports. Someone driven by the need for self-esteem, In needs level four, is looking for recognition and validation you tailor your marketing toward that need.

Maslow,s basic principle linking marketing to human psychology remains valid today. You Connect best with prospective customers if you appeal to their needs in a meaningful way. We must Think about the level of need our customers is trying to meet, and market our product in such a way as To convince them that it will fulfill that need. Also, be aware of where on Maslow’s need hierarchy Your customer base is and where your product fits in. From a sales and marketing perspective, Companies can develop products to help satisfy a particular need and marketers can also focus on Particular needs as a way to market and sell something. We have to understand how consumers think, Feel, reason and select between different alternatives (e.g. brands, products, retailers).

Consumer Behavior is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the process they Use to select, secure, use, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and The impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society. (Martin & Morich 2009). The Study of consumers assist firms and organizations in improving their marketing strategies by Understanding.

* The psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment e.g. culture, family * The behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions * Limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and Outcome

* How consumers motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their Level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer * How marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to More effectively reach the consumer

Behavior occurs either for the individual, or in the context of a group e.g. friends, influence what kinds Maslow’s Model 7 Of clothes you wear or an organization . ( People on the job make decisions as to which products the Firm should use). Consumer behavior involves the use and disposal of products as well as how they Are purchased. Product use is often of interest to the marketer, because this may influence how a Product is best positioned or how increased consumption can be encouraged. Consumer behavior Involves services and ideas as well as tangible products.

Marketers need to understand the buying behavior of consumers for their products to do well. It is important for marketers to understand what causes a consumer to purchase a particular product And what stop them from buying a product.

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