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Manas Wildlife Sanctuary

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Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, also known as Manas National Park, is nestled in the foothills of the Himalaya Mountains. In the Wildlife Sanctuary which is approximately 360 square kilometers, is rich in grasslands and tropical forests. Not only is the scenery beautiful, but this is a home to not only plants, but many endangered animals. Manas Wildlife Sanctuary is home to many species such as: tigers, wild buffalos, Indian bison’s, rhinos, and elephants. In 1992 it was placed on the UNESCO’s List of World Heritage for wilds’ protection and preserving. This paper will address the diversity of the flora and fauna in the area, human intrusions that threaten the area, and efforts made to protect Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, with much more included. Manas biogeographically diversity constitutes three major plant life varieties that include semi-evergreen forest, mixed moist and dry deciduous forests, and several types of grassland (United Nations Environment Programme, 2002).

As the Web site shows, grasslands occupy approximately 45% of the park divided by two types of grassland: semi-evergreen alluvial grassland and low alluvial savanna woodland. These are some of the common trees specific for Manas’ flora: Bauhinia purpurea,_ Anthocephalus chinensis_, and Cinnamomum tamala from the semi-evergreen north part of the park, and Sterculia _villosa, Trewia polycarpa, and Oroxylum indiums _from the mixed part of the forests (United Nations Environment Programme, 2002). Forty-three different grass species, three hundred and seventy-four species of dicotyledons, including eighty-nine trees, one hundred thirty nine species of monocotyledons and fifteen species of orchid have been identified. A few plants found are:

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There have been fifty five mammals, fifty reptiles, and three amphibians recorded in the sanctuary. There are many species that are in the sanctuary that are on a highly endangered list. This means that their population is extremely low. These animals include Assam roofed turtle, hispid hare, golden langur monkey, pygmy hog. Along with these animals there are also approximately eighty tigers, clouded leopards, rhinoceros, and rare birds such as Bengal floricans, giant hornbills, jungle fowls, pelicans, fishing eagles, serpent eagles, falcons, scarlet minivets, bee-eaters, magpie robins, and many more. {draw:frame} {draw:frame}

Without proper interrelationships life forms have minimum chances to survive. A favorable place with a warm and humid climate allows the appropriate distribution of plants and animals in the part of the park most convenient to them. Many mammals are typical to rain forests while species such as tigers, wild buffalo, elephants and water birds have as their habitat the riparian grassland situated near the bank of the River Brahmaputra. A stability lasting thousands of years was found to moving rapidly into environmental degradation due to human interferences. Since 1989 the beauty of Manas started to pale when a local agitation began to lay down a separated Bodo homeland (Benn, 2008). Bodo invasion destructed the park transportation, anti-poaching camps and forest staff. The conflict started after the immigrants purchased the land already cleared by the paper industries.

Bodo tribal’s preferred to destroy the land rather than let them take it. Being armed Bodo invasion caused fires, destruction of bridges and buildings, and the murder of forest staff (United Nations Environment Programme, 2002). In 1992 the Manas Park was placed in the World Heritage list in danger (UNESCO, 2008). Poaching of endangered species constituted another risk to some species extinction such as rhinos. After the Bodo invasion poaching started to be a serious problem. Especially because of the tiger poaching tiger skin businesses increasingly flourished. In the interim, even more people have found themselves in the way to enjoy the facilities of the park. Poor villagers depend most on natural recourses; they are hostile to the park.

The number of elephants and tigers in an approximate seven-year-period dropped down to half the number it was before. Rhinos disappeared for a long time and only this year they are back. Anger by local people to the park regulation and imposed measures has led to taking actions of protest. Manas Wildlife Sanctuary continued to be in danger and was still not free from Bodo tribe encroachment until 2002 when it was removed and illegal hunting was stopped. Government of Assam has the most responsible role in preserving the area, administering and managing it. The table below shows the acts retrieved from the Periodic Reporting Exercise on the Application of the World Heritage Convention Web site which is intended to preserve and safeguard the area:

Important management plans begun for park maintenance and other activities: The Project Tiger Scheme- granted personnel adaptation, marked borders, industrialized highways and a wireless network to progress anti-poaching acts. Biodiversity Alliance:

a) Rhino action plan-strong restriction of rhino poaching b) Restock channels plans- in the result of the success which was received on caged breeding of Gharial. c) Social welfare plans- water provision, health checking care and farming advice Rehabilitation programs: a) Infrastructure restoration b) Eco-development schemes and habitat improvement programs set up (United Nations Environment Programme, 2002). Due to some major treats and dangers to the Manas National Part, series of safeguard protections were adopted such as plantations’ creation along the southern border in order to stop agricultural violation, wildfires control in autumn which served as grassland protection and preventing fire devastation. Some agencies as land-management agencies contribute with extra effort for the park preservation.

They have the opportunity to improve forest health through such measures as revegetation of concerned soils to the reduction of the trees density. Indian government along with Assam government contributes to saving the park and tiger reserve which is a tendency of balancing community development with the protection of the natural resources. Once the people who inhabited the Manas Wildlife Sanctuary realized the state of their homes, they knew they needed to reorganize their efforts to benefit the sanctuary. A solution to maintain the Manas biodiversity would be accommodating every individual need to the natural system. An individual can contribute to the park protection by removing timber and collecting firewood, cultivating land, grazing, and vaccinating their domestic livestock to prevent the transmission of diseases to the wildlife (United Nations Environment Programme, 2002). Many animals have suffered from urbanization. Their preservation has been difficult as development of human activities increasingly destroy more and more of their habitat.

As a result of the loss of habitat, the huge flocks of migratory geese and other waterfowl that once visited every year no longer use the Manas River as a resting place. There is no doubt that loss of biodiversity in Indian Manas Wildlife Sanctuary will create a disaster at a global level. An environmental problem is to be considered-deforestation will occur due to many reasons; environment pollution will increase because of the growing number of pollutants. Since the anti-pollute natural system is not able to fight back the human deadly contribution, the result is definitely a disaster. As an aspect of biodiversity in the variety of ecosystems living creatures form communities interacting within them and with the water, air and other components. All living organisms do contribute to environmental processes, thus preventing natural disasters. Conservation is an important step to a disaster management. By protecting biological diversity in it, it is possible to liberate the natural world from disasters. To help prevent disasters there are steps you can utilize. Here is a basic action plan to use: Stop land desire, which leads to intrusion

Impending illegal cutting of trees
Stop illegal fishing
Eliminate the possibility of poaching
Using the provided steps, with more expert opinions and thoroughly carrying them out might enable you to reach the desired level of protection for this important area. In turn, the more you protect this area, and care for it the more the animals and plant life will flourish and thrive. Manas Wildlife Sanctuary is famous by its enormous natural variety. Grassland ecosystems and faunal biodiversity add to the value of Manas Park. The reserve’s natural beauty combines forest hills, tropical semi-evergreen forests and alluvial grasslands. A variety of life species including rare and endangered ones have here their habitat. While one day human interference brought much harm to the biodiversity, days after, many villagers have adhered to volunteering programs and plans that helped protect the park area. Numerous acts were signed in order to manage and safeguard it. Through strict protection the declining number of endangered species starts to increase, and the park area continue its prosperity day-to-day.


Benn, J. (2008). A tale of two places-restoring rhinos to their ranges in Assam, India. Retrieved April 8, 2010, from http://www.panda.org/news_facts/newsroom/features/index.cfm?uNewsID=131281 Periodic Reporting Exercise on the Application of the World Heritage Convention. Retrieved April 8, 2010, from whc.unesco.org/archive/periodicreporting/apa/cycle01/section2/338.pdf Travel in India. (N.D.). Wildlife National Park of India. Retrieved April 8, 2010, from http://www.indiavisitinformation.com/india-tour/india-wildlife-tour/manas-tiger- reserve.shtml UNESCO.org. (2008). World Heritage. Manas Wildlife Sanctuary. Retrieved April 9, 2010, from http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/338 United Nations Environment Programme. (2002). World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Manas National Park, Assam-India. Retrieved April 9, 2010, from http://www.unep-wcmc.org/sites/wh/manas.html

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