Introduction to Science
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Dissolved oxygen is oxygen that is trapped in a fluid, such as water. Since many living organism requires oxygen to survive, it is a necessary component of water systems such as streams, lakes and rivers in order to support aquatic life. The dissolved oxygen is measured in units of ppm—or parts per million. Examine the data in Table 4 showing the amount of dissolved oxygen present and the number of fish observed in the body of water the sample was taken from; finally, answer the questions below. Table 4: Water Quality vs. Fish Population
1. What patterns do you observe based on the information in Table 4? With the increase of dissolved oxygen the number of fish observed significantly increase after 4ppm of dissolved oxygen in the water. 2. Develop a hypothesis relating to the amount of dissolved oxygen measured in the water sample and the number of fish observed in the body of water. As dissolved oxygen in the water increases the more fish will be observed. This is due to the need for oxygen in the water to aid in cellular respiration/ventilation to sustain aquatic life. 3. What would your experimental approach be to test this hypothesis? The experiment will need constant water source; such as a lake or pond within each individual container. Each container will have the same water source but different levels of dissolved oxygen. Label each container with the dissolved oxygen ppm amount. Place the same amount of fish into each container and see how the fish thrive within the different levels of dissolved oxygen. 4. What would be the independent and dependent variables?
Independent = Amount of dissolved oxygen measured in ppm
Dependent = number of fish observed
5. What would be your control?
Using a consistent water source without effecting the oxygen dissolved to sustain fish observed. 6. What type of graph would be appropriate for this data set? Why? A Data Analysis Graph
There is a know consistent element (dissolved oxygen) that effects the aquatic observation within the water environment source. A data analysis will clearly show the amount of dissolved oxygen and the increase in fish who thrive in the water source. 7. Graph the data from Table 4: Water Quality vs. Fish Population table (found at the beginning of this exercise). Insert graph here:
8. Interpret the data from the graph made in Question 7.
With the increase of dissolved oxygen the number of fish observed increases. Exercise 2: Testable Observations
Determine which of the following observations are testable. For those that are testable: Determine if the observation is qualitative or quantitative
Write a hypothesis and null hypothesis
What would be your experimental approach?
What are the dependent and independent variables?
What are your controls – both positive and negative?
How will you collect your data?
How will you present your data (charts, graphs, types)?
How will you analyze your data?
Observation 1- A plant grows three inches faster per day when placed on a window sill than it does when placed on a coffee table in the middle of the living room. Observation experiment, each plant is given the same amount of nutrients, soil, and water daily to be able to observe the growth within a certain time period. Bar graph will be able to visual chart data growth from daily lab reports. Observation 2- The teller at the bank with brown hair and brown eyes is taller than the other tellers. Not testable in a lab setting, radios based on genenio combinations and xy compatibility. Observation 3- When Sally eats healthy foods and exercises regularly, her blood pressure is 10 points lower than when she does not exercise and eats fatty foods. With written data analysis this experiment could be graphed exposing the blood pressure results with diet effects. Observation 4- The Italian restaurant across the street closes at 9PM but the one two blocks away closes at 10PM. Not testable in a lab setting
Observation 5- For the past two days, the clouds have come out at 3PM and it has started raining at 3:15PM. Not testable in a lab setting, Will oberseveration over time this experiment could exposed the effects the cloud coverage and estimated rainfall time after clouds are in exposed area. Observation 6- George did not sleep at all the night following the start of daylight savings. Not testable in a lab setting
For each of the following, determine whether the information is accurate, precise, both, or neither. 1. During gym class, four students decided to see if they could beat the norm of 45 sit-ups in a minute. The first student did 64 sit-ups, the second did 69, the third did 65, and the fourth did 67. both.
2. The average score for the 5th grade math test is 89.5. The top 4th graders took the test and scored 89, 93, 91 and 87. accurate, not precise.
3. Yesterday the temperature was 89 °F, tomorrow it’s supposed to be 88°F and the next day it’s supposed to be 90 °F, even though the average for September is only 75 °F degrees! neither.
4. Four friends decided to go out and play horseshoes. They took a picture of their results shown below: neither.
5. A local grocery store was holding a contest to see who could most closely guess the number of pennies that they had inside a large jar. The first six people guessed the numbers 735, 209, 390, 300, 1005 and 689. The grocery clerk said the jar actually contains 568 pennies. Accurate and precise.
Exercise 6: Percentage Error
In the questions below, determine the percentage error. Show your work on all problems. 1. A dad holds five coins in his hand. He tells his son that if he can guess the amount of money he is holding within 5% error he can have the money. The son guesses that he is holding 81 cents. The dad opens his hand and displays 90 cents. Did the son guess close enough to receive the money from his father? .81 + .05(.81) = 0.8505
2. A science teacher tells her class that their final project requires the students to measure a specific variable and determine the velocity of a car with no more than 2.5% error. Jennifer and Johnny work hard and decide the velocity of the car is 34.87 m/s. The teacher informs them that the actual velocity is 34.15 m/s. Will Jennifer and Johnny pass their final project? 34.87 x .025 = 0.87175 ……. Yes they will pass
3. A locomotive train is on its way from Chicago, IL to Madison, WI. The trip is said to last 3.15 hours. When the train arrives in Madison the conductor notices it actually took them 3.26 hours. The train company prides itself on always having its trains to the station within a 3% error of the expected time. Will the train company live up to its reputation on this trip? 34.15 + (.025)34.15 = 34.15 + .85375 = … 35.00375=35.00375 …. train will arrive exactly on time
Experiment 1: Design and Experiment
Table 5: Experiment 1 Variables
Beans in Well Water
Beans in Vinager
Beans in Windex
Beans in Lime Juice
Beans in Pickle Juice
Beans in Gatorade
Beans in Bottle Water
Beans in V-8
Beans in Coffee
Beans in Lemon Juice