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Thesis about k to 12 curriculum in the Philippines

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One of the aims of the Department of Education is to prepare the students to be globally competitive. The continuous deterioration of the quality of education in the Philippines has prompted the k to 12 program DepEd to push for the implementation of the K to 12 programs, which entails the institutionalization of kindergarten and the addition of two more years of high school in the basic education cycle. The proposal has spurred a heated debate on whether it could lead to improvements or just exacerbate thn e present state of education in the country. The Enhanced K+12 Basic Education Program in the Philippines has been officially started. It has been initiated by the Aquino administration where students will have to undergo a new system of education. This program will require all incoming students to enroll into two more years of basic education. Thus, the K+12 System will basically include the Universal kindergarten, 6 years of elementary, 4 years of junior high school with an additional 2 years for senior high school. Moreover, the program aims to uplift the quality of education in the Philippines in order for graduates to be easily employed. The program also aims to meet the standards required for professionals who would want to work abroad.

Most importantly, the system aims to fully enhance and develop the students in order for them to be well-prepared especially in emotional and cognitive aspects. Through this, graduates will be able to face the pressures of their future workplace. Education in the Philippines is something that is given a great importance by the Filipinos. As the new K-12 academic program is now on effect, it can be foreseen that the existing problems regarding educational matters will be aggravated. These common problems include the insufficiency of classrooms shown by the 80:1 students to classroom ratio, the lack of physical infrastructures for the different programs that is to be serviced for the new academic program and the consistent botheration during the typhoon season. Since the first batch of the new K-12 program is approaching in 2017, it is important to devise a plan that will cater the immediate need to support the abovementioned problems. A redevelopment plan for a National High School is better than constructing a centralized senior high school simply because it is much cheaper in production, faster in construction, and most of all, it may provide solutions to the existing problems, as stated, of National high Schools. The simpler the solution, the more it is to give ease to the members of the academic society.

Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to determine the reaction of the parents, teachers, and students about the implementation of the k-12 program.

Specifically, the study sought answers to the following questions:

1. What are the parent’s sources of information about K-12 program?

2. What are the teacher’s reactions about the implementation of the K-12 program when it comes to rationale?

3. What are the perceived problems of students regarding the the implementation of the K-12 program


This study was premised on the following assumptions.

1. The parent’s sources of information about K-12 program are the media and teachers.

2. There are both positive and negative reactions about the implementation of K-12 program.

3. There are few problems perceived by the student’s regarding the full implementation of K-12.


Students can be more successful if they learn at their own pace in student-driven, competency-based models.

Instead of organizing students by age and giving them all the same lesson, students in competency-based models initiate their own learning, may follow different paths, and seek varied resources to help them meet their goals. You can read about the Summit Public Schools experience with student-directed learning here and here (seriously, take the time to read it). Summit’s secondary students choose a standard(s) to master and then are directed to resources to support their learning. These resources can take the form of text, video, teacher-led seminars, peer support, a tutoring bar – anything that might help. Students can show evidence of their learning at any time. Student-driven models can feel like radical departures from what we traditionally consider school and we are in the early innings of figuring out what good competency-based learning even looks like.

Intrepid schools are attracted to competency-based learning as a means to boost student engagement, build executive function, and help students stay in their learning “sweet spots.” Secondary schools seem to be most attracted to student-driven learning, but a few operators will create elementary level programs. Summit is manually curating content and building systems to support its new approach and the organization intends to shift its entire secondary program to student-driven learning. Mastery Charter Schools is piloting a nascent effort in Philadelphia, PA and districts like Adams 50 (Colorado) and states like New Hampshire are also getting in on the action. Quality of implementation completely depends on the quality of the school operator and their ability to architect new learning environments from scratch.

Significance of the study

Learning is the aspect of development that connotes modification of behavior, skills and knowledge that result from practice and experience which sought for quality education.

The generalization of this present study would be a great contribution to the vast knowledge in relation to student’s achievement. Vital results of this investigation could be highly significant and beneficial specifically to the following:

Students. Every graduate of the Enhanced K to 12 Basic Education Program is an empowered individual who has learned, through a program that is rooted on sound educational principles and geared towards excellence, the foundations for learning throughout life, the competence to engage in work and be productive, the ability to coexist in fruitful harmony with local and global communities, the capability to engage in autonomous critical thinking, and the capacity to transform others and one’s self. They will also know the importance of the study.

Parents. The parents will know the real intention of K-12 program in students and our economic growth because they will become more globally competitive.

Teachers. They are the instruments in the materialization of the government educational programs. Through the implementation of K-12 programs many schools will be hiring more teachers to cater the pupil needs.

Scope of Limitation

The study focused on the reaction of the students, parents and teachers regarding the implementation of K – 12 program which is being implemented under President Aquino administration. This study is interested on how and where they learn the information about the K – 12 program. It aims to recognize their reactions based from the rationale. This study would also like to know their perceptions about the K – 12 program in terms of personal and student’s welfare. This research study is limited or focuses only on the students, parents ad teachers. The results of the study may also be a
basis for other similar study.

Definition of Terms

For the purpose of clarification, the important terms used in this study have been defined. The following terms are:

K – 12. Letter “K” refers to kindergarten and “12” refers to the additional two (2) years in the basic education. It is the additional years after fourth years in secondary schooling.

Rationale. Denote the underlying principle of a certain program. In this study it refers to the basis of the creation of K – 12 program.
Profile.Refers to the respondent’s sex, age, address, and parent’s occupation.

Reaction. Connotes to an immediate feedback for an issue such as the K – 12 program. This is the main focus of this study, to know the different reactions of the parents on K – 12 implementation.

Perception. Refers to what is conceived to be true which is subjective. It refers to the specific perception of the parents in regard to the K – 12 program which is implemented by the Department of Education.

Sources. Refers to the basis and foundation where the K – 12 program was been known to the parents, students and teachers. This can be through media such as television, radio, newspaper, journals and non-media such as forum.

Programs. Refer to the listing of the order of the pertinent activities or plan by the Department of Education which is essentials for the development of the department as well as the learners.

Academic Performance.Refers to the academic achievement of the pupils as evidenced by test results or marks given by the teacher based from the criteria such as: periodical test, written outputs, and participation or recitation.

Comprehension.Refers to the capability of understanding or perceiving something particularly about the additional program implemented by the Department of Education.

Theories. Are principles or idea made in writing that is applicable in different times and individuals for this is what is expected to happen.

Analysis.This refers to the breaking down of ideas into small particles to be studied critically.

Chapter II

Review of Related Literature and Studies
This chapter must compose of related literatures and studies and related readings. The researcher has gone through intensive readings of materials, both printed and downloaded through internet which has a great significance to problem during the course of thesis writing. This chapter also shows and discuss the Synthesis-of-the-State-of-the-Art, Gap bridged of the study as well as Theoretical and Conceptual Framework.

Related Studies

I conducted a related study about the Perception of Students and Parents involved in Primary to Secondary School Transition Programs. Transition programs, of different formats and complexities, basedon both Australian and international research, have been introduced in some schools tofacilitate transition. The aims of this research were to investigate and compare the perceptions of students, parents and teachers involved in several of these programs andto examine the extent to which transition programs can alleviate issues associated with transition between primary and secondary schools. Although executive staff and teachers also provided valuable information and perceptions. This study is related to the researcher’s study for this also focuses on the perception of parents but differ because it focuses on both the perception of students and parents regarding the transition programs from primary to secondary school.

Related Readings

The operation of our educational system revolves around laws legislated by congress. The primary source of these laws is the 1987 constitution. A separate Article of education is provided in the 1987 constitution. It prescribes that the state shall assign the highest budgetary priority to education and ensures that teaching will attract and retain its rightful share of the best available talents through adequate remuneration and other means of job satisfactionand fulfillment. (Nolledo:1992). Article XIV of the constitution which focused on education in which section I states that “the state shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all”.

The K – 12 Program

“We are the last country in Asia and one of only three countries in the world with a 10-year pre-university program” (source: SEAMEO Innotech 2011) The Department of Education has formally launched its K-12 program, which adds 2 years to basic education in the country. This means that aside from kindergarten, 6 years of elementary, and 4 years of high school, students will have to undergo an additional 2 years of study in senior high school. Education Secretary Armin Luistro (2011) says the additional 2 years will help students decide what course they will take in college. It will also help high school students to be given a chance to specialize in science and technology, music and arts, agriculture, fisheries, sports, business entrepreneurship, and others. K-12 aims to make basic education sufficient enough so that anyone who graduatescan be gainfully employed and have a productive life. K – 12 will look at the possibility of specialized education such as a high school or community, which will focus on the arts or agriculture.

Education Secretary Bro. Armin Luistro said that the proposal will make high school graduates employable, making tertiary education unnecessary to get a job. That proposal of Department of Education to add two more years to basic education drew mixed reactions in the Senate. Senate President Juan Ponce Enrile (2011), expressed support to the DepEd’s K – 12 as he agrees with the proposal because the country needs to increase its competitiveness at the international level. He said: We are underrated by other countries, our educational system. It is painful for others. But for the country we have to do it. To implement the program, the DepEd has to work with Congress to amend the existing law, Batas Pambansa 232 or the “Education Act of 1982,” which states that the basic formal education is a 10-year program. Senate education committee head Senator Edgardo Angara (2010) had earlier said that they have created technical working groups (TWG) to study the proposal and call for a wider consultation regarding the matter.

The Reactions about K – 12 program

Senator opposes proposed DepEd K-12 program.Senate Majority Floor Leader Vicente “Tito” Sotto explained why he opposed the proposal of the Department of Education (DepEd) to amend the law on the country’s basic education to increase the number of school years to 12 from the present 10- yearprogram. “I oppose the addition of two years to basic education. There is no clear benefit to adding two years to basic education,” Sotto said in a privilege speech at the Senate. He added that the national budget can’t even provide sufficient funds to maintain the present number of years of basic education, but now the DepEd wants to add more to it. According to him, adding two years to basic education will further increase our budget deficit. We need quality education, not quantity of years in education. We need more schools, not more years in school. KabataanPartylist Rep. Raymond Palatino called this move by Education Secretary Armin Luistro a “delusions of grandeur”.

He said that in a poverty- stricken country like the Philippines, the implementation of the K+12 was a “question of survival”, especially for parents who could barely send their children to school. He added that this new education plan will not address the escalating number of out-of-school youths, nor lift the employment rate, because the real problem is the low employment opportunities. Senators ChizEscuderowas also against the implementation of the K+12 Education plan. Escudero pointed out that it is not in the length of educational years, but the quality of education a student can acquire. And this has to begin by training teachers to be competitive, create more classrooms and improve learning facilities, and provide budget for textbooks.

Perceived Problems on K – 12 Implementation

Many parents disapprove of the proposed K – 12 Education system by the Department of Education, as it is means additional burden for both parents and students, even more so for the marginalized sector of the community. There are some issues raised by different individual on this matter which are the possibility of Additional 2 years = added cost to parents, DepEd lacks of educational resources such as classroom and teachers and some parents can’t wait to have their children start working. Nograles (2010), son of former House Speaker Prospero Nograles, also noted that the government’s public school system does not have enough classrooms, teachers and well-equipped educational facilities which are required for the effective implementation of the proposal. The younger Nograles said: The reality on the ground is that some schools even have to divide their classes to morning and afternoon sessions to accommodate more students …We need to modernize our public school system first before we could even consider expanding the cycle of our basic education system. He added that with the current 10-year basic education cycle, schools even lack teachers who will provide quality education as higher salaries encourage them to pursue work abroad. He said: Once we are assured that there are no longer classrooms under the trees, then we are ready to have a 12 – year basic education cycle.

Theoretical Framework

Education is one of the ways to change life, change values, and change fate of one’s individual. K – 12 program is part of the proposed educational reforms of the Philippines present President which shifts Philippine Basic Education system to twelve years plus kinder from the current ten years. The theoretical framework has a stars to symbolize the students who is the center of K – 12 program. This study was anchored on the point of view and theories of the following well-known authorities which are closely relevant to the researchers study.

Cognitive Development Theory by Jean Piaget(1980).

He was a French speaking Swiss theorist who posited that children learn through actively constructing knowledge through hands-on experience. He suggested that the adult’s role in helping the child learn was to provide appropriate materials for the child to interact and construct.

Theory of Constructivism

Is generally attributed to Jean Piaget (1980), who articulated mechanism by which knowledge is internalized by learners. He suggested that through processes of accommodation and assimilation, individuals construct new knowledge from their experiences. When individual assimilate, they incorporate the new experience into an already existing framework without changing that framework. This may occur when individual experiences are aligned with their internal representations of the world, but may also occur as a failure to change a faulty understanding. In contrast, when individuals’ experiences contradict their internal representations, they may change their perceptions of the experiences to fit their internal representations. According to the theory, accommodation is the process of reframing one’s mental experiences. Accommodation can be understood as the mechanism by which failure leads to learning; when we act on the expectation that the world operates in one way and it violates our expectations, we often fail, but by accommodating this new experience and reframing our model of the way the world works, we learn from the experience of failure or failure of others.

Motivation Theory by Abraham Maslow (1943)

according to these, Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include hi9s observations of humans innate curiosity. Maslow said on his theory that
through the curiosity of the human they become motivated to do things on their own way. They are being motivated to finish and work harder. His theories are parallel to other theories of human development psychology, some of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans.

Researcher’s Theory (2012).

The reaction of the parents in K – 12 programs will be a best solution to all the problems to be encountered of this program which will lead to a better and effective implementation of the K – 12 programs.

Conceptual Framework

The focus of this study was undertaken by the following conceptual framework which has a three part process: the input, process and output.
Input – This are the Department of Education Orders, Legal Basis, Related Literatures and Theories.

Process – In the research process, this includes the parent’s sources of information about K – 12 program, parent’s reaction about the implementation of the program. How do the parents perceived the K – 12 program in terms of personal and student’s welfare, and the parent’s perceived problem regarding the implementation of the program.

Output – this study identified the parent’s reaction of K – 12 implementation and the problems encountered in implementing this program which can be used to improve for the better implementation of the K – 12 program.

Chapter III


This chapter contains the research design and the methodology used in the conduct of this study. It incorporated the sampling technique, sources of data, the research subjects, population of the study, the instrument utilized to gather data, as well as the statistical tools employed in processing the data. This chapter is showing how the researcher came to the necessary data for this study, and how these data were analyzed, interpreted and presented in the easiest way possible.

Research Instruments

The researcher prepared a questionnaire to determine the views of the parents, students, and teachers regarding the implementation of K – 12 program. This can be determined based from the indicators such as the respondents’ profile, preparedness of parents’ in terms of emotional and financial aspect. The research subjects were asked to choose their preferred response by checking the number option based on their personal feelings and perception along the given area. The questionnaire had questions that relates to the study and these questions were answered consequently.

Data Gathering Procedure

The researcher has followed certain procedures in the conduct of this study. 1. Choose a certain title. It is a must that we choose a title for our study and defend it to the panelist until it was approved. 2. Securing permit to conduct the study. The permit to conduct the study was requested and filed to the office of the school principal. 3. Preparation of the Instruments. Questionnaire is a principal tool in gathering the data. The first draft of the instrument was made in coordination with the adviser so that the survey tool is reliable and valid. 4. Administering the Questionnaire. The researcher personally distributed the questionnaire to the respondents in school during a classroom meeting. Here, a clear explanation of the purpose and objectives of the study was been indicated. Confidentiality was given in order to assure cooperation and to avoid inhibitions from the respondents in accomplishing the questionnaire. 5. Validating the Instrument. After the distribution is the validation of the questionnaire. It is analyzed and interpreted through the data gathered and formulate the conclusions and recommendations of this study. Statistical Treatment of Data. The formula used: P = F/N x 100 Where: P = Percentage F = Frequency N = Total Number of Respondents 100 = Constant Number


Filipinos are known to be competitive in the international community. While this may be true, our current education system hinders us in becoming more competitive among other countries. The K- 12 education plan offers a great solution to that problem. However, it is undeniable that there seems to be problems arising as we implement the program such as lack of government budget, classrooms and school supplies as well as the teachers. But, if we focus on the long- term effect of K- 12, we can conclude that it is very beneficial to us Filipinos. Therefore, we must have the strong will in supporting K- 12 Educational Plan for the betterment of our education system and economy. Remember, if we want change in our society, we must start it with our education system. Parents. Be informed. Education shapes our future as Filipinos, its our duty to be aware of reforms in basic education that will move our country forward.

Spread awareness. Tell your family, friends and networks about the K-12 program and help the stay informed. Teachers. will be given sufficient in service training on content and pedagogy to implement this program Current DEpEd treachers shall be retrained to meet the content and performance standards of the K-12 curriculum. The pre-service education training for aspiring teachers will also be modified to conform to the requirements of the program. DepEd, in coordination with CHED shall ensure that the teacher education curriculum offered in teacher education institutions will meet the necessary quality standards for new teachers. Students. There will be an assurance that they will get a job after they graduate. DepEd has entered into an agreement with business organizations, local and foreign chambers of commerce, and industries to ensure the graduates of K-12 will be considered for employment. K-12 graduates can also obtain national certification from TESDA, which will enable them to have more employment opportunities.

Name: Gender: Age:
1. Do you think that the k to 12 program affect your daily living? Yes No

2. Do you think that the k to 12 program help the students to improve their knowledge? Yes No

3. Do you think that the k to 12 program does not make the students to be lazy? Yes No

4.Do you think that the k to 12 program will help the students to easily find their job after graduating? Yes No

5. Do you think that the k to 12 program persuade students to continue their study after graduating? Yes No

6. Do you think that the k to 12 program is applicable to the poor people? Yes No

7. Do you think that the k to 12 program is more productive in school? Yes No

8. Do you think that the k to 12 program would not give burden to the student at school? Yes No

9. Do you think that the k to 12 program can help student in their future career? Yes No

10. Do you think that the k to 12 program help students to acquire all knowledge that they needed? Yes No

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