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Factors affect in reading comprehension among grade V pupils

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Background of the Study
Reading comprehension skills are essential to success in society today. The ability to read is highly valued and very important for economic advancement. Reading can be a challenge but is one that must be met accordingly in order to succeed. Children who are successful readers tend to exhibit progressive social skills. Having confidence in reading only comes from daily practice of reading. One good way to accomplish the task of reading daily is through books. Reading books can develop a person’s comprehension by learning new words. The easiest way to do this is to look up words in the dictionary that are not understood when they are first read. Writing these words down and reciting them aloud also help to establish them in memory. Incorporating these new words in everyday speaking will increase language skills and boost confidence to the pupils.

Reading books can also help the pupil’s vocabulary growth. Along the same line of comprehension, the growth of vocabulary is also very important. Having a large vocabulary is not only impressive but also useful in many areas of reading. However, reading comprehension skills cannot be developed without the interest of the following reader. If the learner lacks interest in activities including reading, there is a failure in the improvement of comprehension abilities and vocabulary growth. This is not good in the part of the pupils if who they are in the future, needs socialization and communication as part of their soon profession.

In this study we focus on the reading comprehension of the pupils on their levels of achieving good communication skills in reading.
The study of reading comprehension of Grade V elementary pupils can determine how far their learning is now upgraded for the preparation to the next level of their learning process. With this, we decided to conduct a study to determine the factors that affect in reading comprehension among elementary pupils with the hope to come up with a good result for the improvement of their reading comprehension. Theoretical/Conceptual Framework

This theory of reading comprehension offered by Jack A. Holmes (12) is based upon this concept of brain function. Theory resembles the factor analysis studies of reading, intentional thinking during which meaning is constructed through interactions between text and reader.

The concept of this study is to determine the factors that affect in reading comprehension among Grade V pupils. The first box of the conceptual framework constitutes the factors in reading comprehension in terms of the reading habits, reading interest and the availability of reading materials at home. The second box contains the significant relationship between the comprehension and each factor on how it affects the reading comprehension of the elementary pupils and it will be the basis to improve their reading comprehension. The last box is the inputs drawn from the findings of the study on how to improve and arouse the reading comprehension of elementary pupils.

The diagram shows the profile or the information on the factors that affect of elementary pupils.

Fig.1 Conceptual Framework of the Study

Statement of the Problem
The study will be conducted in order to determine the possible factors relating to the reading comprehension of elementary pupils with the end view of improving the reading comprehension skills of the grade V pupils. Specifically, it seeks answers to the following questions: 1. What reading habits do grade V pupils have?

2. What is the level of reading interest of the grade V pupils? 3. What is the level of the availability of reading materials at home of the pupils? 4. Is reading comprehension skills significantly related with each of the following factors?

4.1 reading habits
4.2 reading interest
4.3 availability of reading materials at home

Hypothesis
There is a significant relationship between reading comprehension and each of the following factors: a. reading habits
b. reading interest
c. availability of reading materials at home

Significance of the Study
The study proposes to address a vital issue of the elementary level of reading comprehension. How can these elementary pupils be competent enough to deal with, if their reading comprehension is poor?

Pupils. They will be able to know what are the factors of reading comprehension, as they are the primary concern of this study. The findings that will obtain from the data will be gainful to the elementary pupils. As it gives them awareness and profitable insights on dealing with reading comprehension skills, they will be encouraged to develop their reading ability. Parents. They will be able to show support and give assistance to their children, the needs and the educational development of their children. Teachers. As they are the main builders and the ones who taught on how to read, they will be able to provide materials, that are needed for the motivation insights, and that are useful in the production of materials that will enhance the development of the pupils in reading comprehension skills.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The study would deal on determining the factors in reading comprehension among grade V pupils in South Central School and Seaside Elementary School. The study is also determine the significant relationship
between reading comprehension and the factors. The respondent of this study are the grade V pupils. The area of this study is conducted in South Central School and Seaside Elementary School. The time frame is conducted in the school year 2013-2014.

Definition of Terms
To make this study more understandable to those who come across with it, the researcher defines some terms operationally in order to convey the real meaning of the word, as it use in the study. Educational support. Refers to this study as how the parents provide and give necessary support in the education of the pupils. Reading Comprehension. Is the level of understanding of text/message. This comes from the interaction between the words that are written and how they trigger knowledge outside the text/message. Reading. It is the complex, purposeful, social and cognitive process in which readers simultaneously use their knowledge of the topic of the text, and the knowledge of their culture to construct meaning.

Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter discusses on the two major parts. These were the conceptual literature and the research literature related on the topic. The first division or part covers the contracts and ideas of the subject drawn from books, like encyclopaedias, journals, magazines and other materials that could be a source of inputs on this research. The materials needed we made available from school libraries and thesis books. The second division featured some related study which was based and consisted of the finding in research reports or related study internet on website.

Conceptual Literature
The National Literacy Strategy (DFEE, 1977) recognizes that the learning gains can result from teachers and parents working together. This is called for systematic approaches to linking home and school to support reading. It recommends home school contracts, regular reading, homework, workshops and meeting with parents to discuss reading as mechanisms to sustain parental involvement. This concept was related to the study because when teachers and parents work together, surely there would be an improvement in every child’s reading comprehension. We all know that teachers are the facilitator inside the classroom but we must not forget that parents too have their part in the learning area of their children. Parents are called out to get involve and be linked in the progress of every child. Henderson (1990), determine that the students begin to acquire mature literary behaviour; they begin to read silently and read and write more fluently, and many of their invented spellings look more conventional.

They no longer require as much support from adults or more proficient peers as when they were beginning readers and writers. They can read independently as long as they can easily comprehend the text. They can read fluently and can read orally with expression where appropriate. According to Brice, (1983) the children’s attitudes and success in literacy reflect the influences of the home culture and the attitudes of the home and community to reading. Increasing awareness of the value of pre-school literacy events and reading behaviours has initiated widespread home-school reading partnership programmers. Parents are encouraged of most schools to become active partners in helping their child learn to read, often with guidance from booklets or workshops. The writer spoke in some factors perceived that influenced children’s attitude towards reading. Some of the home environment itself, the attitudes of every home member, and the outside environment. These reveal some of the probable reasons or the root cause of such unlikely attitudes among the subjects. This was collaborated with the concept of Henderson and Brice that goes with the theory of maturity of psychology that as a child grows old they also mature psychologically which is vital in reading comprehension of every child.

Research Literature
Hoover and Gough (2000), found out that reading comprehension is the ability to construct linguistic meaning from written representation of language. This ability is dependent upon two equally important and complex skills, namely language comprehension and decoding. Any of these skills is sufficient itself. Each needs the other for success in reading comprehension. The development of these skills is dependent on the acquisition and the development of more fundamental cognitive skills and one of the cognitive factors that do have an impact on comprehension is background or prior knowledge. Limpangog,(2009), stated that reading comprehension is not necessarily a passive process but rather than one which requires reader to think about what they are reading. As they read a text they must make meaning with it using every bit of their stored knowledge and previous experiences. Maruyama (1990), stated that reading comprehension is widely agreed to be not one, but many things. At least, it is agreed to entail cognitive processes that operate on many different kinds of knowledge to achieve many different kinds of reading tasks. Back, cook and Karvey (1992), pointed out the reading is a skill without which a student could not take advantage of the information carried by books, magazines and newspapers. Being able to read allows a person to have various experiences. Harl R. Douglas (1987), pointed out that reading skills maintained together with the realization, is a factor towards success in all subjects.

They further emphasized that is the responsibility of teacher of all subjects to teach hoe to read the materials of their own areas and to increase comprehension through the development of specific vocabularies. According to Caroll (1976). The analysis of reading identifies eight component skills involved in learning to read: 1.broadly speaking, the child needs to know the language he or she is to learn to read. 2. the child learns to break up spoken words into the sounds. 3. the child’s learns the letters of the alphabet.

4. the child learns that letters are ordered from left to right to spell words and that words are ordered from left to right connected text. 5. the child learns the probable letter sound correspondences in order to figure out the pronunciation of printed words. 6. the child learns to use variety of cues to recognize words shape of the word, the letters, the letter sound relations, and the context. 7. the child learns that the printed words stand for spoken equivalents and that the meanings are the same. 8. the child learns to think about what is read based on his or her level of experience.

Chapter 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the discussion of the research design, research environment, respondents of the study, research instruments, data gathering procedure and statistical tools used. Research Design.

This study will utilize the descriptive survey method of research. The researchers of this study want to find out the factors that can affect the reading comprehension among Grade V pupils. Research Respondents.

The respondents of this study are Grade V elementary pupils in South Central School and Seaside Elementary School who enrolled in the year 2013-2014. Research Environment
This study is conducted in South Central School and Seaside Elementary School in the year of 2013-2014. Research Instrument.
The researchers use a questionnaire to gather the necessary data in this study. The questionnaire includes three main parts, namely: Part 1is the reading habits of grade V pupils. Part 2 is the level of reading interest of the pupils. Part 3 is the reading materials that are available in their home. Data Gathering Procedure.

The researchers personally administer the questionnaires. A letter of permission to the authorities is first secured before conducting the gathering of data to facilitate fast retrieval; the researchers employ direct administration to a group. To have a reliable data, the questionnaire is given in the exact day that will be collected. The data is the tabulated for statistical treatment. In order to interpret the data of the reading comprehension of grade V pupils.

Statistical Tools
This study will utilize the following statistical tools:
1. The mean, frequency count and percentage will be used to answer problems number 1,2 and 3. 2. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and Analysis of Variance will be use to answer problems 4 and 5 respectively.

Answer the following questions about your reading habits.This survey is
anonymous. That means no one will know who you are. The reason for this is to encourage you to be honest. Please answer all questions truthfully. There are no right or wrong answers. Answering truthfully will help your teachers to help you become a better reader.

1. When I read a story or other information I understand it.

_____ Always
_____ Sometimes
_____ Rarely
_____ Never

2. I use illustrations or titles to help me figure out what a story is about.

_____ Always
_____ Sometimes
_____ Rarely
_____ Never

3. When I don’t understand a word I use the information I have already read to guess its meaning.

_____ Always
_____ Sometimes
_____ Rarely
_____ Never

4. I use a dictionary when I can’t understand words.

_____ Always
_____ Sometimes
_____ Rarely
_____ Never

5. When you read do you try to see the pictures in your head?

_____ Always
_____ Sometimes
_____ Rarely
_____ Never

6. When you read do you…

Always
Sometimes
Usually
Rarely
Never
a) guess what will happen before you read the story?

b)guess what will happen next, at different places throughout the story?

7. Do you ask yourself questions…

Always
Sometimes
Usually
Rarely
Never
a) before you read the story?

b) during the story?

c) after the story?

8. When you read do you…

Always
Sometimes
Usually
Rarely
Never
a) relate the story to your own life?

b) make a link to something similar you have read?

c) relate to something else eg. tv programmes watched?

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