- Pages: 8
- Word count: 1810
- Category: Curriculum
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Each curriculum describes several and different approaches which reflect the developer’s view of reality, philosophy, history, psychology, social issues, and the domains of knowledge. For every approach, it expresses an orientation or perspective about curriculum development which impacts on the design of the curriculum, the role of schools, administrators, teachers, learners, curriculum specialists, and requirements for implementation and evaluation such as instructional materials, equipment and facilities. There are two classifications of Curriculum Approaches
1. Technical-Scientific Approach
2. Non-Technical/ Non-Scientific Approach
• It views curriculum development as something similar to engineering or architecture. • The basis for the procedure is the scientific method which involves a logical step-by-step procedure of problem solving. • The procedure is guided by well-defined objectives which are formulated based on the analysis of normative needs as defined by developmental and other psychological theories, rather than individual needs and interests. • It is a way of planning curricula to optimize students’ learning and to allow them to increase their output. • According to Ornstein and Hunkins, the roots of technical-scientific approach are found in the turn of Twentieth Century when schools attempted to “adapt the principles of bureaucracy to the methods that could be considered scientific. Ralph Tyler
– a well-known proponent of the technical-scientific approach discussed four basic principles in curriculum development in his book Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction published in 1949. Tyler stated his curriculum rationale in terms of four questions that, he argued, must be answered in developing any curriculum and plan of instructions: 1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?
He proposes that educational objectives originate from three sources: studies of society, studies of learning, and subject-matter specialists.
These data systematically collected and analyzed form the basis of initial objectives to be tested for their attainability and their efforts in real curriculum situations. The tentative objectives from the three sources are filtered through two screens: the school’s philosophy and knowledge of the psychology and learning, which results in a final set of educational objectives. 2. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? Criteria for selecting experiences; are they:
• Valid in light of the ways in which knowledge and skills will be applied in out-of-school experiences? • Possible in terms of time, staff expertise, facilities available within and outside of the school, community expectations? • Best in terms o students’ learning the content?
• Capable of allowing students to develop their thinking skills and rational powers? • Capable of stimulating in students greater understanding of their own existence as individuals and as a member of groups? • Capable of nurturing in students openness to new experiences and a tolerance for diversity? • Capable of facilitating learning and motivate students to continue learning? • Capable of allowing students to address their needs? • Such that students can broaden their interests?
• Such that they will foster the total development of students in cognitive, affective, psychomotor, social, and spiritual domains? 3. How can the educational experiences be organized?
Vertical vs. Horizontal Organization
Continuity – refers to the vertical reiteration of major curricular elements. Sequence – refers to the experiences built upon preceding curricular elements but in more detail. Integration – unified view of things.
Generally, we arrange educational experiences from the easiest to hardest and from most general to specific. (There is some evidence that this is not the best way to teach, that students are more likely to learn if specific skills or topics are introduced first.) 4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?
Evaluation is the process of determining to what extent the educational objectives are being realized by the curriculum. Thus, according to Tyler, curriculum evaluation is the process of matching initial expectations in the form of behavioural objectives with outcomes achieved by the learner. Behavioral-rational Approach
• It is the means-end approach which is logical and prescriptive. • It clearly defines the why (objectives), what (content), how (method), when (sequence) and how much (scope). • It relies on technical and scientific principles and involves the preparation of a detail plan, prescribing step-by-step strategies formulating curricula. • Curricula developed through this approach become the actual blueprints which prescribe the role of key figures in the educative process: students, teachers, administrators and staff.
The behavioural-rational approach represented by Taba and Tyler models is the oldest and yet still the more preferred approach by many educators. Hilda Taba promotes the “bottom-up” or grass roots approach. She believed that teachers should be involved in developing the curriculum. 1. Teacher identifies student needs.
2. Teacher specifies objective.
3. Content or subject matter is determined by objectives.
4. Teacher organizes content based on learner maturity, academic achievements, and interests. 5. Teacher selects instructional methods that will involve students. 6. Teacher organizes activities based on students needs.
7. Teachers and students evaluate.
Tyler developed his model in the late 1940s; it was the “top-down” approach. 1. By purposes, Tyler meant objectives – identified from subject matter, the learners, and society. 2. The objectives were then filtered through two screens-the philosophy of the school and the psychology of learning. This screening resulted in specific instructional objectives. 3. Educational experiences were based on the learner’s previous experience and their perceptions brought to the situation. 4. Tyler believed that the experiences had to be organized as ideas, concepts, values, and skills, and threaded throughout the curriculum. 5. Evaluation was important in determining program effectiveness.
http://www.elmie.org/2008Resources/PatrickJones/PreConference%20Workshop/Jones%20-%20Design%204%20-%20Content%20and%20Pedagogy.pdf http://cuip.uchicago.edu/wit/2000/curriculum/homeroommodules/curriculumTerms/extra.htm http://ww.odu.edu/~jritz/oted885/ntg8.shtml
Lerisse Anne R. Concha
II – 31 BSE Physics
• 64. CURRICULUM APPROACHES
• 65. Curriculum Approaches 1. Technical – Scientific Approaches 2. Behavioral-rational Approach 3. System-managerial Approach 4. Intellectual –Academic Approach 5. Non-Technician / Non-Scientific Approach 6. Humanistic – aesthetic Approach 7. Re-conceptualist Approach 8. Reconstructionism 9. Eclectic Models
• 66. Technical – Scientific Approach The curriculum developers which may include specialists, superintendents, principals and coordinators are likened to engineers and architects who use instruments and empirical methods in preparing a blueprint with well defined elements orderly-sequenced procedures, and quality control measures to increase the probability of success in its implementation
• 67. Bases of Technical Scientific Approach 1. The curriculum will improve as the professional competence of teachers improves. 2. The competence of teachers will improve when they participate in curriculum development 3. When teachers share in shaping the goals and selecting the content and method of instruction as well as evaluating results, their involvement is assured. 4. When people interact during face-to-face sessions, they will better understand one another.
• 68. Behavioral-Rational Approach It is a means-end approach. Curricula developed through this approach become the actual blueprints which prescribe the roles of key figures in the educative process. Viewing the curriculum as the means and instruction as the end is a behavioral orientation.
• 69. Systems-Managerial Approach 1. Motivate interest of all stakeholders 2. Encourage participation and involvement of all stakeholders 3. Synthesize divergent viewpoints 4. Monitor curriculum implementation 5. Create a climate of innovation and change
• 70. Intellectual- Academic Approach Emphasizes the importance of theories and principles in curriculum planning. This model is influenced by the philosophy of John Dewey
• 71. Non-Technical / Non-Scientific Approaches Flexible and less structured without predetermined objectives to guide the learning-teaching process Contends that not all ends of education can be known nor indeed to be known in all cases.
• 72. Humanistic-Aesthetic Approach Argues that those who favor the rational approach miss the artistic and personal aspects of curriculum and instruction. It is rooted in progressive philosophy which promotes the liberation of learners from authoritarian teachers.
• 73. Reconceptualist Approach Criticizes the technocratic – scientific models as not sensitive to the inner feelings and experience of individuals. Reflects on existentialist orientation. The aim of education is not to control instruction in order to preserve existing order.
• 74. Reconstructionism The school is an institution of social reform. Criticizes the progressivists for putting too much emphasis on the individual learner to the neglect of the needs of society.
• 75. Eclectic Models Oftentimes, Filipino educators, in particular, prefer eclectic models (halo-halo) which are a combination of several approaches, rather than commit themselves to one particular approach only. Eclectic models are not mere patchwork (pagtagpi-tagpi) but a synthesis. (pagbuo o paghahabi) where desired features from several models are selected and integrated into a new whole.
CURRICULUM APPROACHES (Curriculum Development)
The curriculum approaches reflect the developer’s philosophy, view of reality, history, psychology, social issues and the domains of knowledge. Analysis of an approach provides information about personal and collective commitments to a particular viewpoint and the values deemed important by individuals, school and society.
1. TECHNICAL-SCIENTIFIC APPROACH
The curriculum developers which may include specialists, superintendents, principals and coordinators are likened to engineers and architects who use instruments and empirical methods in preparing a blueprint with well defined elements orderly-sequenced procedures and quality control measures to increase the probability of success in its implementation 2. BEHAVIORAL-RATIONAL APPROACH
It is a means-end approach. Curricula developed through this approach become the actual blueprints which prescribe the roles of key figures in the educative process. Viewing the curricula as the means and instruction as the end is a behavioral orientation 3. SYSTEMS-MANAGERIAL APPROACH
Motivate interest of all stakeholders. Encourage participation and involvement of all stakeholders. Synthesize divergent viewpoints. Monitor curriculum implementation. Create a climate of innovation and change. 4. INTELLECTUAL-ACADEMIC APPROACH
It emphasizes the importance of theories and principles in curriculum planning. This model is influenced by the philosophy of John Dewey. 5. NON-TECHNICAL/NON-SCIENTIFIC APPROACH
Flexible and less structured without pre-determined objectives to guide the learning-teaching process. Contends that not all ends of education can be known nor indeed to be known in all cases. 6. HUMANISTIC-AESTHETIC APPROACH
It argues that those who favor the rational approach miss the artistic and personal aspects of curriculum and instruction. It is rooted in progressive philosophy which promotes the liberation of learners from authoritarian teachers. 7. RECONCEPTUALIST APPROACH
It criticizes the technocratic-scientific models as not sensitive to the inner feelings and experience of individuals. It reflects on existentialist orientation. The aim of education is not to control instruction in order to preserve existing order. 8. RECONSTRUCTIONISM
The school is an institution of social reform. It criticizes the progressivists for putting too much emphasis on the individual learner to the neglect of the needs of society. 9. ECLECTIC MODEL
Oftentimes, Filipino educators, in particular, prefer eclectic models (halo-halo) which are a combination of several approaches, rather than commit themselves to one particular approach only. Eclectic models are not mere patchwork (pagtagpi-tagpi) but a synthesis (pagbuo o paghahabi) where desired features from several models are selected and integrated into a new whole.