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Cognitive Processes

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Cognitive processes helps to obtain information and make conscious and subconscious assumptions about the world around us. There are five conventional senses are utilized in this complex process as a way of gathering information. Cognitive processes are unobservable; researchers remain to study ways to come up with behaviors or measures of performance to mirror cognitive processes (Robinson-Reigler & Robinson-Reigler, 2008). The intention of this paper is to describe memory, language and learning. Explanation of these cognitive processes will be carefully explored. A summarization of these studies will evaluate and research methodologies used. Cognitive Processes

When a child is born the process of learning begins to take place. A child has to learn how to crawl, stand, and walk and later on run. At the preschool age children learn how to write their names and recognize shapes and numbers. However, before an individual can apply what he has learned, one has to undergo a cognitive process. Cognitive processes can be used one without the other but they cannot be used alone. There are a few cognitive processes, but only three will be discussed. The three processes are memory, language, and learning. The stages of processing include steps required to form, use, and modify mental representation in a cognitive task. Memory

Memory refers to the processes that are used to obtain, store, retain and later retrieve information. There are three major processes involved in memory; they are encoding, storage and retrieval (Denise Boyd, 2002). In order to make new memories, information must be transformed into a working form, which occurs through the process known as encoding (Gregory Robertson-Riegler, 2008). Once information has been effectively encoded, it must be stored in memory for later use. The retrieval process allows us to bring stored memories into conscious awareness. There are a few different models of memory; short term memory, sensory memory, and long term memory.

Short term memory is the active memory and it is the current memory we are aware of or thinking about. Most of the information stored in active memory will be kept for approximately 20 to 30 seconds (Gregory Robertson-Riegler, 2008). While many of our short-term memories are rapidly forgotten, going back frequently to this information allows it to continue on the next stage, which is long term memory. The process of memory starts with a stimuli and then to sensory memory, to short term memory, to long term memory. Sensory memory which is the first stage of memory is information from the environment that is stored for a brief period of time through our visual information. From the sensory memory we allow information to clear through to the short term memory.

Not all of the information will pass through but some will. Long term memory is stored for very long periods of time and is retrieved when needed. If this memory is not being used then it will eventually fade to store more information and will come back if needed. Long term memory is usually called the working memory because it is used only when needed and some of the information can be easily recalled were others are more difficult. The capability of accessing and retrieving information from long-term memory allows us to use memories to make decisions, interact with others and solve problems (Robin Kowaski, 2005). Language

The study of language function from a cognitive neuroscience perspective has attracted increasing research interest over the past two decades, and the development of cognitive neuroscience methodologies has significantly broadened the empirical scope of experimental language studies (Reuters, 2012). People communicate using a host of languages that vary considerably in the information they carry. Language is how we use words to communicate. All of the eight processes in cognitive psychology play a role in learning because learning is part of change. Learning is how we adapt, develop, change and grow.

Language, explains how and why an individual understands what another person has written or expressed (Gregory Robertson-Riegler, 2008). When children acquire a first language, they build on what they know as well as conceptual information that discriminates and helps create categories for the objects, relations and events they experience. This provides the starting point for language from the age of 12 months on. So children first set up conceptual representations, then add linguistic representations for talking about experience (Denise Boyd, 2002). Learning

Learning is distinguished from behavioral changes arising from such processes as maturation and illness (Reuters, 2012). Learning is not just a change in behavior; it is a change in the way an individual thinks, understands, or feels (Gregory Robertson-Riegler, 2008). The ability to learn is one of the most exceptional human characteristics. Learning occurs continuously throughout a person’s lifetime. To define learning, it is necessary to analyze what happens to the individual. An individual’s way of perceiving, thinking, feeling, and doing may change as a result of a learning experience. Nevertheless, learning can be characterized as a change in behavior as a result of experience. This can be physical and evident, or it may involve intricate intellectual or attitudinal changes which affect behavior in more subtle ways (Colman, 2006).

Learning is an individual process and can be a fast process or a slow process depending on the individuals learning capabilities. Every individual has their own style of learning depending on one’s personality. Learning cannot be done without a response, a response is part of what is learned and learning cannot occur in the absence of a response. Psychologists sometimes classify learning by types, such as verbal, conceptual, perceptual, and motor, problem solving, and emotional (Gregory Robertson-Riegler, 2008). Other classifications refer to intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, and attitudinal changes, along with descriptive terms like surface or deep learning (Robin Kowaski, 2005). Learning is new information and designed to improve a response. People can learn proficiently by observation, taking instruction, and duplicating the behavior of others. Individual learn by listening, watching, touching, reading, or experiencing and then processing and remembering the information.

Colman, A. M. (2006). Oxford Dictionary of Psychology. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. Denise Boyd, H. B. (2002). Lifespan Development.
Boston: Pearson. Gregory Robertson-Riegler, B. R.-R. (2008). Cognitive Psychology Applying the science of the mind. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Reuters, T. (2012). Impact Factor. Psypress, Volume 26.

Robin Kowaski, D. W. (2005). Psychology 4th Edition. Hoboken, N.J.: John WIley & Sons.

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