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Q.1 What are the various types of communication? Describe the classification of non- verbal communication. Communication is a process of exchanging information, ideas, thoughts, feelings and emotions through speech, signals, writing, or behavior. In communication process, a sender(encoder) encodes a message and then using a medium/channel sends it to the receiver (decoder) who decodes the message and after processing information, sends back appropriate feedback/reply using a medium/channel. Types of Communication

People communicate with each other in a number of ways that depend upon the message and its context in which it is being sent. Choice of communication channel and your style of communicating also affects communication. So, there are varieties of types of communication. Types of communication based on the communication channels used are: Verbal Communication

Nonverbal Communication
Verbal Communication
Verbal communication refers to the form of communication in which message is transmitted verbally; communication is done by word of mouth and a piece of writing. Objective of every communication is to have people understand what we are trying to convey. When we talk to others, we assume that others understand what we are saying because we know what we are saying. But this is not the case. Usually people bring their own attitude, perception, emotions and thoughts about the topic and hence creates barrier in delivering the right meaning. Verbal Communication is further divided into:

Oral Communication
Written Communication
Oral Communication
In oral communication, Spoken words are used. It includes face-to-face conversations, speech, telephonic conversation, video, radio, television, voice over internet. In oral communication, communication is influence by pitch, volume, speed and clarity of speaking. Written Communication

In written communication, written signs or symbols are used to communicate. A written message may be printed or hand written. In written communication message can be transmitted via email, letter, report, memo etc. Message, in written communication, is influenced by the vocabulary & grammar used, writing style, precision and clarity of the language used. Written Communication is most common form of communication being used in business. So, it is considered core among business skills. Memos, reports, bulletins, job descriptions, employee manuals, and electronic mail are the types of written communication used for internal communication. For communicating with external environment in writing, electronic mail, Internet Web sites, letters, proposals, telegrams, faxes, postcards, contracts, advertisements, brochures, and news releases are used. 2. Non-verbal Communication

Non-verbal communication is the sending or receiving of wordless messages. We can say that communication other than oral and written, such as gesture, body language, posture, tone of voice or facial expressions, is called nonverbal communication. Non-verbal communication is all about the body language of speaker. Non-verbal communication helps receiver in interpreting the message received. Often, nonverbal signals reflect the situation more accurately than verbal messages. Sometimes nonverbal response contradicts verbal communication and hence affects the effectiveness of message. Nonverbal communication have the following three elements:

AppearanceSpeaker: clothing, hairstyle, neatness, use of cosmeticsSurrounding: room size, lighting, decorations, furnishings Body Languagefacial expressions, gestures, postures
SoundsVoice Tone, Volume, Speech rate
Classification of Nonverbal Communication:
Provide examples of types of nonverbal communication that fall under these categories. Discuss the ways in which personal presentation and environment provide nonverbal cues. Just as verbal language is broken up into various categories, there are also different types of nonverbal communication. As we learn about each type of nonverbal signal, keep in mind that nonverbals often work in concert with each other, combining to repeat, modify, or contradict the verbal message being sent. Kinesics

The word kinesics comes from the root word kinesis, which means “movement,” and refers to the study of hand, arm, body, and face movements. Specifically, this section will outline the use of gestures, head movements and posture, eye contact, and facial expressions as nonverbal communication. Gestures

There are three main types of gestures: adaptors, emblems, and illustrators.Peter A. Andersen, Nonverbal 36.Adaptors are touching behaviors and movements that indicate internal states typically related to arousal or anxiety. Adaptors can be targeted toward the self, objects, or others. In regular social situations, adaptors result from uneasiness, anxiety, or a general sense that we are not in control of our surroundings. Many of us subconsciously click pens, shake our legs, or engage in other adaptors during classes, meetings, or while waiting as a way to do something with our excess energy Head Movements and Posture

I group head movements and posture together because they are often both used to acknowledge others and communicate interest or attentiveness. In terms of head movements, a head nod is a universal sign of acknowledgement in cultures where the formal bow is no longer used as a greeting. Eye Contact

We also communicate through eye behaviors, primarily eye contact. While eye behaviors are often studied under the category of kinesics, they have their own branch of nonverbal studies called oculesics, which comes from the Latin word oculus, meaning “eye.” The face and eyes are the main point of focus during communication, and along with our ears our eyes take in most of the communicative information around us. The saying “The eyes are the window to the soul” is actually accurate in terms of where people typically think others are “located,” which is right behind the eyes Facial Expressions

Our faces are the most expressive part of our bodies. Think of how photos are often intended to capture a particular expression “in a flash” to preserve for later viewing. Even though a photo is a snapshot in time, we can still interpret much meaning from a human face caught in a moment of expression, and basic facial expressions are recognizable by humans all over the world. Much research has supported the universality of a core group of facial expressions: happiness, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust. The first four are especially identifiable across cultures. Q.2 Describe any situation in your own experience where the communication failed because the listening was faulty. Identify the barrier to listening in this situation. Situation where Communication was a failure to me: As an Associate Manager, I was a sender for a communication and intended to be received by my executives. I have sent the following communication to my executives through a notice and displayed on the notice board: “Coming Second Sunday to complete our targets for the month a review meeting is arranged and all should attend.

If any executive is not able to attend should find out the contents of the meeting from their peers without fail”. But my communication went wrong and out of 15 executives, only six executives have attended at 5.00 PM who checked-in with me the time of the meeting. Following were the barriers of communication which stood in the way of my communication: The “Channel” I have chosen communication by “Receivers” did not ensure the receipt of the The communication lacked the “Chronological context” The second Saturday being a non working day. The communication has created a “Psychological noise” by not mentioning correct time of the meeting and confusion has been created. The “social context” also is one of the cause for the failure of the communication as I have not taken all my executives into confident by giving any advance information or a intention of the meeting earlier. Lessons learnt in order to overcome these barriers of communication: My communication was unclear by not giving exact time of meeting. The media I have used is the placing the notice on the notice board, instead had I circulated to all the receivers and obtained their signatures by asking their availability or feedback my communication would not have failed.

I have chosen a wrong day a holiday though the task was a routine one.I could have maintained good relations with my executives for success of my communication. Overcome the communication barriersWhen you send a message, you intend to communicate meaning, but the message itself doesn’t contain meaning. The meaning exists in your mind and in the mind of your receiver. To understand one another, you and your receiver must share similar meanings for words, gestures, tone of voice, and other symbols. 1. Differences in perceptionThe world constantly bombards us with information: sights, sounds, scents, and so on. Our minds organize this stream of sensation into a mental map that represents our perception or reality. In no case is the perception of a certain person the same as the world itself, and no two maps are identical. As you view the world, your mind absorbs your experiences in a unique and personal way. Because your perceptions are unique, the ideas you want to express differ from other people’s Even when two people have experienced the same event, their mental images of that event will not be identical. As senders, we choose the details that seem important and focus our attention on the most relevant and general, a process known as selective perception.

As receivers, we try to fit new details into our existing pattern. If a detail doesn’t quite fit, we are inclined to distort the information rather than rearrange the pattern. 2. Incorrect filteringFiltering is screening out before a message is passed on to someone else. In business, the filters between you and your receiver are many; secretaries, assistants, receptionists, answering machines, etc. Those same gatekeepers may also ‘translate’ your receiver’s ideas and responses before passing them on to you. To overcome filtering barriers, try to establish more than one communication channel, eliminate as many intermediaries as possible, and decrease distortion by condensing message information to the bare essentials. 3. Language problemsWhen you choose the words for your message, you signal that you are a member of a particular culture or subculture and that you know the code. The nature of your code imposes its own barriers on your message. Barriers also exist because words can be interpreted in more than one way. Language is an arbitrary code that depends on shared definitions, but there’s a limit to how completely any of us share the same meaning for a given word. To overcome language barriers, use the most specific and accurate words possible.

Always try to use words your audience will understand. Increase the accuracy of your messages by using language that describes rather than evaluates and by presenting observable facts, events, and circumstances. 4. Poor listening:Perhaps the most common barrier to reception is simply a lack of attention on the receiver’s part. We all let our minds wander now and then, regardless of how hard we try to concentrate. People are essentially likely to drift off when they are forced to listen to information that is difficult to understand or that has little direct bearing on their own lives. Too few of us simply do not listen well! To overcome barriers, paraphrase what you have understood, try to view the situation through the eyes of other speakers and resist jumping to conclusions. Clarify meaning by asking non-threatening questions, and listen without interrupting. 5. Differing emotional states:Every message contains both a content meaning, which deals with the subject of the message, and a relationship meaning, which suggests the nature of the interaction between sender and receiver.

Communication can break down when the receiver reacts negatively to either of these meanings. You may have to deal with people when they are upset or when you are. An upset person tends to ignore or distort what the other person is saying and is often unable to present feelings and ideas effectively. This is not to say that you should avoid all communication when you are emotionally involved, but you should be alert to the greater potential for misunderstanding that accompanies aroused emotions. To overcome emotional barriers, be aware of the feelings that arise in your self and in others as you communicate, and attempt to control them. Most important, be alert to the greater potential for misunderstanding that accompanies emotional messages. 6. Differing backgroundsDifferences in background can be one of the hardest communication barriers to overcome.

Age, education, gender, social status, economic position, cultural background, temperament, health, beauty, popularity, religion, political belief, even a passing mood can all separate one person from another and make understanding difficult. To overcome the barriers associated with differing backgrounds, avoid projecting your own background or culture onto others. Clarify your own and understand the background of others, spheres of knowledge, personalities and perceptions and don’t assume that certain behaviors mean the same thing to everyone. Q.3 Describe any 5 types of presentations with examples and their target audience. There are many types of presentations, but most presentations contests use only these kinds of presentations: Demonstrations

Illustrated Talks
Public Speeches
Impromptu Speeches
Team presentations
Remember to check the rules for the specific contest you will be entering as each contest will have slight variations. 1. Demonstrations :A demonstration puts words into action. With this type of presentation, you will show how to do something at the same time you tell how to do it. There is a finished product at the end. If you have given a successful demonstration, the audience should leave knowing how to do what you have demonstrated. Examples of demonstrations are:

How to braid hair
How to clean tack
How to sew on a button
How to pot a plant
How to groom a show calf

A demonstration is usually the easiest type of presentation to do. It often has a step-by-step process that makes planning and organizing simple. The hardest part may be to remember to keep talking while you are demonstrating or doing something. Try not to have long periods of silence. If time doesn’t permit you to complete each step, it’s okay to skip some as long as you tell about them. You might make examples of some parts ahead of time to show each stage of the process. An example would be demonstrating how to make bread. You wouldn’t have time to let dough rise or to bake it, but you could show how to make the dough and then have a sample of a completed loaf. You might even be able to show a sample of risen dough, started earlier, and demonstrate how to punch it down. 2.Illustrated Talks :

An illustrated talk is a way to share information with the audience. The topic should be educational in nature , but it can be very basic. No finished product is necessary, but visual aids must be used to help explain what is being said. Visual aids can include posters, slides, transparencies, models, or actual items. Examples of illustrated talks are:

Evolution of the horse using pictures of the various stages
Nutritional requirements using charts and graphs
Milking parlor requirements using a scale model
Items in a first aid kit using samples of the items
Tree identification using leaf/needle samples
3.Public Speeches:
A public speech is just talking. No visual aids or props can be used. A speech can be informative or persuasive with the purpose to stimulate thought or present a point of view. Speeches should not simply entertain. They need to persuade the audience to agree with you, educate the audience, or get an emotional reaction from the audience. Speeches often have a personal tie-in, a way the topic relates to something that happened in your life. A speech may be the most difficult type of presentation. It requires careful planning and effective delivery. Since no visual aids are allowed, gestures and voice variety are very important. There also needs to be a clear theme or thesis and understandable points to follow. A speech is not an effective way to teach a difficult concept. 4.Impromptu Speeches:

As the name implies, impromptu speeches require the presenter to compose and deliver a speech with little previous preparation. Like public speeches, no visual aids are used unless the speaker is given an object to talk about. Impromptu speeches require you to “think on your feet.” You need to be able to come up with ideas on the spur of the moment and quickly organize them in a logical manner. Acquiring the skill to express yourself quickly is extremely beneficial. You will encounter many situations where it will be helpful to be able to give input on the spot. While younger members may have fun practicing impromptu speeches at a club meeting, contests are recommended for intermediates and seniors only. Examples of contest topics are: • What is your favorite summer activity and why? • If you could be any animal, what animal would you be and why? • Should school uniforms be required? Why or why not? • Draw an object from a bag and talk about its uses. 5.Team Presentations:

Demonstrations and illustrated talks may be done as an individual or team.
(Public speaking and impromptu speeches are for individuals only.) A team usually consists of two members of the same age division. Team presentations are good when four hands are needed to demonstrate something or when it is hard to do the work and talk at the same time. First-time presenters often like to work as a team because they don’t have to be in front of an audience by themselves. It can be comforting to have a friend up there with you. Approaches to Organizing a Group Presentation There are two ways to decide who will say what in a group presentation: by topic and by task. The approach you take will depend on an analysis of the situation. Organizing by Topic

Organizing by Task
Q.4 Explain the different types of meetings.
There are six types of meetings:
(1) Organizational meetings
(2) Regular meetings
(3) Special or emergency meetings
(4) Work sessions
(5) Public hearings
(6) Executive sessions.

1. Organizational Meetings: Usually very soon after each election, a meeting may be necessary to establish the procedures concerning conduct of council meetings. Local practices may vary, but generally the meeting should establish: regular dates, times, and locations for routine council meetings; rules of procedure for conducting business at meetings (Robert’s Rules, etc.); and assignment of council member duties (i.e., mayor pro tempore, committee chairpersons, etc.). Many municipalities adopt and publish a schedule of meeting dates for an entire year, while others are set by charter. 2. Regular Meetings: This is the official, final public action meeting. It is the only meeting where the council may adopt ordinances or regulations. There is no requirement that councils meet any set number of times per month (nor even that they meet at all) in the Maryland Constitution or in state law. This requirement is left to each municipality’s charter. The sample charter formally in the Annotated Code of Maryland recommends meeting at least once each month (Art. 23B, Sec. 8).

Many municipal charters throughout the state prescribe regular meetings and require that the meeting date be set at the annual or semi-annual organizational meeting of the council. One very important feature of the regular meeting is the public forum aspect. The regular meeting generally includes at least a citizen comment period and often incorporates a formal public hearing on one or more subjects. While allowing public comment to some degree, the regular meeting always allows the public an opportunity to hear the council discussion on each subject. 3. Special or Emergency Meetings: Regular meetings are scheduled in advance (usually one or two per month) to allow the public, press, and persons having business for the council to attend the meetings. However, emergencies and special situations may require convening a special meeting often with little, if any, advance notice. Examples of special meeting items include, but are not limited to: emergency ordinances, unexpected matters requiring official action before the next regularly 57 scheduled meeting, emergency equipment replacement, financial problems, and health and safety emergencies.

While the occasional need for such meetings cannot be denied, the term “emergency” should be used very carefully to avoid abuse of the special meeting. The procedures for calling special meetings are generally provided in each municipality’s charter. However, special meetings run the risk of violating the state Open Meetings Act if conducted without reasonable notice to the public. Therefore, it is particularly important in conducting special meetings to record the vote which calls the meeting and the notice of the meeting. 4. Work Sessions: These are the most common meetings in most municipalities. Work sessions are essentially “shirt-sleeves” meetings where the council discusses issues informally to achieve more complete understanding of one or more subjects. Many work sessions are held in another room away from the formal council chamber with a “round-table” type seating arrangement to promote informal discussion.

These sessions take many forms and cover virtually any subject matter. Typical work sessions will include a variety of items and will generally serve as a background discussion about items scheduled for official action at the next regular meeting. For example, the council may discuss possible designs for a new playground, hear status reports, discuss an ordinance that has been introduced and awaits enactment, or consider ideas for new programs. Some subjects, such as the annual budget, may be the topic of many such sessions before official action at a regular meeting. Work sessions are not formal meetings; therefore, the council cannot take official action or final votes. In order to allow some understanding of the status of discussion items, most councils use either a “consensus” poll of the members or a “straw vote” to determine the sense of the council concerning each item. This consensus is not binding on the council members at a subsequent meeting when official votes are taken, but it does serve as a reasonable guide for the public, staff, press, and other council members. Work sessions must be open to the public.

The open-ended, informal discussion format, however, is intended to allow council members to discuss agenda subjects in a give-and-take fashion without the formality of hearings, formal motions, and written reports. 5. Public Hearings: The council holds public hearings when it is considering a subject having unusually high community impact and when it is considering items for which local, state, or federal regulations mandate such hearings. The main purpose of such a hearing is to obtain testimony from the public. An issue on which a public hearing is held may be the subject of several work sessions and may generate potentially more citizen participation than can be accommodated at a regular meeting with its other normal business items.

An additional meeting of the council for a public hearing can be valuable in providing the public an opportunity to learn the current status of a project and give the council, as the public policy makers, clear indications of public sentiment before making a decision. Additional work sessions at a subsequent meeting generally follow the public hearing before final council action on the matter at a regular hearing. 6. Executive Sessions: If allowed by charter, these meetings are closed to the public and press and generally are held for discussion of legal (litigation, advice from counsel, etc.), personnel, or other confidential matters. There are very specific legal provisions for closing the meeting such as recording the vote of council members who authorized the meeting and recording the circumstances of the meeting in the official minutes of the municipality. Executive meetings should be held only in accordance with the strict mandates of the Open Meetings Act.

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