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Explain each of the terms:
1.1a- speech

Speech is essentially vocalised language. It is usually learnt before the written form of the language. In speech the symbols are not written or signed, but spoken as sounds. The number of sounds that children need to master will depend on the language that they are being exposed to. English has over 40 different sounds or phonemes

1.1b- language

Language is something very specific. It is a set of symbols – spoken, written or signed – that can be used and understood between people. Language can be quite abstract. Linguists also suggest that the main feature of a language is a series of rules that everyone has to understand and use, but once mastered allows a user to convey anything they wish. At first a child cannot use the rules. Toddlers begin by just pointing at objects and saying on word, but after a while they learn how to construct sentences.

1.1c- communication

Communication is about the way that people send signals to each other. Communication can be seen as an umbrella term because it encompasses both language and speech and also includes facial expressions, gestures and body language.

1.1d- speech, language and communication needs.

This is the term used to refer to any difficulty that a child has in any of the three areas; for example a child might have a difficulty in producing certain sounds and so have a difficulty with speech, while a child who does not make eye contact or enjoy being with others may have a more global communication need.

Explain how speech, language and communication skills support each of the following areas in children’s development: 1.2a- learning There are many debates as to what is learning, but for our purpose we will limit this to children’s overall cognition. The term cognition covers a multitude of different tasks, but is mainly about our ability to process and use information that we have gained. For example a child might see that leaves are falling off a tree and be told it is because it is autumn. The child might then see leaves falling to the floor later; she may remember her earlier experience and say to the adult ‘Look those leaves are falling too! Is that because it’s autumn? She may then tell her parents at dinner about the leaves falling off the trees in the park because it is autumn. This example demonstrates for learning to take place a child must remember what they have seen at an earlier point, make a connection to what they are seeing or hearing now and then come to a conclusion. 1.2b- emotional

Being able to control your own emotions is a major part of emotional development. Babies and toddlers struggle with this, but as language develops they find it easier because they can express their needs. Tantrums and other outbursts linked to frustration, jealousy or anger tend to diminish as children find ways of talking through how they are feeling. This is one reason why it is thought good practice to ‘name’ emotions when working with young children, so that they begin to understand what they are feeling and have ways of expressing it other than through physical reactions alone.

1.2c- behaviour

Being able to manage your own behaviour is about self control. Young children are very impulsive and find it hard to control their behaviour but, once language s mastered, children’s behaviour changes. It would seem that the acquisition of language helps children to think things over. They focus more on the consequences of their actions and they also internally begin to remind themselves of what they need to do or what they should not do. Interestingly, the start of this process can be observed when a toddler goes up to something that they have been told not to touch, points to it and says ‘no’

1.2d- social.

Emotional development is linked to being able to control your own emotions and social development builds on this, as it is about being able to recognise emotions in others and learning to adjust your behaviour accordingly. It is also about understanding what social codes are in any situation and behaving appropriately. This means that good communication and language skills are important. Children need to read the faces and body language of others and respond appropriately. Because play is the main medium of socialisation with other children, language skills also become important from the age of 3 years, as children tend to use speech to talk about what they are doing or, as they older, explain the rules of any games.

1.3Describe the potential impact of speech, language and communication difficulties on the overall development of a child, both currently and in the longer term.

Short term
•Low level of confidence
•Difficulties in making friends
•Difficulties in learning new information
•Difficulties in applying information to new situations
•Finding it hard to make themselves understood
The longer term development consequences in children who have difficulties with their communication, speech and language are in some ways harder to predict but in general terms, we may find that children later on have •Lower self esteem

•Not achieving their potential
•Found it hard to make and maintain relationships
•Become isolated
•Not reach independence
•Developed antisocial behaviour in some cases

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