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What is Modern Effective Leadership?

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Over the years, individuals have found it difficult to differentiate between management and leadership. The process of taking a team from ordinary to the extraordinary levels will make one in the right position to understand the difference between leadership and management. According to Peter Ducker, a psychologist and a social work researcher, management is the state of doing things right, whereas leadership means doing the right things at the right time. The choice of a type of leadership is always driven by the calculated analysis of the matter at hand, the best tool for the said task, and the end goal to be achieved.

Leadership is less concerned with the needs of oneself, but rather focuses on the needs of the others or the organisation one is leading. Several leadership styles have been explained in detail by various psychologist and researchers such as Golem Daniel. It is evident that the most effective leaders have the ability to move among the styles of leadership, adopt the ones that meet the needs at the moment, and become fully part of the leadership repertoire.

The following essay is aimed at discussing into detail the modern types of leadership styles based on theories from a case study, “Organisation change at sandwich factory”, which can be found in various organisations and institutions in the current generation. In the essay, each leadership styles will be discussed, and the respective pros and cons will be analysed based on the Kirtsy leadership style. Some of the modern leadership styles to be discussed the Autocratic style of leadership, Persuasive, Consultative, Participative and Democratic leadership based on the case theories. The Path-Goal Theory-Autocratic Leadership

In the modern Sandwich, one will still find the Autocratic type of leadership being practiced by several leaders among their constituents. The style of leadership is also known as Authoritarian leadership. It is characterized by a single individual taking full control over all the decisions with little or no expected input from the group members (Pawar, 2014). Just as in the case study, Kirtsy had to work and see how she can handle situations. Kirtsy, as an Autocratic leader, typically makes choices based on her ideas and forms judgments with a rare acceptance of advice from her followers or constituents.

It is an absolute authority for one to take control over the entire group (Pawar, 2014). Autocratic leadership style has got several characteristics that distinguish it from other forms of leadership styles. When and where the autocratic form of leadership is being applied depends on the situational factors, tasks, and the characteristics of the member group The leaders using this style tend to discourage their followers from bringing on to book their creativity and thinking out of the box to make certain adjustments.

The work trends and structure are always rigid, and therefore, it is upon the individual involved to be flexible enough to adjust to the conditions (Romager et al. , 2017). An additional characteristic of the authoritarian leadership is that the leader has no trust over his constituent when it comes to decision making and solving of important issues. It therefore upon the leader to choose what is right for them and for the organisation, and which are the subjects to abide by. In most cases, Kirtsy’s Autocratic style of leadership can be beneficial to her when applied.

For instance, in a situation where she needs a faster decision with no necessity of group consultation, then she can use her powers both make the important decision and save on the organisation functions (Romager et al. , 2017). Some projects in an organisation or work setting require solid leadership so that to get things accomplished in time within a short period. In case the leader is the most knowledgeable person in the group, it will be important for him or her to make faster decisions that will ensure the effectiveness of the task at hand. Autocratic leadership can work well in small groups where leadership is lacking.

For instance, in the case study, Kirtsy has her visions that are steered towards the factory goals. In a situation when there is lack of leadership and in the ability to set deadlines in a small group, an autocratic leader can take charge for the group (Ayoubi & Khalifa, 2015). He or she can come in to assign the task, group members, and set some achievable deadlines to see the success of the project (Pawar, 2014; Romager et al. , 2017). These types of group project always tend to do best when only one person is assigned the role of leadership or is given the authority to do the job on his/her own.

In situations that are stressful such as the military conflicts, the member may prefer the authoritarian style of leadership since it enables members to focus on performance (Ayoubi &d Khalifa, 2015). However, Kirtsy’s Autocratic leadership can be both beneficial and problematic in some instances. The main weaknesses associated with Kirtsy’s leadership are that her subjects might view her to be bossy, dictatorial, and full in control. Such a situation can lead to the resentment of some members in the factory.

Also, because the decisions are made without consultation, the people involved may dislike the fact that they cannot give ideas (Ayoubi & Khalifa, 2015). As a result, conflict may result between the members and the leaders, which can slow operations in organisations or institutions. In addition, according to the research, Autocratic leadership in most cases lacks creativity in problem solving, which means that there is a high possibility that during the performance, the group members will be hurt during the performance. However, where applicable, this type of leadership can give outstanding results.

Path-Goal Theory- Persuasive Leadership Style The path-goal theory in the Sandwich factory case study is also associated with the Persuasive type of leadership, which is a form that has a few resemblances to the Autocratic leadership due to some shared characteristics. One of the most shared and important characteristics is that the leader maintains the super control of the decision-making process in the organisation (Amanchukwu et al. , 2015). However, in the persuasive type of leadership, the leader always takes time to convince the people of the benefits associated with certain decisions made.

In most cases, the leader takes his or her time to convince the staffs that the decisions made are not only made for the concern of the company, but also for the concern of the constituents and everybody involved (Amanchukwu et al., 2015). In Sandwich case study, Kirtsy makes her followers commit themselves to what she wants. The persuasive leader is always aware of his or her employees. Despite the great concern with the task lying ahead, the perception and concerns of employees are always heard by such leaders.

However, it cannot be right to assume that the employees are inclusive in the leadership system just because the leader is concerned with them in an organisation (Choi et al. , 2017). The concern is only aimed at reaching a mutual argument that the decisions made by the leaders are best for everyone, and that everybody should follow them for the effectiveness of the final goal. Similar to the Autocratic leadership, this form may be appropriate in solving the situation. Kirtsy’s Persuasive leadership has its own merits.

Sandwich factory can benefit from persuasive management style in cases where the task at hand has slight complications that need more caution and attention. At this point, it would be very necessary to rely on the decision of an expert who can break down all the complex structures into simple and understandble systems (Choi et al.. 2017). The decisions are also explained according to the order at which they will occur to achieve and accomplish the final goal (Ozer & T? naztepe, 2014). The leaders are also left with the responsibility of designing the format according to which the events will flow depending on the circumstances.

Kirtsy’s Persuasive leadership has certain disadvantages. First, she may not get enough support from the employees. Given the fact the employees may not take part in the process of decision making, they may as well lack faith in the decisions made, which can cause conflict in the organisation. A system that lacks support from the employees also has no access to ideas, which is one of the most valuable resources that a business has. As a result, the organisation may show reduced productivity due to the incompetence of employees (Sternberg, 2013).

In addition, persuasive leadership uses a one-way communication model, which is very unlikely to be effective as productivity needs consultation. Persuasive leadership can be very productive in situations and conditions that best suit it, and therefore, it should be applied effectively. Leader-Member Exchange- Consultative Leadership Style Consultative leadership is another form of modern leadership in the current generation of Sandwich factory. It is a task-oriented leadership style. It has a great focus on the results of the project just as the directive style of leadership.

It is evident fromthe case study that Kirtsy comes up with an SMT to improve the leader-subject relationship. She trusts her staff and opens to share their new ideas for a relational mutual exchange. The staff are enjoying devolution of authority, and Kirtsy is no longer in control of freak. Despite consultative leader sharing the same qualities as the directive leader in organisations, the consultative leader has a gone a further step above the directive leader regarding the performance (Clark, 2013). The consultative leader appreciates his/her subjects for their opinions and ideas.

The discussion between the leader and his subjects is very important as it gives room to have ideas and opinions from different brains, which can give credible results when put together. The ultimate finality in decision making is in the hands of the leaders, but he or she is always willing to listen to the subjects before settling down to make an inclusive decision. The type of leadership occurs where the leader may not be in the position to know everything about a particular situation at hand, which is what calls for the views and opinions of the team who may have been on the ground for some time to come up with very informed decisions.

(Tucker & Black, 2017). Consultative leadership occurs in a huge organisation that incorporated both the expert engineers and the scientists who work in the frontlines. Also, consultative leadership is applied to projects that are very delicate and require minimal mistakes. The leader can then chose not to rush into a decision, humbly listening and putting considerations to all the views before coming up with a final decision (Tucker & Black 2017).

Even though the final decisions are in the leader’s hands, choosing to listen to the subjects is essential since one cannot know everything. As a result, the quality of the decisions from the consultative style of leadership is always of high standards with minimal or no errors at its implementation. For one to become an effective consultative leader in the current world, it is necessary for the individual first to create a culture of speaking up to his or her team just like in the case of Kirtsy and her subjects.

The change in an organisation can be immediate when consultation between the leader and his employees goes successfully because the subjects are always aware of everything that is happening around, which makes them set their minds and determinations positively towards achieving common goals. One of the merits of consultative leadership is that it encourages and motivates workers. The ideas being generated to come up with the final decision have an impact on the organisation’s coordination (Sternberg, 2013).

The type of leadership also avoids unnecessary errors in the organisation due to informed decision making and rivalry towards what is to be implemented and avoided. However, despite the fact that consultative leadership is one of the best leadership in the current world, it is very demanding. The process of decision making takes a lot of time since consultation and participation of the subjects is needed. Transformational Leadership Theory-Democratic Leadership Style Most of the modern organisations use the democratic style of leadership. It is an open and collegial form of running a team.

The ideas are set to move freely from the group members and are openly discussed. According to Kirtsy leadership, everyone is always given a seat at the table of discussion and allowed a relatively free-flowing thoughts and perception. The style is always needed in a rapidly changing and dynamic environment, in which few things can be taken in as constant factors (Mahdinezhad & Suandi, 2013). The democratic style of leadership has been in the recent years involved in the fast-moving organisations to allow for the improvements and lay in considerations to keep the group from falling out of the trends and dates.

The democratic style of leadership has always been focused on the facilitation of conversation. It encourages people to share their ideas and allows for the synthesis of all the available information to make all the possible decisions. Democratic style of leadership can be best used in an organisation in which situations frequently change, which is evident in the case study organisational change at Sandwich (Clark, 2013). The change does not stop in the organisation, and Kirsty supports the visions of her subjects. She motivates her subjects and gives them visionary leadership.

It offers a great deal of flexibility to adapt to a better ways of doing certain things. In the most unfortunate situation, it can appear as a slow decision structure, also embracing better and newer methods. The situations and improvement come gradually and therefore do not require the quick decision. It has the potential of bringing the best out of the professional and experienced team. In addition, it capitalizes other talents and skills by allowing the share of views rather than expecting them to conform to what is available in the system. Conclusion

In summary, it is evident that leadership is adapting an organisation and institutions to the changing trends in the situations in the modern world. All styles of leadership have their pros and cons depending on the task at hand. It is therefore upon a leader to apply a right style of leadership on his or her subjects according to the expected outcomes of the task and. The choice of leadership style will determine whether the goal to be achieved will be a success or failure. It is wise to come up with a favorable and well-informed style of leadership after assessing the task at hand, the subject matters, and the surrounding situation.

Putting all these into consideration will see a more effective leader to his or her subjects on the goals of an organisation.


Ayoubi, R. , & Khalifa, B. (2015). Leadership Styles at Syrian Universities and the Differences Caused by Sector and Follower Characteristics. Arab Economic and Business Journal, 10(1), 1-8. Amanchukwu, R. N. , Stanley, G. J. , & Ololube, N. P. (2015). A review of leadership theories, principles and styles and their relevance to educational management. Management, 5(1), 6-14. Clark, D. (2013).

Leadership styles. Available at https://www. saylor. org/site/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/BUS209-3.3. 1-Leadership-Styles. pdf Choi, S. B. , Kim, K. , & Kang, S. W. (2017). Effects of transformational and shared leadership styles on employees’ perception of team effectiveness. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 45(3), 377-386 Mahdinezhad, M. , & Suandi, B. (2013). Transformational, Transactional Leadership Styles and Job Performance of Academic Leaders. International Education Studies, 6(11), 29-34. Ozer, F. , & T? naztepe, C. (2014). Effect of strategic leadership styles on firm performance: A study in a Turkish SME. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 150, 778-784. Pawar, D. (2014).

Styles of Leadership. International Journal of Research in all Subjects in Multi Languages, 2(7), 12-14. Romager, J. , Hughes, K. , Trimble, J. , Verburg, M. , Camp, J. , & Jones, M. (2017). Influences of Authentic Leadership Styles and Challenges to Enduring Pervasive Leadership Models. Sternberg, R. J. (2013). Perspectives: Leadership styles for academic administrators: What works when?. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 45(5), 24-27. Tucker, R. , & Black Jr, W. J. (2017). Social Support and Democratic Behavior Styles of Leadership Preferred by Female Athletes in Middle School Athletic Programs. Sport Journal.

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