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Understanding the Management Role

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1. The Organisation in Relation to its Purpose and its Stakeholders 1.1 Organisations Purpose
Newport City Council is a Unitary Authority. Unitary Authorities are responsible for the administration of all areas of local government within a single tier for a given area. The Council was formed initially as a County Borough in 1996, and obtained City Status in 2002. It is the 8th largest in Wales, providing all major services such as public protection, education, leisure, housing, social services, planning and highways. The council employs approximately 7,500 people and has an annual revenue budget of around £300 million. The Council leaders have recently produced a new manifesto for the City entitled Standing up for Newport 2012 this Manifesto outlines the current leadership goals for the Council This includes creating

A Caring City
A fairer City
A learning and working City
A greener and healthier City and
A safer City
These goals form the basis of the business plans produced by the 11 service areas within the Council which are Adult Services
Children & family Services
Continued learning & leisure
Education & services
Human Resources, Policy & Performance
Street Scene
Customer and Information services
Law And Standards
Resources and Strategy
Regeneration & Regulatory Services

And the business plans help the Council achieve the vision the Council leaders Whilst the Council covers a diverse area of responsibility which include, education, social services, environmental services, highways, planning, Regulatory services this report will focus on the area of Environmental Health within the service area of Regulatory Services. Environmental Health is in it self a diverse area and covers Housing, ensuring that residents of Newport have safe and healthy homes in which to live. Food Safety, covers ensuring that food made and sold with in Newport is safe for consumption. Pollution, protecting the health of resident and visitors of Newport and also protecting the general environment. Health and Safety protecting all residents, visitors and employees with in Newport ensuring employers and businesses with in Newport carryout safe working practices. Environmental health officers carry-out inspections on a risk related basis, of properties and businesses within Newport to ensure compliance with legislation, and look to seek compliance through education, agreement, and if all else fails enforcement. They also investigate complaints from various bodies, businesses and the general public. 1.2. Key Stakeholders

As a local Authority Newport City Council has a great number of stakeholders, these include both internal and external stakeholders Internal Stakeholders
Directors & Senior Managers
External Stakeholders
Residents of Newport
Visitors to Newport
Local Businesses
National & International Businesses
Welsh Government
Gwent Police
South Wales Fire and Rescue
Non Government Organisations
Stakeholders can positively or negatively impact on the on the Councils goals
affecting the ability of the Council to achieve its goals. There are different types of stakeholders these are: Primary stakeholders: those ultimately affected, either positively or negatively by an organisation’s actions. Secondary stakeholders: these are ‘intermediaries’, that is, persons or organisations who are indirectly affected by an organization’s actions. Key stakeholders: theses can belong in both primary and secondary groups and have a significant influence upon or importance within an organisation. To identify where Newport City Councils stakeholders sit a stakeholder analysis can be carried out this has the goal of developing cooperation between the stakeholder and the Council and, ultimately, assuring successful outcomes for the for the Councils goals . Below is a stakeholder analysis of Newport Councils stakeholders in relation to the Environmental health service.

1.3. Organisation Structure
Newport City Council is made up of fifty members, elected in twenty wards throughout the city. Elected members carry out various roles within the Council. All fifty members meet normally every six weeks and are responsible for deciding the budget and policy framework. Ten of the Council’s members make up the Cabinet, including the Leader of the Council. The Cabinet is responsible for taking most of the Council’s major decisions and decides how resources are used to deliver services to the city. Cabinet Members are responsible for decision making within specific areas of interest (known as portfolios).

Fig 1. Structural Diagram of senior management of Newport City Council The primary structure of the Council is divided into functional areas as shown above in fig 1, there are several further layers of management below these tiers, but the above depicts the main areas for which the Council hold responsibility this includes public protection, education, social services, leisure for resident, visitors and businesses within the administrative boundaries of the council . In his book the Practice of Management Peter Drucker discusses the two main structural principles federal decentralisation and functional decentralisation. The councils Structure is that of functional decentralisation, and whilst there are many advantages to this style of organisation with a major focus on speciality, Drucker argues that “Every functional manager considers his function the most important one, tries to build it up and is prone to subordinate the welfare of the other functions, if not of the entire business, to the interest of his unit” (Drucker,2007,pg180)

The structural organisation of public protection see fig 2 below follows the same lines as the senior managing body in a higher archival type of structure in their book Management and Organisational Behavior Mullins defines the structure of organisations as ‘Structure makes possible the application of the process of management and creates a framework of order and command through which activities of the organisation can be planned, organised, directed and controlled.’ (Mullins,1996, pg332) within large organisations with multi function departments there is a great need fro higher archaic structure for this very reason.

Fig 2. Structural Diagram Environmental Health

2.0 The Role of management in achieving its goals

In His book The Practice of Management Peter Drucker states ‘the Manager is the dynamic, life-giving element in every business. Without his leadership the resources of production remain resources and never become production’ (Drucker , 2007, pg3)

As previously discussed the management role within the council is higher archival and could be seen as a formal organisation Schein defined this as ‘the planned co-ordination of the activities of a number of people for the achievement of some common, explicit purpose or goal, through the division of labour and function, and through a hierarchy of authority and responsibility’ ( pg 72 Mullins 1996)

The Councillors as representatives of the local constituents sit at the top of the pyramid and could be defined as stakeholders. Below them is the managing director who creates the overall strategy for the council to meet the needs of the stakeholders, next down is the corporate directors who along with heads of service break down the strategy to appropriate teams in order to create directorate strategies which can be passed down to service areas. The next step down is senior managers who convert the strategy into high level service plans, Principal Officers, who are effectively the middle managers of the organisation, write the section service plans which set the sections objectives and allocate task measures and outcomes, and they also implement actions and have direct contact with those carrying out duties. See appendix A for the Environmental Health Service plan 2012/13. To discus the specific responsibilities of middle managers within Newport City Council, the role of Principal Environmental Health Officers (PEHO) in achieving the Councils goals will be examined.

The overall purpose of the PEHO is to manage, supervise and undertake the functions of the Environmental Health administered by Public Protection so as to ensure compliance with the Councils and service areas performance targets and polices. Provide advice and enforce legislation to protect the public and environment from various risks and breaches of legislation. To provide an effective, efficient and responsive service for residents, businesses & visitors of Newport & ensuring we protect their Health, Safety and Welfare through education, intervention and enforcement. The role of Principal Environmental Health Officer is that of a middle manager, primarily setting the sectional targets, responsible for direct line management as can be seen in fig 2 for operational officers, The Council recently undertook job evaluation and part of that looked at identifying all responsibilities for PEHO a copy of the full evaluation document can be found in appendix B below are the main duties, tasks and responsibilities for PEHO’s :-

To keep abreast of all current legislation, EU directives,& tehnical information relating to Environmental Health and related issues; and to ensure dissemination and updating of such information to Environmental Health Manager, Environmental health Officers and other appropriate officers. To appraise the Environmental Health Manager on all appropriate matters including the formulation and performance of strategic and operations policies that achives the Councils objectives. To effectively and efficently manage the day to day work of the Environmental Health Officers, Technical Officers, other authorised officers & Administration Clerks within the teams allocated and to ensure the efficent and effective functioning of the section in accordance with approved objectives, aims, targets, key tasks and performance measures.

To carryout all appropriate enquiries, respond to complaints, to investigate complaints in respect of any aspect of the work related to the post holder, this may include statutory nuisance, complaints about food hygiene, accidents in buisness premisess, conditions in domestic dwellings. To carry out monitoring/surveys and sampling as and when required in respect of air, water, soil noise or other relevant matters e.g. Stop & Search – waste duty of care, noise customer satisfaction questionnaire and private water supplies. Where necessary to carryout interviews and prepare evidence in respect of breaches of appropriate legislation and to attend the Courts of Law or Residential Property Tribunals to give evidence where necessary. To Audit infringement reports by officers under the post holders management and submit these to Environmental Health Manager/ Public Protection Manager To ensure that the legislation and Council’s policies in respect of Environmental Health teams are properly administered and implemented, including preparing an HMO Strategy, preparing and implementing an HMO Licensing Policy.

Managing the HMO licensing Scheme ensuring the fees are adequately set to cover all costs and that there is a nil financial profit at the end of the scheme. To implement the Council’s Statutory requirements to undertake air quality monitoring across the district. Undertake monitoring, assess data and provide reports. Develop and implement the Council’s Air Quality Action Plan. Provide support to the only officer that covers this specialised field. Undertake environmental permit programmed inspections to audit permits, check compliance and make working recommendations. These are driven by risk assessment. Ensure that a public register and working files are also held in line with the relevant legislation. To ensure team officers are working in compliance with the Criminal Prosecutions and Investigation Act, the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act and the Police and Criminal Evidence Act etc. and to vet officers prosecution reports to ensure they meet service procedures and are evidentially sufficient before submission to senior managers and subsequently to Legal Services.

To ensure a planned programme of environmental health based education is carried out including noise action week , home safety, food safety, stress in the work place. Provide support and training to Community Safety Wardens, Charter Housing, Newport City Homes and Merlin on enforcement, Housing Hazard Health and Safety Rating System, and Noise Pollution. To attend, in support of, or as a representative of, the Head of Regulation & Regeneration Services, Public Protection Manager or Environemntal Health Manager at appropriate meetings of Council Committees, internal or external working parties, project groups or other similar groups relevant to the duties of the post. To design, produce and regularly review written procedures, practices and policies. As and when necessary to write and present reports within the remit of the post holder to Cabinet Members, and other Council Committees.

To supervise and develop specific computer programmes in respect of the functions and use other appropriate computer software to enhance service delivery. To produce appropriate reports, including Business Unit Plans, assist in the determination of estimates and budgets, and the formulation of the Section’s objectives, key tasks, targets and performance measures. To provide statutory statistical returns to Welsh Government & statutory bodies. Ensure so far as is reasonably and practicable, the health, safety and welfare of all employees under the post holder’s supervision.

To act as the local authority’s lead officer for Food Safety, Health and Safety, Pollution and Housing, attending enforcement meetings, all Wales technical panel meetings, multi-disiplinary task group meetings To administer HR tasks including, timekeeping/flexi time , management of attendance, capability proceedure, disiplinary investigations. To provide support and training to team leader, EHOs, technical Officers, specialist officers, student EHOs, & Clerks ensuring officers undertake the required amount of CPD and are fit for purpose.

PEHOs tend to spend a greater amount of time on management functions rather than that of an operational role . They are sometimes required to step into an operational role to deal with complex cases and as such need to be technically competent to fulfil the role as well as be able to fulfil the mangerial responsibilities of the role and be able to adequately fuction at a strategic level. If the PEHO fails in fulfilling their role, this will directly affect the Councils ability to achieve a greener, healthier and safer City as set out in the Councils current vision. The Council will also be failing its statutory duties, which the PEHO is responsible for ensuring they are carried out

3.0 The effective communication and interpersonal relationships on managerial performance.

A manager is often judged on their ability to deliver service objectives and targets, meet performance targets and be able to deliver the service within ever tightening budgetary constraints. In order to achieve this effective Interpersonal Relationships with both senior management and with staff the manager line manages are required. The effectiveness of these interpersonal relationships are a key tool in being able to motivate the workforce to achieve the companies goals and objectives. The main method for building an effective interpersonal relationship is through good and successful communication with both up and down the management ladder. Fayol’s wheel see figure 3 identifies the need for effective communication to ensure that the plans will be put into action.

Fig 3 Fayol’s Wheel Source: http://www.i-l-m.com/

Without effective communication at all stages of the process there will likely be a break down and the organisations goals and objectives would not be effectively achieved The Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (ACAS) described organisational communication as: ‘the provision and passing of information and instructions which enable a company or employing organisation to function efficiently and employees to be properly informed about developments. It covers information of all kinds which can be provided; the channels along which it passes; and the means of passing it.’ (ACAS,1992,p2).

The positive aspects of good communication include a harmonious workplace, with staff having a full understanding of what is expected, in order to achieve it is essential that the communication is effective . The component Parts of Effective Communication are:

1. The Sender – is responsible for clarity of a message and to check understanding is effectively received. 2. Encoding – forming the message in a way that ensures its meaning is most effectively transferred. 3. Transmission – the process of sending the encoded message. 4. Decoding – working out the meaning of the message.

5. The Receiver – should ask for clarification if necessary. 6. Feedback – confirm receipt of information and effective understanding of information. (ILM course handout)

Good communication will enhance a mangers performance through developing positive relationships with others and ensuring cooperation to getting tasks completed and goals achieved, it will dispel confusion and misunderstanding and help to avoid mistrust and conflict.

There are a number of barriers that can effect good communication

The use of jargon or using over-complicated or unfamiliar terms. Often within teams or organisations there is a habit to use acronyms and this is then carried on when dealing with member of the public that do not understand what is being discussed. Emotional barriers if some one is angry or upset they are not able to focus on what is being communicated. Lack of attention, interest, distractions, or irrelevance to the receiver. Differences in perception and viewpoint. People often make presumptions to people based on gender, age, race, religion, they way a person dresses or how they act. Physical disabilities such as hearing problems or speech difficulties Physical barriers to non-verbal communication, such as speaking on telephone or by email.

Dr Alber Meherbian identified that only 7% of communication was through words where as 55% was through body language such as eye contact or mirroring, and 38% through the voice taking account of tone, speed and pitch (Class notes) as such removing body language can often make communication difficult. Language differences and the difficulty in understanding unfamiliar accents. Expectations and prejudices which may lead to false assumptions or stereotyping. People often hear what they expect to hear rather than what is actually said and jump to incorrect conclusions. Cultural differences. The norms of social interaction vary greatly in different cultures, as do the way in which emotions are expressed. For example, the concept of personal space varies between cultures and between different social settings.

Poor communication skills by a manager is likely have a negative impact on a team or organisations performance, with the manager being deemed to be untrustworthy, rude, or demanding they can convey negativity through there body language or with the tone of their voice consequently de-motivating the team or organisation. They may fail to pass on information in away that is accurate or in a way that can be misinterpreted due to their poor communication skills, and as such may cause tasks not to be completed and stop goals and targets being achieved, leading to greater de-motivation of the workforce. In order to overcome these barriers it is essential that organisations and managers have strategies in place to overcome these barriers

1. Eliminating differences in perception: The organisation should ensure that it is recruiting right individuals on the job. It’s the responsibility of the interviewer to ensure that the interviewee has command over the written and spoken language. There should be proper Induction program so that the policies of the company are clear to all the employees. Newport City Council has a robust recruitment policy in place which assist managers in the employment of the must suitable candidates, and all new staff are required to attend a corporate induction programme to make them aware of the Councils policies and procedures and also to make them aware of the Councils goals and aims. 2. Use of Simple Language: Use of simple and clear words should be emphasised. Use of ambiguous words and jargons should be avoided. Ideally it is always good to get someone outside your main role read through standard letters or policies and strategies, to ensure they are easy to read and understandable. 3. Reduction and elimination of noise levels: Noise can often be a communication barrier which must be overcome on priority basis.

The Council has recently moved a lot of staff around and they are now working in open plan offices which has increased the levels of background noise which is distracting this is being combated with the introduction of breakout rooms where staff or teams can go to discuss cases, desks are being fitted with noise reduction boards, and teams are being asked to be considerate of other members. 4. Active Listening: Listen attentively and carefully. There is a difference between “listening” and “hearing”. Active listening means hearing with proper understanding of the message that is heard. By asking questions the speaker can ensure whether his/her message is understood or not by the receiver in the same terms as intended by the speaker. It is also useful to summarise the discussion with a person to ensure you have heard correctly and are both aware of what needs to be done and in what time frame. 5. Emotional State: During communication one should make effective use of body language. He/she should not show their emotions while communication as the receiver might misinterpret the message being delivered.

For example, if the conveyer of the message is in a bad mood then the receiver might think that the information being delivered is not good. 6. Avoid Information Overload: The managers should know how to prioritise their work. They should not overload themselves with the work. They should spend quality time with their subordinates and should listen to their problems and feedbacks actively. Within Newport City council this is done through 4 weekly 1-1 sessions with staff, have weekly team meetings this has become important with the introduction of agile working. Staff also under go annual appraisals. 7. Give Constructive Feedback: Avoid giving negative feedback. The contents of the feedback might be negative, but it should be delivered constructively. Constructive feedback will lead to effective communication between the superior and subordinate. 8. Proper Media Selection: The managers should properly select the medium of communication. Simple messages should be conveyed orally, like: face to face interaction or meetings.

The use of written means of communication should be encouraged for delivering complex messages. For significant messages reminders can be given by using written means of communication such as : Memos, Notices etc. 9. Flexibility in meeting the targets: For effective communication in an organization the managers should ensure that the individuals are meeting their targets timely without skipping the formal channels of communication. There should not be much pressure on employees to meet their targets. 10. Personality Conflict: All people have preferred methods of communication and how that communication I delivered, Newport City Council is currently rolling out a programme of team development that looks at behavioural characteristics with the aim of how best to communicate with people who are the opposite of your personality type.

4. Development Opportunities
In order to assess my own knowledge, skills, personal attributes and behaviour and there effect on my management ability I conducted a SWOT analysis which is shown below. The SWOT analysis identified a number of weaknesses, some of which I am aware of and am actively working to manage. Theses weaknesses have a direct impact on my ability to manage my team and achieve my goals and targets. When I become stressed I tend not to allow others to be aware of any external factors that are affecting my ability to adequately fulfil my role, which leads to a break down in interpersonal relationships with the staff I directly line manage an with my immediate manager.

I also have a tendency to enjoy solving problems and tend to become impatient with routine details and loose interest in projects that require an intensive follow through preferring to hand the project off to be completed. I sometimes can be so caught up with a project and my thoughts on how it should be carried out that I fail to listen to advise or input from others. I can appear to be argumentative and difficult to approach and may occasionally be seen by others as dictatorial and aggressive in arguing my position. The fact that I am aware of these traits I can work to control them to ensure that there is not a break down of interpersonal relationships with either my team or my line managers.

SWOT Analysis

BSc Hons in Environmental Health
City & guilds in energy efficiency
Access to humanities level 3
And various role specific competency certificates
I am registered with Charted Institute of Environmental Health. Skills & Attributes
Excellent problem solving skills
Good organisational skills
Good time management
The ability to see the big picture
Has a strong drive to get things moving and keep them moving Role Specific
A good technical knowledge of my chosen field.
10 years management experience
Have built Good inter service relationships
The ability to write and manage processes and procedures
The ability to write policies and strategies
Is experienced in enforcement from service of legal notice to providing evidence in crown court.

No formal management qualification

Skills and attributes
My confidence can be interpreted as arrogance.
I can neglect to take others views on board.
I can be impatient with people if they are not direct and to the point I am opinionated and have very strong sense of moral right and wrong. I have high standards and expect others to have the same high standards.

Role Specific
I tend to dislike route tasks preferring to get projects under way. I do not always agree with councils decisions on enforcement and i can show which may de-motivate my team I tend not to listen to others who undeceive or un-clear.


Undertaking higher apprenticeship in management
To gain knowledge and competency within all aspects of Environmental health To have promotion within the Council
To be seconded to other teams such as fit for the future to develop knowledge and skills Continued professional development
In house training courses for personal development
Changing legislation

A reduction in funding for training and development
The possibility of out sourcing of council service
The requirement to achieve goals and targets with diminishing budgets and resources. Changing legislation.
Freezing of vacant posts
The lack of adequate IT systems to cope with demands of new methods of working

I under took a personal review in May off this year which sets out targets for me to achieve both for professional and personal development. The targets have SMART (specific, measured, attainable, realistic, timely) objectives. The review is placed in prioritised order with the most important targets being placed at the tops of the sections, though they may have longer time scales for achievement. The review is in appendix 2 and sets out how I will look to address my weaknesses, it also includes a section for my line manager’s appraisal of how I have worked over the last six months.

Mullins Laurie J Management and Organisational Behaviour (forth edition 1996) Pitman Publishing Pg 70-90 Advisory Conciliation and Arbitration Service (ACAS) (1982) Workplace Communication, Advisory Booklet No8, London:ACAS http://www.i-l-m.com/downloads/ILM1_NHS_TutorPack_M4.01_0212_S1.pdf http://www.skillsyouneed.co.uk/IPS/Barriers_Communication.html#ixzz28QAUQjuF Drucker Peter F. The Practice of Management (classic edition 2007) Butterworth-Heinemann pg 3 ILM Course handouts & Class Notes from 11th July & 15th August.

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