Understand the attributes of effective team performance
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1.1 Define the key features of effective performance.
To have a team that works well and is effective you need to have strong individuals who will work well together, a mix of different people with different strengths would be a good choice, but all would need to have some basic team working skills these include the ability to support each other, have the same goals, communicate effectively, be reliable, enthusiastic and have consistency. Each individual team member should be completely clear on their own roles and responsibilities included in their job description and confident in their role within the setting, if a staff member is not confident or is unsure they should be fully able to approach the team leader/manager to voice their concerns at this point managers or leaders would be able to provide necessary training or support and supervision. A team will work more effectively if they have confidence and respect for their leader/manager, someone who is able to confidently deal with situations, provide support where necessary and be a good role model.
By having people on your team who are strong and confident you will achieve the best outcome for your setting, when looking for employees you should consider their roles as team players by assessing skills such as communication, can they communicate effectively within the team. Activeness, are they likely to be an active part of the team and do an equal share. Good listener, by this I mean someone who can not only listen to individuals but also act effectively such as receive constructive criticism. Reliability, are they someone who is going to be on time and meet deadlines and be consistent with their work. 1.2 compare the MODELS used to link individual roles and development within team performance. When a team is performing at its best, you’ll usually find that each team member has clear responsibilities. Just as importantly, you’ll see that every role needed to achieve the team’s goal is being performed fully and well. Team work and development can be split into different models or roles that will all fit together to form a close nit well organised and effective team.
Meredith Belbin is a British researcher and management theorist best known for his work on management teams,Belbin identified nine team roles, they are, Shaper, Implementer, Completer-finisher, Co-ordinater, Team worker, Resource investigator, Plant, Monitor-evaluator, Specialist he then categorized those roles into three groups: Action Oriented, People Oriented, and Thought Oriented. A team should be put together for a specific purpose. Each team member should be chosen to ensure that the correct balance of skill and behavior is achieved, in many teams, such as small teams people will more than likely hold more than one role and be effective in each so each moulds together creating the best team you can.
To discover how your team work best it is good to go on regular team building days or include team building activities within your staff meetings, these help the manager to identify the areas each of the team members are good at or where there are weaknesses it may also help staff to discover new things or areas they feel they need to improve in or would like to take a lead role in. From these activities managers can then decide roles such as deputy manager, room leaders or supervisors as well as identifying staff who may be able to take on the role of SENCO or 1st Aid lead.
2.Know how to support team development.
2.1 Analyse the stages of team development.
The stages of team development can be known as Forming, Storming, Norming, performing these areas were identified by Psychologist Bruce Tuckman in 1965 he used it to describe the path most teams take on the way to becoming a high performance team. Forming- this is the initial stage where the team are first put together, this could be sting up a new nursery or developing a new area within an already existing setting, the team will generally start with a manager/leader who will gather team members based on their ability then begin to identify their strengths and weaknesses, in general people will be nervous and unsure but also excited at the prospect of a new adventure, most will be polite and get to know each other, this process can be a long one as it will take time to get the balance right. Storming-this stage can be tricky as it’s the stage where some people may try to work against the team thinking they have the best idea or strategy, many teams will fail at this stage but having a strong leader/manager this can be avoided.
This is the stage when peoples working styles may clash or they will challenge others roles or authority, people may feel overwhelmed with the role they have been given or begin to come stressed by their work load then at the other end you may have people who feel the skills they have could be used better or they become bored or complacent. Strong bonds and relationships are essential at this stage to be able to continue working together. Norming- the team will slowly move into this 3rd stage as people begin to feel comfortable in their role respect others roles and begin to resolve any conflicts in a sensible professional manor, people will now be much more familiar with each other and be able to ask each other questions or offer advice to one another then team will also be more committed to the end goal and therefore find it easier to work together.
There may be times when the storming and norming stage overlap as new tasks or possible new roles or promotions arise conflicts may re occur, however hopefully at this stage they can be easily and calmly resolved to restore good team balance. Performing- this is the stage when you have your effective team, the team achieves its goals and people are comfortable and secure in their roles, the process and plans you have in place are working and leading to leaders being able to delegate more roles and feel comfortable with the team you have created, at this stage it feels easy to be part of the team.
2.2 identify barrier to success and how these can be overcome. During the team building stage there may be some barriers that get in the way, these may be things you have no control over and have to work round, for example, building works or funding are delayed, you may not be able to continue working on a specific project or task for a certain period of time, it is important to try and keep your team motivated and do as much work as is possible, perhaps finding a different area to work on or the next stage of development.
Other barriers may include, people who are unwilling to commit, people who are unenthusiastic, team members struggling with a particular role, in these situations it’s important to support them as much as possible, find out why they are having problems, is the workload to much or do they need some more support such as a co-worker or deputy, as a manager it is essential to conduct regular reviews or appraisals to ensure the team is working effectively , it is important as a manager to keep a positive attitude and happy disposition as employees may pick up on stress or worries that you may have, this in turn will lead to them losing confidence and enthusiasm then after a while the whole team becomes despondent and morale suffers and eventually the whole task may crumble.
Barriers can have a detrimental effect on a business or team in the long term so it is imperative that they be dealt with quickly and efficiently and correctly. 2.3 Analyse the effect group norms may have on team development Teams can create norms through discussions among team members. Often, during the forming phase of team development, members will have conversations about standards of behavior for the group. By doing so, teams can identify and develop norms that support their collaboration and productivity. Both establishing and maintaining norms are indicators of a team’s maturity, made possible only when members have developed working relationships. Effective norms can develop on their own, especially if team members have prior experience working on successful teams, these norms can have a significant effect on the effectiveness of the team, when a team are comfortable working with each other and happy they work together better, they will sub consciously be better at their job and have a good strong work ethic producing positive effects on the team and its role.
However, without explicit direction dysfunctional norms such as aversion to new ideas or conflict avoidance may take hold this is where the team leader or manager will need to step in to ensure team development is not spoiled or disrupted. This sort of norm can have a bad effect on the teams goals, you may find yourself in a situation where you can’t work comfortably anymore as you are too ‘friendly’ with another member of the team or someone is not doing their job to the best of their ability causing a disruptive effect but again you are too ‘friendly’ or comfortable with that person to bring it to anyone else’s attention or speak to them about it. 2.4 Differentiate between constructive conflict and destructive conflict in teams Conflict within a team can arise at any time during team development, this can be when people’s views or options are different for whatever reason. They can be within the team or externally with another partnership or organization.
Any sort of conflict between people can cause a negative effect on the whole group and should be resolved properly and quickly. Conflict can cause frustration and unwillingness within the team but can also lead to decisions being made that may turn out to be for the better of the group when an agreement can be reached that satisfies the whole group. Conflict can be split into two categories, constructive conflict and destructive conflict. Constructive conflict is defined as being overall better for the group where the end decision is the best one for the group it can generate a more productive team and can be more mutually beneficial by sharing decisions and overcoming problems. Destructive conflict is defined as having a detrimental effect on the end result, this can arise when an individual is unwilling to co-operate and share workloads or believe they are the only ones who hold the key to success, this is often when the group will start to become uncomfortable to be in and lead to people walking away from their roles or becoming un co-operative or even nasty to colleagues.
A lot of conflicts may begin as constructive but can soon lead to destructive, as a manager it is important to be able to spot a potential conflict situations and step in to resolve it before this happens. The way your organization is structured can lead to conflict so it is important that staff have a clear idea of what is expected of them in their role and how the team works together and that standards are met, once they begin to slip people will think they can get away with not doing certain tasks making them self assured and cocky, this in turn will not lead to a constructive team.
2.5 Evaluate methods of dealing with conflict within a team. There is bound to be some amount of conflict in any project with people offering different skills and ideas, conflict can be good providing the ideas are discussed and a conclusion is reached, when personalities clash it can often bring new ideas to the table for discussion that may have not been an option before, however sometimes conflict can get out of hand and become disruptive and upsetting this often happens when a person feels they are not valued or are not able to express an opinion often keeping things to themselves inevitably resulting in an outburst either angry or upset. Knowing that conflict may and will occur is the first step to resolving it, especially if you know that certain team members may disagree with each other. By recognizing that there will be conflict, a manager knows what to expect.
To avoid such conflicts it is important to set out the boundaries in job descriptions and ensure everyone knows that their opinion is allowed to be raised and their voice will be herd, new ideas will be discussed at team meetings or in staff appraisals, set out from the beginning to your staff that negative conflict will be dealt with and make them aware of the appropriate ways to express their ideas or thoughts. If conflict does arise it is important to deal with it straight away, if it is left for any period of time it can become worse or the original story may become unclear, it is also important to ensure you hear the full story from all people involved, this way you have a clearer picture of events it is important to be impartial and look at the pros and cons of all sides, make sure each party has a fair amount of time to voice their opinions and say their version of events.. Try and keep the situation with just the people involved as if you include other co-workers or outside people they may form a group and ‘take sides’ this would create a very negative atmosphere and leave the end conclusion even further away.
2.6 Compare methods of developing and establishing trust and accountability within a team. It is extremely important within a team that you have trust and accountability, this way everyone knows how they will be expected to behave and treat the other members of the team, they will also behave appropriately and each team member will perform the roles and responsibilities set out in their job description to the best of their ability, the people responsible for the cleaning, for example will ensure it is done properly so the other staff can do their jobs effectively or the person in charge of the 1st aid kit ensures that it is checked regularly and in date to comply with registration guidelines, if you have a job like this within your setting that you are competent then other team members will have the trust in you and want to also do their best. A good method of developing trust within a team is to let everyone have a role, as a manager showing that you have trust in your team will encourage them to want to do well to prove to you they can do it or that they are capable of more responsibility, these don’t have to be major tasks to begin with but will help define a person’s role and make them feel needed and valued in the team.
If you chose to do this you will have to make it clear to all your staff that they all still need to be aware of the particular job as they may also need to undertake it at some point and that everyone is capable of doing it. Accountability can be a bit of a sticky subject as people may try and get out of certain tasks saying ‘it’s not my job’ so when setting out individual roles it needs to be something realistic and not something that can be detrimental the team member, the job or the setting, however if you have a SENCO then it would be that persons role to ensure all staff training is up to date and that any necessary paperwork is filled in correctly, they would have to understand that they are taking accountability for the role. You, as a manager should also be a good role model to want members of your team to work well, for example if they see that you are lazy with paperwork or discipline they will lose trust in you as a manager and not necessarily perform to the best of their ability.
Learning outcome 3 – Know how to promote shared purpose within a team 3.2 Review APPROACHES that encourage sharing of skills and knowledge between team members (how do you do this in your own environment). Within your nursery setting it is essential that skills and knowledge are shared, this is a great way for younger or less experienced members of staff to learn or for more experienced staff to understand and learn the new ways things can be done or changes that are being suggested. By sharing skills and knowledge you can ensure that you are providing the best possible childcare service you can. During staff meetings we discuss our planning ideas and topics for the term, this is where we all have the opportunity to pitch our ideas, when we have decided on a theme we will then look at activities, during this time is when someone may say ‘when I did this last time..’ or ‘why don’t we try..’ by bringing up previous knowledge In a subject it will help the whole area develop, if you were solely responsible for picking 10 different activities you may find it really hard and overwhelming but by working as a team and coming up with them together it gives a sense of wellbeing and achievement for everyone.
It is also essential for us to share new knowledge and skills, for example if 2 members of the team attend a training session they will bring new ideas to the table and feed back things they have learnt or provide the training experience for the other team members at a later date. As a team we will decide who will attend various training sessions or decide if it something the whole team should attend, skills workshops and days are great ways to expand your knowledge as a team. Learning outcome 4 – Know how to promote a no blame culture within a team 4.4 Describe strategies for managing risk associated with a “no blame” culture. We are in a society where instinctively people will want to point the finger and blame someone when mistakes happen. In the no-blame approach, all mistakes are treated as opportunities to learn, connect with others and gain insights at various levels – personal, procedural, organisational etc. If a decision we make as a group does not come off as we were expecting then we brush it off as it wasn’t one particular persons fault but a mistake we made as a team, we will then evaluate the situation and move on making changes for next time.
When in the case of an individual the hope is that by having a no blame culture they will come forward with their mistakes so that they can be rectified so it does not happen again however the risk in holding this approach is that you may find it is not always beneficial, when something important goes wrong having a ‘no blame’ culture may cause people to believe they do not have to stand up to their mistakes and that they can keep doing things the same as nothing will come of it, it is important to state that although the ‘no blame’ culture exists it will only be to a certain extent, if a team member does something that could affect the whole setting severely they must understand that action will have to be taken but if it’s a small genuine mistake or lack of judgment we can rectify it and move on. Learning outcome 5 – Understand different styles of leadership and management 5.1 Compare different styles of leadership and management.
Different types of leadership styles exist in work environments. Advantages and disadvantages exist within each leadership style. Psychologist Kurt Lewin developed his framework in the 1930s, and it provided the foundation of many of the approaches that followed afterwards. He argued that there are three major styles: 1. Autocratic leaders make decisions without consulting their team members, even if their input would be useful. This can be appropriate when you need to make decisions quickly, when there’s no need for team input, and when team agreement isn’t necessary for a successful outcome. However, this style can be demoralizing, and it can lead to high levels of absenteeism and staff turnover. 2. Democratic leaders make the final decisions, but they include team members in the decision-making process.
They encourage creativity, and people are often highly engaged in projects and decisions. As a result, team members tend to have high job satisfaction and high productivity. This is not always an effective style to use, though, when you need to make a quick decision. 3. Laissez-faire leaders give their team members a lot of freedom in how they do their work, and how they set their deadlines. They provide support with resources and advice if needed, but otherwise they don’t get involved. This autonomy can lead to high job satisfaction, but it can be damaging if team members don’t manage their time well, or if they don’t have the knowledge, skills, or self motivation to do their work effectively. (Laissez-faire leadership can also occur when managers don’t have control over their work and their people.) http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_84.htm
All of the above styles will have advantages and disadvantages, such as being a person who make a the decisions may alienate you from the rest of your team and you may not always make the right decision, it is good to be able to have staff input and suggestions, I understand sometimes it may not be possible to make this choice and that is why you are the leader or manager because you have the skills to make the right decision. Sometimes being to laid back in your role can also have a negative affect, you are there as the team leader and should be encouraging staff to complete work or meet deadlines, I believe that each of the management styles above are equally as important as the last however I believe that a little bit of each style will benefit your team and setting.
Discussion with your Training Advisor/Tutor.
LEARNING OUTCOME 3 – Know how to promote shared purpose within a team
3.1 Evaluate ways of promoting a shared vision within a team.
Encourage all staff to have their say and share their views
ensure you have a clear ethos or goal in mind
make all staff aware of the end result (what you want to achieve)
provide training if necessary to help staff understand your vision make your ideas positive and encouraging
LEARNING OUTCOME 4 – Know how to promote a no-blame culture within a team
4.1 Define the meaning of a “NO BLAME” culture.
To help people feel they can come forward when they make a mistake Have clearly identified boundaries
Minimize the competitive side of the job
4.2 Evaluate the benefits of a “NO BLAME” culture.
Mistakes can be resolved quickly and effectively
People won’t feel like they are being scrutinized
People may work harder knowing they will not be severely punished for a little mistake
4.3 Describe how systems and processes can be used to support a “NO BLAME” culture. Clearly define roles & responsibilities
Ensure staff know what will be allowed under the ‘no blame’ culture Help staff in their roles with support and supervision to ensure mistakes are avoidable Develop training for staff to feel more confident.
LEARNING OUTCOME 5 – Understand different styles of leadership and management. 5.2 Reflect on adjustments to your own leadership and management style that may be required in different circumstances (give examples from real situations if you can).
Need to be firmer in some cases
Listen to other people and accept help
Work with others and learn from others experiences.