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Theories Of Communication

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In this piece of work I am going to be talking about 8 different theorists, what their theories are and examples of when their theories would be used whether they would be used in a group or 1:1. 1:1 Communication

One to one communication is one of the most common forms of communication. It is when two people non-verbally communicate with each other; it is a two-way exchange of information. Argyle’s communication cycle

Argyle developed the communication cycle; he believed that communication was a skill that could be improved. This theory is often used during one to one verbal communication. This could be used in a health and social care setting between a nurse and a doctor, when a doctor tells a nurse about medication that a patient should be taking and why. Their interaction will consist of the 6 parts of argyles theory. 1. An idea occurs and is taught of by one person. (Doctor diagnoses the patient and identifies medication that can be applied) 2 .The messages is coded and formed. (The doctor starts to form the ways to tell the nurse on what’s needed and starts to tell the nurse) 3. The message is sent –so when the person (the one who taught of the idea) speaks to the other person involved in the one to one interaction. (The doctor tells the nurse what is needed verbally or written)

4. The message is received by the other person listening (The nurse receives the information sent by the doctor by listening or reading) 5. The message is decoded and the person identifies the message sent (The nurse is aware of what the doctor is talking about ) 6. The message is understood, when the person receiving the message has identified and understands what the message that is being sent. (The nurse knows and is aware of what has been said and understands so can begin to act on it ) Egan developed the Soler theory because he wanted everyone to feel included. •S – Sitting straight on at a comfortable angle and distance. Also, facing the person in front of you. •O – Having an Open posture. You should not cross arms and legs ,as this sends a message that you are not involved or are not interested in the person talking to you. Egan believed open posture is generally seen as non-defensive”.

•L – Leaning forward. Looking genuinely interested in what the person has t say. Listening attentively. •E – Effective eye contact without staring. It shows that you are involved and not distracted by anything else. It could show that someone is shy or nervous if the person is not maintaining eye contact. •R – Remain relatively relaxed. Keep still and not move about when someone is talking to you so that you are looking interested and you are concentrating. Group communication

Interaction in-group situations are important for social, intellectual and emotional development. Health and social care workers communicate in-group situations when they participate in: Report or handover meetings where individuals’ needs are discussed Case conferences and discharge meetings

Therapeutic and activity groups
Meetings with relatives and managers of care organisations. The communication skills we use in group contexts are slightly different from those we use in one-to-one situations. One of the main differences is that people have to make compromises and must learn how and when to take turns at speaking and listening. Communication in groups can sometimes feel challenging, competitive and negative where a few members of the group dominate. However, groups can also be supportive, co- operative and productive when members respect each other, are inclusive and share information. People who are effective group members: Make verbal contributions to the group

Listen to other group members
Respond positively to the group leader
Are open about themselves
Don’t try to distract others or disrupt the main purpose of the group Have a positive and constructive approach to other group members Arrive on time and stay until the end of the group’s meetings.

Engebretson’s theory for Caring presence is about “sharing and understanding of the feelings that other people may be experiencing.” •Someone who is lonely, depressed or anxious of something can find it comforting if they know they can count on you to be there for them. •A patient may feel more supported and reassured knowing or believing that their carer understands them and is concerned about them. •Non verbal communication such as facial expressions, touch or contact, body language and eye contact can communicate emotions feelings and can be more reassuring than words. Tuckman

Probably the most famous Group Interaction Theory is Bruce Tuckman’s model. First developed in 1965. It is a 4-stage model. First stage is when a group get together; everyone is finding their feet and sharing basic information. (Forming) Next people start to see themselves as part of the team but challenge each other about what and how things should be done. (Storming) The team then start working together setting ground rules and clarifying who does what. (Norming) The next is the best stage is when relationships have developed within the group and it has started delivering with a clear focus on the task. (Performing) Tuckman’s theory has an extra stage called adjouning (patient meeting for treatment. All medical staff forms together in a group. Storming is when their roles are introduces. Norming getting into a better plan maybe a care plan. Then performing. Then they will sumarise what happened and people will get their tasks to do a nurse may get a task which is to get all of the equipment ready.)

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