The Global Halal Food Market
- Pages: 24
- Word count: 5781
- Category: Food
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The food industry, like any other industry, responds to the needs and desires of the consumer. People all over the world are now more conscious about foods, health, and nutrition. They are interested in eating healthy foods that are low in calories, cholesterol, fat, and sodium. Many people are interested in foods that are organically produced without the use of synthetic pesticides and other nonnatural chemicals. The ethnic and religious diversity in America and Europe has encouraged the food industry to prepare products which are suitable to different groups such as the Chinese, Japanese, Italian, Indian, Mexican, Seventh Day Adventist, vegetarian, Jewish, and Muslim.
Islam is the world’s second largest religion, also the fastest growing, both globally and in the U.S. Islam is not merely a religion of rituals — it is a way of life. Rules and manners govern the life of the individual Muslim. In Islam, eating is considered a matter of worship of God, like ritual prayers. Muslims follow the Islamic dietary code, and foods that meet that code are called halal (lawful or permitted). Muslims are supposed to make an effort to obtain halal food of good quality. It is their religious obligation to consume only halal food. For non-Muslim consumers, halal foods often are perceived as specially selected and processed to achieve the highest standards of quality.
Definition, Halal foods are those that are free from any component that Muslims are prohibited from consuming. According to the Quran (the Muslim scripture), all good and clean foods are halal. Consequently, almost all foods of plant and animal origin are considered halal except those that have been specifically prohibited by the Quran and the Sunnah (the life, actions, and teachings of the Prophet Muhammad).
* The way in which the data are collected for the research project. * All of the techniques, methods and procedures adopted in terminology work to carry out terminology research. Research can be defined as the search for knowledge or any systematic investigation to establish facts. The primary purpose for applied research (as opposed to basic research) is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research can use the scientific method , but need not do so.
* Research is the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information (data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon about which we are concerned or interested Research Methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. Research method:
Exploratory research, which helps identify and define a problem or question SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
Sampling: sampling is concerned with the selection of a subset of individuals from within a population to estimate characteristics of the whole population. Sample Size – as a size of sample increases accuracy and reliability of the research result also increase. . A sample size of . The responses of 15 employees working different hotel. The responses of 15 students study at Gyanvihar university & IHM jaipur. Sample Design:
A Sample Design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. It refers to the technique or the procedure the researcher would adopt in selecting items for the sample. Sample Design is determined before data are collected. The sample is a subset of a unit of a population, collected as a representation of it. Sampling units are the portion of the population that researchers need to target and that represents the whole or entire population.
On the whole, such methodology was adopted that would give accurate results and the study be a success. DATA COLLECTION
Data collection is a term used to describe a process of preparing and collecting data – for example as part of a process improvement or similar project. The purpose of data collection is to obtain information to keep on record, to make decisions about important issues, to pass information on to others. Primarily, data is collected to provide information regarding a specific topic. Data collection usually takes place early on in an improvement project, and is often form lised through a data collection plan which often contains the following activity. 1. Pre collection activity – Agree goals, target data, definitions, methods 2. Collection – data collection
3. Present Findings – usually involves some form of sorting] analysis and/or presentation. A formal data collection process is necessary as it ensures that data gathered is both defined and accurate and that subsequent decisions based on arguments embodied in the findings are valid. Types of data collection
1. PRIMARY DATA: Are those, which are collected for the first time, and thus happen to be original in character. It can be collected by various methods i.e. by observation, telephone interview, through scheduled or self administered questionnaire. Keeping in mind the objective research methods are used. Observation and questioning was made to collect primary data from both employees as well as management of the company. It was to elicit the information regarding existing HR. 1. Observational design
* Regular working of staff
* Students pursuing HM
SECONDARY DATA: Secondary data are those data which have already been collected by someone else like journals and publication of the company. It is collected through self administrative. Documents related to manpower recruitment, training and Performance Management System were studied. 1. Newspapers and journals
2. Published data and articles
3. Internet .
That both kind of source of information are used In primary source I asked the question to the employee & students and in secondary source, the data search on net, in books and in journals.
LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
During the working of the project, I faced some problems, which have led to the limitation of the work. These limitations could not be controlled even after taking enough preventing measures. I hope the following limitations would not affect the project and its analysis: –
* The main problem faced at the time of study was the shortage of time.. * A small sample size greater probability that the observation just happened to be particularly good or bad. It is harder to find significant relationships from the data * Some of the employees were not able to provide their views because of their busy schedule. * Students were not giving proper answers of questionnaire.
Description of The Project
GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR HALAL FOOD PRODUCTION
Foods are broadly classified into four groups to establish their halal status and to formulate guidelines for halal production and certification.
MEAT AND POULTRY
It is understood that meat of only halal animals is allowed for consumption by Muslims. An animal must be of halal species to be slaughtered as halal. The animal must be slaughtered by a sane adult Muslim while pronouncing the name of God.A sharp knife must be used to cut the throat in a manner that induces thorough removal of blood and quick death.
Conditions and Method of Slaughtering (Dhabh or Zabh)
Dhabh is a clearly defined method of killing an animal for the sole purpose of making its meat fit for human consumption. The word dhabh in Arabic means purification or rendering something good or wholesome. The dhabh method is also called dhakaat in Arabic, which means urification or making something complete.
The following conditions must be fulfilled for dhabh to meet the requirements of the shariah (jurisprudence).
The Slaughter Person
The person performing the act of dhabh must be of sound mind and an adult Muslim. The person can be of either sex. If a person lacks or loses the competence through intoxication or loss of mental abilities, he or she may not perform halal slaughter. The meat of an animal killed by an idolater, a nonbeliever, or someone who has apostatized from Islam is not acceptable.
The knife used to perform dhabh must be extremely sharp to facilitate quick cutting of the skin and severing of blood vessels to enable the blood to flow immediately and quickly, in other words, to bring about an immediate and massive hemorrhage. The Cut
The incision should be made in the neck at some point just below the glottis and the base of the neck. Traditionally, camels used to be slayed by making an incision anywhere on the neck. This process is called nahr, which means spearing the hollow of the neck. With modern restraining methods and stunning techniques, this procedure might not be appropriate any longer. The trachea and the esophagus must be cut in addition to the jugular veins and the carotid arteries. The spinal cord must not be cut. The head is therefore not to be severed completely. It is interesting to note that the kosher kill is very similar to the traditional method of dhabh described, except that the invocation is not made on each animal.
Advantages of Halal Slaughtering
* The speed of the incision made with the recommended sharp knife shortens the total time to slaughter and seems to inflict less pain than stunning. * The method of dhabh allows rapid and efficient bleeding of the animal. MILK AND EGGS
Milk and eggs from halal animals are also halal. Predominantly, milk in the West comes from cows and eggs come from hens. All other sources are required to be labeled accordingly. Numerous products are made from milk and eggs. Milk is used to make cheese, butter, and cream. A variety of enzymes are used in the production of cheeses. Types of enzymes used in the making of cheeses are very important.Enzymes can be halal depending on their source of origin. Enzymes from microbial sources or halal-slaughtered animals are halal. Depending on the enzymes used in production of cheeses or other dairy products, the products are classified as halal, haram, or questionable. On the same basis, other functional additives such as emulsifiers or mold inhibitors should also be screened to take the doubt out of milk or egg products.
PLANT AND VEGETABLE MATERIALS
Foods from plants are halal, with the exception of khamr (intoxicating drinks). In modern processing plants, however, animal or vegetable products might be processed in the same plant on the same equipment, increasing the chances of contamination. For example, in some factories, pork and beans as well as corn are canned on the same equipment. When proper cleaning procedures are used and the halal production segregated from non-halal, contamination can be avoided. Functional ingredients from animal sources, such as antifoams, must also be avoided in the processing of vegetables. It is evident that processing aids and production methods have to be carefully monitored to maintain halal status of vegetable products.
Food ingredients are one of the main subjects of concern. Vegetable products, as mentioned earlier, are halal unless they have been contaminated with haram ingredients or contain intoxicating substances. some of the commonly used ingredients such as gelatin, glycerin, emulsifiers, enzymes, alcohol, animal fat and protein, and flavors and flavorings. Because most of the products fall into questionable or doubtful categories.
The use of gelatin is very common in many food products. Gelatin can be halal if from dhabh-slaughtered animals, doubtful if from animals not slaughtered in a halal manner, or haram if from prohibited animal sources. Common sources of gelatin are pigskin, cattle hides, cattle bones, and, to a smaller extent, fish skins.
Glycerin is another ingredient widely used in the food industry. Products containing glycerin are avoided by Muslims because it could be from animal sources. Currently, glycerin from palm oil and other vegetable oils is available for use in halal products.
Emulsifiers such as monoglycerides, diglycerides, polysorbates, diacetyl tartaric esters of mono- and di-glycerides (DATEM), and other similar chemicals are another commonly used group of ingredients that can come from halal or haram sources. Emulsifiers from vegetable sources and halal-slaughtered animal sources are halal.
IMPORT REQUIREMENTS FOR DIFFERENT COUNTRIES
International halal food trade, worth approximately $150 billion (Egan, 2002), covers many countries. Several Muslim countries are net importers of foods processed primarily in North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. With the advancement in technology, particularly in food production, brand identity, franchising, and transportation, more processed foods are entering international trade than ever before. Many countries have passed laws and established halal guidelines not only for imported products but also for food products manufactured and offered for sale domestically. The requirements are essentially the same for imported and domestic products, but the method of implementation varies. Halal activity in leading Islamic countries and regions is presented.
Malaysian Muslim consumers became exposed to imported food products in the 1970s when global food service establishments started opening restaurants there. Consumers wanted an assurance that the food offered at restaurants as well as in stores was indeed halal. This prompted the Malaysian government to enact laws as well as devise procedures and guidelines with regards to halal foods, domestic and imported. The Malaysian government issued regulations making it mandatory for all meat (beef, mutton, veal, and poultry) imported into Malaysia to be halal certified and such meat to originate only from meat plants approved by the Islamic Affairs Division of the Prime Minister’s Department and the Department of Veterinary Services, alaysia. Under the Malaysian regulations, all halal certificates for meat and poultry must be issued and signed by an Islamic center accredited to do halal certification by JAKIM. Moreover, slaughterhouses for producing such meat and poultry products must also be approved by both Malaysian government agencies (JAKIM and the Department of Veterinary Services).
The Islamic Council of Singapore [Majlis Ugama Islam Singapura (MUIS)] started to provide halal services in 1972 and the first halal certificate was issued in 1978. In Singapore, all imported meat (including poultry) and meat products must be halal certified by an Islamic organization in the country of export and approved by MUIS. MUIS is solely responsible and performs a regulatory function in halal under authorization from the government of Singapore. It facilitates halal food trade through the following activities: * Certifying local exporters to export their products to a global halal market * Certifying local establishments
* Participating in forums on standardization of halal certification
A program of halal verification in Indonesia started under the auspices of the Religious Council of Indonesia, locally known as Majelis Ulama Indonesia (MUI), has assigned the responsibility to coordinate halal activities to an institute called the Assessment Institute for Foods, Drugs and Cosmetics (AIFDC). Halal certification within Indonesia is a multidisciplinary function. The process of inspection and evaluation is initiated with an application by the manufacturer or the importer
MIDDLE EAST COUNTRIES Gulf Standards
Gulf countries in the Middle East under the leadership of Saudi Arabia have formulated quite elaborate standards for meat and prepared foods to be used by the member countries. The standard is known as the Gulf Standard and Saudi Standard. It includes guidelines and requirements for the import of a variety of food and food products and meat and meat products. All countries in the Middle East, Gulf, and the rest require that imported products be ccompanied with a halal certificate issued by a recognized Islamic organization in the country of export. They also require that the certificates be endorsed by the National U.S. Arab Chamber of Commerce or the consulate of the importing country before exports can commence.
The South Asian countries of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka also import halal products for consumption, especially for food service. Halal programs in these countries are not as well defined. Some of the food service establishments in Pakistan operate under guidelines similar to those in Malaysia and voluntarily require halal certificates from their vendors not only for meat and poultry but also for processed food items.
Many other countries may also require halal certificates to accompany imported food products either under a formal program or informally. These countries include Egypt, Iran, Turkey, Thailand, Philippines, South Africa, and Australia.
METHODS OF SLAUGHTERING FOR MEAT AND POULTRY
The traditional method of slaughtering in Islam is to slit the throat, cutting the carotid arteries, jugular veins, trachea, and the esophagus, without severing the head. It must be done by a Muslim of sound mind and health while pronouncing the name of God on each animal or bird. To carry out the slaughtering process properly by hand, a team of Muslim slaughter persons is required at each line. The number of slaughter persons depends on line speed, size of the animals, and number of hours the operation will be performed. Slaughtering by hand is still preferred by all Muslims and quite widely followed in Muslim countries and other countries where Muslims control slaughterhouses.
HALAL CONTROL POINTS FOR SLAUGHTERHOUSES
Halal control points can be determined for each operation from raising the animals to the final packaged product offered for sale. Figure shows halal control points (HCPs) in meat and poultry processing.
The animal must be acceptable halal species such as sheep, lambs, goats, cows, bulls, steers, heifers, broiler chickens, hens, roosters, ducks, turkeys, quails, or pigeons. Pigs, boars, swine, dogs, cats, lions, cheetahs, bears, falcons, eagles, vultures, and the like cannot be considered halal even if they are slaughtered in a halal manner.
Islam advocates merciful treatment of animals. Hence, animals must be treated such that they are not stressed or excited prior to slaughter. Holding areas for cattle should be provided with drinking water. Excessive use of electric prods or sticks must be avoided if the animals get overly excited with such tools. Animals should be nourished and well rested. For proper preslaughter handling of animals as well as restraining for slaying, use of ritual slaughter guidelines is recommended (Regenstein and Grandin, 2002). Detailed ritual slaughter guidelines are given in.
It is preferable that animals be slaughtered without stunning but with proper humane restraining systems. However, nonlethal methods of stunning might be used to meet the legal requirement for humane slaughter regulations. The animal must be alive at the time of slaying and must die of bleeding rather than a blow or electrocutions.
One of the requirements of halal slaughter is that the knife must be sharp so that the animal does not feel the pain of the cut. It is even more important for the knife to be sharp when the animals are slayed without any stunning. The sharp, swift single blow and gushing out of the blood triggers an anesthetic reaction in animals. The size of the knife should be proportioned to the size of the neck so that one may not have to use several back and forth strokes. The knife must not be sharpened in front of the animal.
The slaughter person must be an adult male or female of sound mind familiar with the process of slaughter. He or she must not be weak at heart. A trained slaughter person will be more efficient and minimize damage to the skin and carcass.
HCP6: Slaying/Killing or Bleeding
The slaughter person must, while pronouncing the name of God and with a swift blow, cut the front part of the neck, severing carotids, jugulars, trachea, and esophagus, without reaching the bone in the neck.
It is mandatory to pronounce the name of God while cutting the throat. It suffices to say Bismillah (in the name of God) once; however, in general practice, especially for large animals, slaughter persons pronounce the name thrice as Bismillah Allahu Akbar, Bismillah Allahu Akbar.
Holding under humane
Slaughter with sharp
Slaughtered in the neck from the front side
cutting all passages
Hide and other
Packaging and labeling
Halal control points (HCPs) in meat and poultry processing HCP8: Postslaying Treatment
It is abominable to sever parts such as ears, horn, and legs before the animal is completely lifeless. Normally when the bleeding has ceased, the heart stops, and the animal is dead, one may start further acts of processing the carcass. Then, removing the skin and internals before deboning is carried out in a manner that protects the safety of meat.
HCP9: Packaging and Labeling
Packing is then done in clean packages and boxes, and proper labels are affixed to identify the products with halal markings.
HALAL REQUIREMENTS FOR COLD STORES
* All incoming halal load must be received by a Muslim inspector if the products are not sufficiently sealed or shipped in a bulk container. * Halal products must be separately stored during blast freezing. * Frozen halal products must remain isolated from non-halal products in the freezer unless packaged and sealed properly. * Halal products should be loaded out separately from non-halal products under the supervision of a Muslim inspector. In a mixed halal and nonhalal container, Halal products should be placed above non-halal products to avoid potential cross-contamination. * All halal products transported out from the cold store must be accompanied by a transfer certificate for bulk-packed containers. * All halal products loaded for export must be accompanied by a halal certificate.
INDUSTRIAL HALAL SLAUGHTER (DHABH) PROCEDURE
Under the Islamic jurisprudence (Shari’ah), a typical halal slaughter procedure is as follows. There are primary requirements that must be met, and there are secondary requirements that are not mandatory but merely recommendations.
* Animal or bird must be of halal species and alive at the time of slaughter. * Slaughtering must be done by a mature Muslim of sound mind, trained in slaughtering method for the type and size of animal to be slaughtered. * The name of Allah (Bismillah Allahu Akbar) must be verbally invoked by the Muslim slaughter person while slaying the animal. * Slaughtering must be carried out on the neck from the front cutting the esophagus, wind pipe (trachea), jugular veins, and carotid arteries, without cutting the spinal cord beyond the neck muscle. * Slaughtering must be carried out by a sharp knife in a swift sweep so that the animal does not feel the pain of a slaying. * Blood must be drained out thoroughly and the animal must die of bleeding rather than any other injury, inflicted or accidental.
* Animal or bird to be slaughtered should be healthy and free from diseases and defects. * Animal or bird should be given water and handled humanely before slaughtering so that it is calm and not stressed out or excited. * Slaughter person should be facing Mecca while slaughtering is carried out. * Appropriate desensitizing or restraining method can be used to control the animal provided the animal is not dead before actual bleeding according to dhabha standards. If animal dies as a result of the desensitizing method, the animal carcass becomes prohibited (haram) for Muslim consumption. * No part of the body should be cut prior to the actual slaughter or after slaughtering until the animal is completely dead.
It is not recommended to:
* Starve the animal by holding back food and water.
* Hold the animal down and then sharpen the knife.
* Sharpen the knife while the animal is looking at it and frighten it.
* Cut off the head or let the knife reach the bone.
* Break the neck of the animal while it is bleeding.
* Skin the animal while it is still alive.
* Use a dull knife to perform dhabha or use a knife of the wrong size.
INDUSTRIAL HALAL PROCEDURE FOR MECHANICAL
SLAUGHTER OF POULTRY
* The birds must be of halal species: chicken, ducks, or turkey. * The slaughter person while pronouncing Bismillah Allahu Akbar starts the machine. * The birds are hung onto the conveyor railing one at a time without agitating them. * The birds are passed over electrified water, touching the beak to shock them unconscious. * A Muslim slaughter person is positioned behind the machine and bleeds the birds missed by the machine while continuously invoking the name of God. (Two Muslim workers might be required, depending on the line speed.) * Halal birds are completely segregated throughout the process. * Containers of chilled birds are labeled halal.
* The birds are cut up, deboned, and processed on thoroughly cleaned equipment. * Further processing such as marinating, breading, and packing off are done under the supervision of an inspector. Nonmeat ingredients must not contain any non-halal ingredients. * Products are properly marked with halal markings.
HALAL PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR FISH AND SEAFOOD
Islamic scholars have studied this question of which seafood is permitted and which is prohibited to be eaten by Muslims. Some of the scholars believe that only live catches are halal. They believe that if the object is found dead, it comes under the restriction of prohibiting the consumption of dead land animals. The majority of scholars opine that seafood is exempt from this restriction, and use the tradition about the dead whale to justify their opinion. As to the species of sea creature that are permitted, all scholars have agreed that fish with scales are halal. Some believe that only fish with scales are halal and other creatures are not. This group believes that lobster, shrimp, octopus, eels, etc., are not permitted. Some have opined that anything that can only live in water is halal, whereas creatures that can live in and out of the water are haram. The latter include turtles, frogs, and alligators.
It seems that fish and seafood can be divided into four categories, with some categories universally accepted as halal, whereas others accepted by some people and not by others.
* Category one — includes fish with scales and fins such as cod, flounder, haddock, halibut, herring, mackerel, perch, pollock, salmon, sea bass, whiting, buffalo fish, carp, trout, tuna, orange roughy, and snapper. This category is acceptable by all the Muslim consumers.
* Category two — includes fish or fishlike animals which may have fins but not removable scales. Some of these may breathe oxygen from air rather than water, but live in water all the time. Examples are catfish, shark, swordfish, eel, monkfish, cusk, and blowfish. This category is acceptable to the majority of Muslim consumers, but not all denominations accept them as halal. They might consider them makrooh (disliked or detested).
* Category three — comprises several unrelated species, mobile or not, of various shapes and sizes, that cannot survive without being in water. These are generally either molluscs or crustaceans, including clams, mussels, lobsters, shrimp, oysters, octopus, scallops, and squid. This group also includes marine mammals that live totally in the sea such as whales and dolphins. The majority of Muslim consumers eat them; however, others consider them either haram or makrooh. Shrimp seems to be in a special category: some only eat them but not the rest of category.
* Category four — includes many of the animals generally falling under the definition of seafood. They live in and around water most of their life cycle, but are capable of living outside water because they can breathe air. These are generally not considered halal although some Islamic scholars are of the opinion that they are from the seas because they live in and around water. These include crabs, snails, turtles, alligators, and frogs.
REQUIREMENTS FOR SLAUGHTERING OR KILLING
FISH AND SEAFOOD
Fish or any animals from the water are not required to be killed in any religiously specified manner as practiced for land animals. However, fish and seafood should be prepared in a manner that the animals do not suffer excessively. They should not be skinned or scaled while still alive, for example, as practiced by some Eastern countries.
HALAL DIETARY LAWS
Halal dietary laws deal with the following five issues; all except one are in the animal kingdom:
* Prohibited animals
* Prohibition of blood
* Method of slaughtering and blessing
* Prohibition of carrion
* Prohibition of intoxicants
Proper Slaughtering of Permitted Animals
There are special requirements for slaughtering animals:
* Animal must be of a halal species.
* Animal must be slaughtered by an adult and sane Muslim. * The name of Allah must be pronounced at the time of slaughter. * Slaughter must be done by cutting the throat in a manner that induces rapid and complete bleeding, resulting in the quickest death. The generally accepted method is to cut at least three of the four passages in the neck, that is, carotids, jugulars, trachea, and esophagus.
A halal certificate is a document issued by an Islamic organization certifying that the products listed on it meet Islamic dietary guidelines, as defined by that certifying agency.
TYPES OF HALAL CERTIFICATES
* Registration of a site certificate — this type of certificate signifies that a plant, production facility, food establishment, slaughterhouse, abattoir, or any establishment handling food has been inspected and approved to produce, distribute, or market halal food. This does not mean that all food products made or handled at such a facility are halal certified. A site certificate should not be used as a halal product certificate.
* Halal certificate for a specific product for a specific duration — this type of certificate signifies that the listed product or products meet the halal guidelines formulated by the certifying organization. Such a certificate may be issued for a certain time period or for a specified quantity of the product destined for a particular distributor or importer. If the certificate is for a specific quantity, it may be called a batch certificate or a shipment ertificate. Meat and poultry products, for which each batch or consignment has to be certified, generally receive a batch certificate.
* Yearly certification — may be automatically renewed contingent on passing the annual inspection, through halal compliance and payment of the certification fee.
DURATION OF THE CERTIFICATE
The duration for which a certificate is valid depends on the type of product:
* A batch certificate issued for each consignment is valid for as long as that specific batch or lot of the product is in the market, generally up to product expiration date or “Use By” date.
* If a certified product is made according to a fixed formula, a certificate may be issued for a one-, two-, or three-year period. The product remains halal certified as long as it meets all the established and agreed-on production and marketing requirements. Often a system of occasional unannounced plant visits is used to confirm the plant’s status.
WHO IS AUTHORIZED TO ISSUE HALAL CERTIFICATES?
Any individual Muslim, Islamic organization, or agency can issue a halal certificate, but the acceptability of the certificate depends on the country of import or the Muslim community served through such certification. For example, to issue a halal certificate for products exported to Malaysia and Indonesia, the body issuing the halal certificate must be listed on each country’s approved list. More than 40 organizations issue halal certificates in the U.S., but only 5 have been approved by the Majelis Ulama Indonesia(MUI) and 16 by the Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia (JAKIM). Fifty percent of the certificates approved by JAKIM over the years are not even active in issuing halal certificates according to JAKIM sources. Malaysia and Indonesia are the only countries that have a formal program to approve a halal-certifying organization. Other countries such as Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Egypt, and Bahrain also do approvals of organizations for specific products or purposes.
WHICH PRODUCTS CAN BE CERTIFIED?
Any product consumed by Muslims can be certified, whether the product is consumed internally or applied to the body externally. Products that are used as medicine do not require halal certification in many countries; however, knowledgeable consumers look for medicines that meet halal guidelines, and halal certification might be a good investment even for medicines.
HALAL CERTIFICATION PROCESS
The halal certification process starts with choosing an organization that meets one’s needs for the markets to be serviced. If the target is a specific country, it is better to use an organization that is approved, recognized, or acceptable in that country. If the market areas are broader or even global, then an organization with an international scope would better meet one’s needs. The process starts with filling out an application explaining the production process, the products to be certified, and regions the products will be sold or marketed in, along with specific information about the component ingredients and manufacturing process and information about other products manufactured in the same facility. Most organizations review the information and set up an audit of the facility. At this time, it is advisable to negotiate the fees and clearly understand the costs involved. During the review of the ingredient information or the facility audit, the organization might ask for replacement of any ingredients that do not meet its guidelines. Generally, the company and the halal-certifying agency sign a multiyear supervision agreement. Then a halal certificate can be issued for a specific shipment of a product or for a given period of a few months to several years. Overall, the process for halal certification of food products is not complicated, as explained in Figure
• process review
• sanitation review
• ingredient review
• physical audit
Approval of facility
Records to the
Flowchart of the halal certification process
STEPS INVOLVED IN HALAL CERTIFICATION
* Filling out an application to the organization on paper or on the Internet.Figure shows a typical application.
* Review of the information by the organization, especially the type of product and its components.
* Inspection and approval of the facility. This includes review of the production equipment, inspection of ingredients, cleaning procedures, sanitation, and cross-contamination.
* For slaughterhouse, inspection involves review of holding areas, method of stunning, actual slaying, pre- and postslaughter handling, etc. Determining the cost and fees involved and signing of the contract.