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Requirements and Guidance

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1.1 Explain the welfare requirements and guidance of the relevant early year’s framework. Welfare requirements were bought in, in September 2008 as part of the EYFS welfare requirements and are compulsory. They are split into 5 groups. These are:

– Safeguarding and promoting children’s welfare – This has legal and statutory guidance. Under the general legal requirements, the provider must take necessary steps to safeguard and promote the welfare of children. The provider must promote the good health of children and take necessary steps to prevent cross infections, and take appropriate action when they are ill. And children’s behaviour must be managed effectively and in a manner appropriate for their stage of development and particular individual needs. The specific legal requirements and statutory guidance covers safeguarding, information and complaints, premises and security, outings, equality of opportunities. Medicines, illness and injuries, food and drink, smoking, behaviour management. – Suitable people – This is about the suitability of people to work with children including vetting procedures and training and fitness for work. It also covers child-staff ratios and this is dependent on the age of the children and the qualification levels of the staff. – Suitable premises, environment and equipment – This ensures that the children are looked after in environments and premises that are safe.

Many of the legal requirements apply to day to day activities such as checking that toys are safe and the outdoor environment is clean. – Organisation – this is more to do with the promotion of learning and development. This is where planning and organising of settings systems provide each child with fun, yet challenging learning and development experiences to meet the child’s individual needs. – Documentation – This is about the documentation and records that all settings should have, such as policies and procedures, risk assessments, emergency contact details and child record forms. These all have to be kept safe and confidential.

1.2 Explain the lines of reporting and responsibility within the work setting In my setting if we have a problem we go to the senior in the room, she should then go to the manager, or if the manager is not available then she should go to the assistant manager. 2.2 Explain systems for supporting children’s safety when: A) Receiving children into the setting

When receiving children into the setting we make sure they come in with a parent/carer. When receiving new children to join the setting all the correct paperwork is filled in the parents and child have settling in sessions. B) Ensuring their safety on departure

When a child leaves nursery at the end of the day we ensure they leave with a parent/carer if another person is picking up the nursery we make sure everyone knows the name and the password that has been given, the password is then checked at the door, this all has to be confirmed with a parent/carer before pick up. Each child is then signed out by a parent/carer and signed out by staff on a register. C) During off site visits

During offsite visits each child is either in a buggy or each child wears a wrist strap attached to a member of staff. The ratio on a walk is 1:2, on each walk there needs to be a head of unit, first aider, first aid bag, water and phones. A headcount is checked often and a outing and walks form is filled out of who is going on a walk, the ratio, time of departure and returning and were the walk is, the parents will then sign this either before the walk if it was pre-planned or when the child is picked up. 2.4 Explain, giving examples, why minimum requirements for: a) Space is necessary for children’s safety.

The space in each room in nursery is necessary for children’s safety. If there are too many children in a room it would become unsafe for the children as there wouldn’t be enough room to play and take part in activities. If a room is overcrowded for the amount of children it can cause more accidents, staff may not be able to care to a high standard. b) Staff ratios are necessary for children’s safety.

Staff ratio is very important for a child’s safety. The ratio for 0 – 2 years is 1:3, 2 – 3 is 1:4 and 3 years above is 1:8 this is set by the government and ofsted. This is to allow each practitioner to look after a correct amount of children at a safe level to ensure each child’s needs are met and not put in danger. 3.1 Explain how to promote children’s health and well being in an early years work setting. To promote positive health and wellbeing within an early years work setting, there are 6 holistic aspects of health which enable a child to feel happy, be fit and able to adapt and to develop to their full potential.1) Physical Health – this is how the body functions physically, and is the easiest “aspect of health” to measure.2) Emotional Health – this is how we express our feelings (i.e. joy and sadness) and how we cope with new, challenging or stressful situations.3) Mental Health – this is how we organise our thoughts and is linked to “emotional health” and “social health”.4) Social Health – this is how we form relationships and relate to others.5) Spiritual Health – this is the basis of our religious beliefs and practices, our own personal code of conduct and finding inner peace.6) Environmental Health – this is how an individual’s health is affected by the health of the society that they live in.

As well as these holistic aspects, children also need the following basic aspects in their lives to remain healthy.- Nutritious food and drink, a balanced and nutritious diet is essential.- Real play opportunities, these should be physical and stimulate a child’s senses, as well as giving them the opportunity of a variety of learning experiences.- Hands-on experiences, in a way that stimulates the child.- Love and support, to enable a child to be emotionally and socially healthy, this is achieved by allowing the child to form an “attachment relationship” with a key worker. The key worker will spend time with the child during the settling-in period and then on an ongoing daily basis.- A healthy and hygienic environment, by practising good personal hygiene routines and hygiene routines in the setting, this will help prevent the spread of infection and maintain children’s and adult’s health.- Protection, this is in relation to not only hazards and maintaining a safe environment, but also protection from infectious diseases.- Rest, Quiet periods of rest and adequate sleep are essential in ensuring that a child feels rested, refreshed and full of energy.

Children also need sleep because their brain is developing and their bodies are growing.- Appropriate accommodation, There must be adequate ventilation and fresh air within a setting to help prevent the spread of sneezes and coughs, but the room temperature should be maintained between 18 and 21⁰C (16 and 20⁰C in the sleeping room of babies) and that there are no draughts.Children must be given opportunity to play outdoors. They must be dressed appropriately for the weather and the activities they are joining in. 3.2 Describe the roles of key health professionals and sources of professional advice in promoting positive health and well being for early year’s children and their families and carers. The roles of key health professionals are as follows: – School nurse she will offer advice to parents on the health of their child and she will carry out hearing checks, give advice on to parents regarding their child’s toilet habits, advice on skin tags and rashes gives information on whether the child needs to visit their GP, this can all be done in the setting.

They will monitor the health of the children and also give advice to schools.- Audiologist they will measure the child’s hearing levels- Dentist gives advice on how to keep teeth and gums healthy.- Dieticians work to give advice on the right nutrients the child needs and from what foods to get them. – GP doctors are usually one of the first people to see the child and can give care to the child and the family and make the right referrals if required.- Paediatrician they specialise in working with children with health problems.- Speech therapists they help children with speech, language and communication difficulties and give advice to settings and parents. – Physiotherapists help children with coordination and their movement resulting from injury, illness or a medical condition. – Psychologists will work with a child with behavioural or learning difficulty.- Optometrist will examine the child’s eyesight and prescribe glasses if needed. – Health visitor they work with GPs to give support to children and their families they can give advice to parents regarding the child’s health and development. Works with families from when a child is 10 days old and records its weight and height.

They carry out age milestone checks on the children and refer any concerns that they may have to the GP.Parent’s permission must always be given before making referrals 4.3 Explain how to prepare and store food, formula and breast milk safely according to health and safety guidelines Babies between the ages of birth to 24 months have immune systems that are still developing, leaving them more susceptible to germs and bacteria. A bacterium that comes in contact with an older child or adult may not have the same impact that it will have on a baby, which is why it is extremely important that food safety be managed diligently.In my setting, food is prepared, stored and cooked hygienically. Kitchen area is clean all the time and anyone handling foods have “Food & Safety Certificate” and good personal hygiene. Anyone handling food washes her/his hands with hot water and soap before touching any foods. We have colour codes for chopping boards, knives cleaning up equipments such as mops etc.

Aprons ad hats are essential to wear in food area.We provide food for babies in our setting, parents can provide food if their child has allergies but otherwise we don’t encourage them to bring their own. We store the baby food on room temperature only till one hour and there is no direct physical contact with food(aprons and gloves are used ). We sterilise cutlery on daily basis. Storing food at right temperature.We store food in refrigerator at right temperature which is 0 degree centigrade to 5 degree centigrade. We store food in deep freezer at -18 degree centigrade or below. Preparing formula feed.We are not permitted to make up bottles in my setting, the parents must bring them in already made up and we will keep them in the fridge to then heat up when the child needs it. We will then boil the kettle and fill a jug with hot water and put the made up bottle into the water, then once the bottle has been in for about 5 minutes I would check it on the back of my wrist to check the temperature. Formula milk is ready to use if the temperature is right for child to use.

Storing breast milk.If any parent brings breast milk for her child, we store this milk properly in fridge at 4 degree centigrade according to recommended guideline. Expressed breast milk is stored in sterile bottles or containers to prevent bacteria growth and is always handled with clean hands. We store breast milk only for one day. We shake bottle properly before using 5.1 Identify balanced meals, snacks and drinks for children in their early years, following current government guidance on nutritional needs. The term ‘balanced’ diet is often used in connection with healthy eating. A balanced diet is one in which there are sufficient nutrients in the right quantities for children and adults (Penny Tassoni). Within the welfare requirements of the Early Years Foundation Stage there is a requirement that, where children are provided with meals, snacks and drinks, they must be healthy, balanced and nutritious. However, even with proper guidance it is clear that there is a need for training on infant and toddler nutrition for all practitioners in childcare settings, to help them to interpret guidelines for the production of nutritionally balanced meals and snacks.

Healthy eating for under-fives differs significantly from that for school-age children and adults. For growth, young children need a plentiful source of energy from carbohydrates and fats, alongside protein, vitamins and minerals. This can be achieved by ensuring that, every day; children eat from the four main food groups: bread, cereals and potatoes fruit and vegetables milk and dairy foods meat, fish, eggs and vegetarian proteins (e.g. beans, pulses, and soya). Children normally do not get enough calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin D & E. Sources of these nutrients are listed below: – Fiber, whole grains, fruits and vegetables- Vitamin E, nuts, seeds, wheat germ oil and vegetable oils – Calcium, low fat and fat free dairy products, rhubarb, spinach, collard greens, and sardines – Magnesium, whole grains, nuts, pumpkin seeds, and white, black, navy beans – Potassium, legumes, potatoes, dried apricots, beet greens, prune juice and dairy products – Vitamin D, sunshine, fortified dairy and juice, cod liver oil, salmon, tuna and mackerel The menu is planned very carefully in my setting considering children’s age and food requirements.

5.2 Recognize why it is important to follow carers’ instructions in respect of their child’s food allergies or intolerances It is important to follow parent instruction because some children may not be allowed to eat certain food such as nuts, tomatoes, food colouring such as (curry), eggs, and milk as their bodies react to them, and intolerance can cause children to develop health problems like skin condition. It can also be fatal in some cases if the body goes into anaphylactic shock, which causes your lungs to swell and have breathing difficulty. If preparing a child meal, check manufactures label for content products such as nuts. Many chocolate and cake have a certain trace of nuts and all staff caring for children should be aware of children in their care with these food requirements. In my setting we cater for children with allergies and their intolerances. All their food is prepared in the kitchen separately from other foods.

Only the cook or if the cook is not present on the day a senior member of staff would prepare and dish the child’s food. The child food is always prepared in the kitchen the food will then be brought in the rooms in the designated plate which is red where a qualified staff would have to check the food. The senior member off staff sits with the child at all meal times until the child has finished eating and the child is clean and placed away from the area were they could eat or pick food off the floor that can cause serious complications. 5.3 Identify the dietary requirements of different cultural or religious groups. Within my setting there are different cultural and ethnic groups, within these groups we have to follow all the relevant information and instructions from their parent or career relating to what type of food they can or cannot eat. All the information is documented and the key worker for the child will make sure that when lunch or tea is made there is a relevant substitute given to the child whom they are allowed to eat and has the required amount of healthy goodness for the child.

The children and parents have to be respected in every way possible regarding what type of food they would like their child to eat at the setting, like for example some parents prefer their children to eat brown bread only and when they are having drinks to make sure they drink a lot more water than milk.The setting represents different cultural beliefs in relation to what type of food they eat and we have placed all different cultural foods pictures on the wall so that the children learn about diversity. 5.4 Describe methods of educating children and adults in effective food management. In our setting we encourage the children to talk about food and what type of food they are eating, we have food cards with various types of food on them and we ask the children to identify the food and say whether it is healthy or unhealthy.The children like to draw and colour different types of fruits and vegetables, they will tell us if they have had anything different or special at home.

The parents and careers are always included in everything that their child has been up to. All the parents and careers notify the setting about their child’s eating habits whether they have got better or if they are not eating a certain type of food group so that we are prepared if a child is not going to try it. We have various healthy eating leaflets at the setting we will give them to the parents so that they can have a read and see which foods are good and essential for good development for their child. Some children may experience problems in being underweight these issues may occur due to being under stress or having an illness that has not been recognized. If a child is physically fit and is eating a healthy diet then there is no concern but if they are constantly feeling weak and tired and losing a considerable amount of weight then medical advice should be pursued.When a child is overweight it may cause some damages effect to their health especially if they are unable to participate in any physical activities. The cause of this could be to feeling low within themselves or bullying.

A nutritionist or health visitor may need to be consulted to help parents to deal with this situation and to maintain a healthy diet for their child so that they do not become very ill as there is a lot of things that can affect their health if not maintaining the required body mass for their age range and very dangerous for their health,.Some children also incur food phobias which make them unable to eat certain types of food. If this happens it will have to be resolved very quickly and in a way that the child will enjoy eating the food that they do not like. Most children who have these types of problems generally do not like the food that is good for them to grow and maintain healthy bones. If the parent gains help from their GP or nursery or School to help them to make the child enjoying the food that they do not like by making it more interesting for them to be excited to eat it. 6.2 Explain the regulations concerning management of medicines and how these are interpreted in the work setting In the setting, prescribed medicine and non-prescribed medicine (i.e. calpol, ibuprofen, cough medicine or teething gel.) will be administered with a signed a permission form from the parent. Even though a form will have been signed to keep on record, the parent will be contacted by phone to check that the medicine can still be administered. All medicine is stored correctly and checked to make sure it is still within its expiry date.

All medicine given to administer must be in its original bottle/container and not decanted. It must have the manufacturers guidelines on it and, if it’s prescribed medication, it must have details from the Doctor/pharmacy. If the child requires medicine and a form has not been signed, the parent will be contacted to ask permission and then the permission form will be signed when the child is collected. To protect the child, the parent and the setting, parents needs to inform the setting of any medication the child has had within the last 24 hours prior to arriving in the setting. The setting needs to know what medicine they have had, the dose given and the time it was given. I will keep written records of all medicines administered to children in my care. 6.3 Explain how to protect themselves when lifting and handling children and equipment in the work setting. The Manual Handling Regulations 1992 make it a legal requirement for schools/settings to carry out Risk Assessments.If lifting or carrying pupils/children or equipment training should be given. Only lift if necessary and use any appropriate equipment provided. Again training for this should be provided. Share the load if necessary. Bend knees and keep back straight. Schools should have a manual lifting policy. As with the Health and Safety at work act, adults have a responsibility to care for themselves.

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