Reaction Paper on Public Management
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* 11. Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.11Humanistic PerspectiveLed by Mary Parker Follett and Chester BarnardIt was Mary Parker Follett who defined management as getting things done through peopleImportance of understanding human behaviors: needs, attitudes and social interactionsHuman Relations MovementHuman Resources PerspectiveBehavioral Sciences0 * 12. Humanistic PerspectiveEmphasized understanding human behavior.Dealt with needs & attitudes in the workplace.Truly effective control comes from within the individual worker rather than authoritarian control.Hawthorne Studies brought this perspective to forefront. * 13. Humanistic PerspectiveThree Sub-FieldsHuman Relations Movement.Human Resources Perspective.Behavioral Sciences Approach. * 14. Hawthorne StudiesHuman Relations MovementTen year study.Four experimental & three control groups.Five different tests.Test pointed to factors other than illumination for productivity.
1st Relay Assembly Test Room experiment, was controversial, test lasted 6 years.Interpretation, money not cause of increased output.Factor that increased output, Human Relations. * 15. Hawthorne StudiesStudy was initiated to at Hawthorne plant of Western Electric- an unit of AT&T to study effects of changes in lighting on productivityPart of unit was divided into experimental group and control groupNo change in lighting was effected in control group but light was enhanced in experimental group from 24 to 46 to 70’ candles- productivity went up in both groupsThen lighting of experimental group was reduced gradually to below normal but without any change in control group – productivity continued to increase in both groups * 16. Hawthorne StudiesProductivity of experimental group finally started to decline when lighting was reduced to moon light level and visibility got affected.It proved that something other than lighting caused changes in productivityAnother experiment was conducted in Relay Assembly Test Room for 6 years.
In this test relationship amongst rest, fatigue and productivity were also examined. * 17. Hawthorne StudiesFirst the normal productivity was measuredThen production based pay system was introduced without any change in working conditions for 8 weeksThen two rest pauses of 5 minutes each were introduced at 10 am and 2 pm In next stage girls were given light lunch during pausesIn next stage workday was reduced by half hourIn next stage workday was reduced by one hourIn next stage 5 day week initiatedGradual rise in output continued till here * 18. Hawthorne StudiesThen original work pattern without any pause, lunch and full work hrs introduced and productivity measured for 12 weeks.Productivity declined but not to original levels meaning physical conditions did not have impactChange in output could be related to attitudes and social factors at work placeWorkers enjoyed getting attention.
This is known as Hawthorne effect. * 19. Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.19Human Relations Movement0Control comes from the individual worker rather than authoritarian controlThe Hawthorne studies found increased output due to managers’ better treatment of employeesMoney mattered a great dealProductivity increased from feelings of importanceCreated a focus on positive treatment of employees * 20. Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.20Human Resources Perspective0Emphasizes understanding human behavior, needs and attitudes in the workplace.Perspective came from the idea that cows gave more milk when they were more satisfiedMaintains an interest in worker participation. Focus on job tasks and theories of motivationReduce dehumanizing or demeaning workAllow workers to use full potential Main contributors: Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregorMaslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsMcGregor’s Theory X/Theory Y * 21. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
* 22. Abraham Maslow sought to explain why a need become driving at some time and some other needs at some other timeMaslow’s answer is that human needs are arranged in a hierarchy, from the most pressing to the least pressingPhysiological needs – food, shelter most potentPsychological needs like safety, social, esteem and self actualisation are potent in that orderIt says that person shall fulfill its most important need first at least to a minimum level and only then the next level need shall activate * 23. OrganizationalExamplesGeneralExamplesAbraham Maslow’s HierarchySelf-actualizationChallenging JobSelf-fulfillmentEsteemJob TitleStatusBelongingFriendsFriendshipSafetyRetirement PlanStabilityPhysiologicalShelterWagesBased on needs satisfaction
* 24. Douglas McGregor’s Theory X & Theory YTheory X People are lazyPeople lack ambition Dislike responsibilityPeople are self-centeredPeople don’t like changePeople need close supervisionTheory Y People are energeticPeople want to make contributionsPeople do have ambitionPeople will seek responsibilityConsider work as natural as rest & play * 25. Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.25Theory X and Theory Y0 * 26. Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.26Behavioral Sciences Approach0Scientific methods that draw from sociology, psychology, anthropology, economics and other disciplinesFocus on human behavior and interactionOrganizational development came from behavioral sciences approachApplied behavioral sciences to improve organizational health and effectiveness
* 27. Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.27Management Science Perspective0Developed to meet changing and dynamic environment created from WWIIEngaged mathematics, statistics and quantitative techniques to aid in decision makingIncreased study of management led by Peter DruckerUse of technology and programming for optimizing operationsIntroduced new subsets of management:Operations ResearchOperations ManagementInformation Technology * 28. Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.28Recent Historical Trends0Systems Theory. A holistic view of management as a interrelated parts to achieve a common purpose.Contingency View. Successful resolution of organizational problems depends on situations.Total Quality Management. Management of the total organization to deliver quality.
* 29. Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.29The Systems View of Organizations0 * 30. Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.30Contingency View of Management0 * 31. Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.31Total Quality Management0W. Edward Deming, known as the father of the quality movementUS initially scoffed at DemingDuring the 1908s and 1990s, quality became a focus to meet global competitionFour key elements of quality management:Employee involvementFocus on customerBenchmarkingContinuous improvement
* 32. Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.32The Learning Organization0Learning aids in the adaptation to changePeter Senge began the discussion about the learning organizationAll employees are engaged in identifying and solving problemsLearning increases the capacity to learn and growMove from efficiency to solving problems * 33. 33Managing the Technology-Driven Workplace0Most work is performed on computers in today’s workplaceCompanies use technology to communicate and collaborateKey technologies in today’s workplace:Supply Chain ManagementCustomer Relationship ManagementOutsourcing * 34. 34Supply Chain for a Retail Organization0
* 35. Management Science PerspectiveEmerged after WW II.Distinguished for its application of mathematics, statistics to problem solving.Operations Research emerged.Operations Management emerged.Management Information Systems emerged.
Mary Parker Follett was a prominent business philosopher of the period, who agreed with Sheldon about the need to emphasize human factors in management, but placing greater stress on the need to develop a science of cooperation. According to Follett, what she called her ‘Law of the Situation’ could be a means for bridging the gap between an ideal of scientific management and the unilateral position that it seemed to involve in practice. In effect she was proposing the same collaboration between leaders and subordinates that was usually to be found between leaders of the same rank.