Promoting Second Language Acquisition Rhonda Baker
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Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP), is a high quality instruction model, that guides teachers of English Language Learners (ELL) in providing well planed lessons, to enable students to be successful in second language acquisition. The SIOP is research-based, and field-tested as well as being closely aligned to ELL and State content language standards. The purposes of this paper is to create and describe a SIOP model lesson plan, and identify and provide a rationale. The SIOP lesson plan identifies the content, language standards and language objectives for learners, as well as some specific teaching strategies facilitated by the teacher. The lesson plan rationale describes the language acquisition theories that influenced the writing of the SIOP model lesson plan. All of these together provide the necessary supports that ELL need in order for second language acquisition to be successful. Lesson Planning in the SIOP Model: Lesson Plan Rationale
This first grade lesson plan is designed for multi-leveled, English Language Learners (ELL), in the content area of writing, in a mainstream classroom, using the model from the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP). The SIOP helps teachers become more proficient in connecting language and content in their instruction, and increases their ability to accommodate different levels of proficiency of ELL as well as various learning abilities in their classrooms. (Echevarria, Vogt, and Short, 2008)
From the scores on an observation matrix, or any other testing an educator can decide on how to address the State and the English Language Proficiency Standards through lesson plans based on the student’s proficiency skills. Both sets of standards should be used and displayed to the staff in order to stay focused on the student’s goals, to be sure the lesson is addressing the students needs, to promote progress and to set up oral-language-use situations. (Peregoy and Boyle, 2008)
The New York State Standards in the area of ELA that concur with this writing lesson plan are; New York State ELA Standards: Writing
NYS Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen and speak Language for Literary Response and Expression.
NYS Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation. (NYSDOE, 2011) As listeners and readers, students will analyze experiences, ideas, information, and issues presented by others using a variety of established criteria. As speakers and writers, they will present, in oral and written language and from a variety of perspectives, their opinions and judgments on experiences, ideas, information and issues. The standards are addressed in this lesson plan as the students are asked to read, write, listen and speak to produce text and performance to personal experiences while sharing their perspective on experiences with issues. (NYSDOE, 2011)
The Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) standards set is globally used and influences the lesson plan by describing specific goals about Language which is aligned with the content area. Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL):
Goal 1, Standard 2: To use English to communicate in social settings: Students will interact in, through, and with spoken and written English for personal expression and enjoyment. Goal 2, Standard 2: To use English to achieve academically in all content areas: Students will use English to obtain, process, construct, and provide subject matter information in spoken and written form. English language learners use written communication for a variety of purposes and audiences. Writing can be used to express meaning through drawing, symbols, or text. English language learners may come with writing styles influenced by their home cultures.
Language and Content Objectives
The primary objective of this lesson plan is to engage all students in reading, writing, listening and speaking while embedding ideas for the prevention of bullying. This writing lesson is designed to improve writing skills, and the motivation to write, by using personal experiences, and sharing feelings and in addition expressing needs. It is presented with multi-sensory strategies to incorporate the ELL and students with varying learning styles. The NYS standards and the TESOL standards are addressed in this lesson. The students are introduced to content vocabulary through strategies such as using single words or simple phrases, and constructing meaning from text through illustrations, graphs, and maps. The students will be encouraged to use general academic vocabulary and familiar everyday expressions. Students are facilitated to construct meaning from texts by relating their background knowledge to build on a wide range of personal, general, academic, or social topics in a variety of contexts. Learning Strategies Employed
Strategies for this SIOP lesson were chosen after viewing the content and language standards as well as using the language acquisition theories. The strategies chosen were technology, drawings, acting out parts of books, sharing feelings and past experiences, scaffolding, collaboration, graphic organizers, re-writes and Author’s chair. All of these strategies promote second language acquisition. (Peregoy &Boyle, 2008)
Comparing and Contrasting Language Acquisition Theory
Acquisition and learning are two separate processes. Learning is knowing about a language (formal knowledge). Acquisition is the unconscious process that occurs when language is used in real conversation. Two acquisition theories I chose to compare are Interactionist and Krashen’s Five Hypothesis. Interactionist; The interactionist perspective of second language acquisition relies on comprehensible input, but interactionists believe that the natural communication between native and non-native speakers is the key element in second language acquisition. The learner will participate in natural but focused communication with teachers and peers. Through this process the ELL will acquire vocabulary, and basic grammar structures. Interactionists believe that ELL should not be forced into speaking, and that communication will occur in natural settings, when the learner is comfortable in doing so. Errors in output will be corrected naturally as language develops and comprehension and vocabulary increases. (Peregoy & Boyle, 2008)
Krashen’s Five Hypotheses; Krashen believed that there is a distinct difference between learning a second language and acquiring a second language. He felt that formal study of language leads to proper grammar structures. He strongly believed that motivation, confidence, and anxiety, have an effect on second language acquisition. (Peregoy & Boyle, 2008)
Commonalities between the two theories are that comprehensible input is significantly important, there is positive and natural communication in the classroom, grammar is learned naturally. Unique to the Interactionist the students talk only when it is natural in a give and take role and errors are corrected naturally as language develops. Social communication and natural settings are the most important aspects of second language acquisition. Students are corrected for mistakes in speaking. Language learning is unstructured but focused. This theory is very influenced by adults, nature & nurture in language acquisition process. (Peregoy & Boyle, 2008)
Unique to the Krashen’s Hypotheses is his thinking on the difference between learning and acquiring a second language. He believed in studying language formally to learn proper grammar. He studied motivation, confidence and anxiety and believed they had a huge impact on second language acquisition. (Peregoy & Boyle, 2008) CLASS: 1st Grade Inclusion Classroom
New York State ELA Standards: Writing
NYS Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen and speak Language for Literary Response and Expression.
NYS Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical
analysis and evaluation. (NYSDOE, 2011) TESOL ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY STANDARDS:
Goal 1, Standard 2: To use English to communicate in social settings: Students will interact in, through, and with spoken and written English for personal expression and enjoyment. Goal 2, Standard 2: To use English to achieve academically in all content areas: Students will use English to obtain, process, construct, and provide subject matter information in spoken and written form. THEME: Hooway for Wodney Wat- After reading this book allowed to the class, students will participate in activities to improve writing and learn about preventing bullying. CURRICULUM CONCEPTS:
The primary objective of this lesson plan is to engage all students in reading, writing, listening and speaking while embedding ideas for the prevention of bullying. OBJECTIVES:
1. Students will recognize the positive character traits (such as tolerance, honesty, self-discipline, respectfulness, and kindness) to relationships, the benefit to relationships which include understanding and respecting individual differences, and the detrimental effect of prejudice. 2. Students will act out a page in the book for the purposes of creating an informative class presentation. Students will draw a picture of a character after choosing a vocabulary word and copying it on an index card. Students will understand key vocabulary terms.
1. Students will effectively use language in a group setting of their peers to verbally communicate information. 2. Students will retell their re-write of the story through a class presentation in “Authors Chair”. 3. Students will describe values using appropriate content vocabulary both through writing. LEARNING STRATEGIES:
Initial Lecture (KWL), drawings, collaborative group act, discussion on personal events, graphic organizer, self assessment, Author’s chair KEY VOCABULARY:
rodant, rat, teasing, bullying, tolerance, honesty, self-discipline, respectfulness, and kindness MATERIALS:
One copy of Howay Fow Wodney Wat, Smart Board, computer projection screen, teacher created graphic organizer, KWL chart MOTIVATION (building background):
(Accessing prior knowledge) Begin lesson with a discussion of bullying after reading the book. Ask the following questions to create a class discussion: Do you think it was frustrating for Rodney when he wasn’t able to pronounce his R’s? How do you think he felt when the other students couldn’t understand him? What could they have done to make him feel more at ease?
Do you think Rodney ever learned to pronounce his R’s?
Have you ever felt uneasy about something you were not able to do? Discussion Questions: What is a rodent? Why did Rodney answer the kids’ questions if he knew they would laugh at him? How was Rodney feeling when he hid inside his jacket? What do you think will happen with Camilla in the class? What did Camilla do to prove she was smart? Why would the other rodents feel uncomfortable with Camilla in the class? Do you think Rodney felt excited when the teacher picked his name to lead Simon Says? Why? What was Camilla supposed to do instead of pulling up weeds during the game? Why did Rodney’s voice keep becoming stronger? Why did Rodney feel so much better at the end of the story? If you got your hair cut and you are being teased what would you do? Have you ever felt uneasy about something you were not able to do? 2. (Using technology resources)
Teacher will use the classroom’s promethean board to create a bar graph that illustrates the class’ places of bullying incidents. Teacher will ask for student volunteer’s to describe the place when they were bullied (bus, hall, sports, gym, classroom). Graph the results to see where the most frequent place students were bullied. Following the completion of the graph the teacher will call on to identify which has the most and least incidences. The students will write a sentence that tells the place where bullying happens the most. 3. (KWL) Teacher will create a KWL chart and facilitate a discussion about bullying. Teacher will ask students to give examples of what they already know about bullying and respect, and what they would like to know. Student discussion topics and answers will be displayed on the chart in a concise but explicit manner.
Teacher will give an introductory lecture on the importance of treating people with respect and strategies for bullying. (Word wall) Teacher will have a word wall in the front of the room with the vocabulary terms; PRESENTATION (language & content objectives, comprehensible input, strategies): 1. Read the book, watch a movie, draw a picture of the character and tell how you would treat him if he asked to join a game you were playing, write a letter saying how it felt to be the character, write about time you were bullied, write about a time you bullied, When kids are bullied at school why draw a picture, how can you treat someone with respect, write a letter to a bully to say how it makes you feel 2. Teacher will explain that in groups of two the students will draw pictures of a character in the story who is demonstrating a specific vocabulary word they have chosen. 3. Teacher will inform students that they will be presenting drawings in front of the class. 4. Teacher will lead students to create graphic organizer to rewrite the story to change a behavior.
PRACTICE/APPLICATION (meaningful activities, interactions, strategies, practice/application, and feedback) (Collaborative learning) Teacher will break students up into carefully planned groups of three, diversely grouping ELLs and special needs learners with high level typical students who have demonstrated the ability to support and understand the needs of their classmates. 2. Students will be instructed to practice their personal speaking parts within their group, being sure to strive for correct usage of key vocabulary terms. REVIEW/ASSESSMENT (review objectives and vocabulary, assess learning): Following the completion of the PowerPoint presentations, students will be assessed on each recipe through a teacher created assessment that models the outlines students used to record information during peer presentations. 2. (KWL) Teacher will return to the KWL chart, and through class discussion, the learned section of the chart will be completed. LESSON EXTENSION
Have a conversation to generate ways in which Camilla (The bully) could have behaved differently, and what the end result would have been. Have the students do a re-write. A future assignment will involve students tracking their personal nutritional consumption throughout one whole day.
In conclusion we must prepare our students to be problem solvers. Teaching them to write and advocate for human writes is a strong way of preparing them for the real world. As teachers we must portray an attitude that we are all on the same team to continually educate our selves and respect each other. It is important to scaffold instruction, engaging students in language opportunities through visual, text, hands on and auditory activities. Assessments should also be created dependent upon the ELL’s language comprehension so growth can continue to be measured in fluency, comprehension, phonics, and phonemes. Using the SIOP model will help teachers to develop rich language model structures across all of the curriculum content. People learn best by actively participating in the learning process and when they can connect new knowledge to something they already know. Repetition helps learning because learners are most likely to make connections to existing knowledge when they deal with new material several times.
Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., & Short, D. (2008). Making content comprehensible for English learners the SIOP model (3rd Ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc. New York State Department of Education. (2011). Learning Standards for English Language Arts. Retrieved July 18, 2011, from http://www.p12.nysed.gov/ciai/standards.html Peregoy, S. F., & Boyle, O. F. (2008). Reading, writing, and learning in ESL: A resource book for teaching k-12 English learners. Boston, MA: Pearson. Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. (TESOL). (2007). ESL standards for pre K-12 students: Grades pre-K-3. Retrieved July 17, 2011, from, http://www.tesol.org/s_tesol/sec_document.asp?CID=281&DID=13323