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People in Business

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This unit of assignment will be based on Primark plc. I have chosen Primark as a case study to get information that will help me to produce a constructive piece of work.

In the first part of my assignment I will write about the job roles in Primark business. This include the role of manages, supervisors and employees. To extend this I will look into the responsibilities of each chain of command.

To achieve the first assessment objective successfully, I will give a detailed description of the qualities, skills and qualification that are required for each of the mentioned roles. In addition, I will explain the degree of decision making and problem solving accompanied with each role. Terms and conditions of every role will be described using as much detail as possible. Furthermore training and development opportunities available within the business will also take into account and also conclude the first part of the assignment and describe in depth the way in which motivation is used in the business. I will ensure that a detailed description of the relevant PEST factors in the business will also be provided. Importantly I will illustrate the role and responsibilities using detailed and realistic examples.


The primary objective of this write up is to bring to bear the unique Roles, Responsibilities and key tasks of three strategic corporate players; Manager, Administrative Supervisor and Retail Salesperson and also outline their various distinctive contributions, qualities, skills and qualifications as well as their terms and conditions of employment for a successful operations in Primark.

A leader is a person who leads whereas a manager is one who manages. A good place to start is with the basic definitions. The biggest difference between a leader and a manager is the way in which they motivate people. In life nothing is black or white, everything is a different shade of grey. In the same way a manager can be a leader and vice versa. So, we can have a mixture of both. But my primary focus is not on “Leaders” but on “Managers”.

Management or definitions of managers will tell you that they have subordinates. Managers are given some powers by the company and the subordinates have to do as they are told. The incentive for a subordinate to do what the manager says is the reward that is given. But this chain of command work as a team for a successful business.

Every organization needs timely and effective office and administrative support to operate efficiently. Office and administrative support Supervisors and Managers coordinate this support. These workers are employed in virtually every sector of the economy, working in positions as varied as teller supervisor, customer services manager, or shipping and receiving supervisor.

Although specific functions of Administrative Supervisors and Managers vary significantly, they share many common duties. For example, Supervisors perform administrative tasks to ensure that their staffs can work efficiently. Equipment and machinery used in their departments must be in good working order. If they haven’t receive the stuff that thy have order, they will see to it that they get the stuff that they have order.

With this brief Introduction of the three different employees within Primark, I will like to elaborate each chain of command and highlight their distinctive roles, responsibilities and key task to gain better perspective and understanding of their functional and relationship in business.


The company that I am writing about is Primark. Primark is a retail group in the value sector and operates a total of 173 stores in Ireland, where it trades under the Penney’s brand; Spain and the UK. Primark employs in excess of 25,000 people. In GB, in terms of market share, TNS ranks Primark as GB’s second largest clothing retailer by volume and Verdict Research now places Primark as the leading retailer in value clothing. Primark was voted ‘Best Value High Street Fashion’ by GMTV and ITV viewers.

Primark Stores Ltd is a subsidiary of Associated British Foods. Associated British Foods is a diversified international food, ingredients and retail group with global sales of 6.8bn, and 85,000 employees in 43 countries.

In the financial year 2006/7, 32 new stores were opened and five smaller stores were closed to give 4.8 million sq ft of retail selling space. Highlights during the year included the opening of London’s Oxford Street store in April. This was extremely successful, selling one million items in its first ten days of trading, and attracting considerable media coverage. The 85,000 sq ft Liverpool store was opened in September and was greeted with a similar level of enthusiasm both by customers and media. The new store openings in 2006/7 also included Primark’s second store in Spain. Since the year end, two additional stores have opened in Spain; in Jerez and a further store in Madrid. Primark now has 25 stores trading from over 50,000 sq ft of which eight trades from over 70,000 sq ft.




Administrative managers in Primark coordinate and direct the many support services that allow organizations to operate efficiently. They perform a broad range of duties. They might, for example, oversee secretarial and administration, payroll, conference planning and travel, information and data processing, mail, materials scheduling and distribution, printing and reproduction, records management, telecommunications management, security, parking, energy consumption, and personal property procurement, supply, recycling, and disposal. The administrative manager in Primark activities corers four main areas of planning, organizing, motivating and controlling. The administrative manager has role in tactical planning such as setting budgets or marketing campaign. This is a short term focus which is usually made at the lower level of business. As an organizer, it has to implement plans i.e. decide the activities that needs to be done at the store and allocate responsibilities. For example allocating staff needed to work on a task and resource needed to fulfill that task. To achieve this highest standard of results, the pay rise, promotion, car incentive. Most of these motivation pea cases are approved by manager. The administrative manager also monitors and evaluates the performance of staff and business. It monitor performance against required standards ensure that corrective action are place in place for sustained business.

Specific duties for managers in Primark vary by degree of responsibility and authority. First line administrative managers in Primark directly supervise staffs that perform various support services. Mid level managers in Primark, on the other hand, develop departmental plans, set goals and deadlines, implement procedures to improve productivity and customer service, and define the responsibilities of supervisory level managers. Some mid level administrative managers in Primark oversee first line supervisors from various departments, including the clerical staff. Mid-level managers in Primark also may be involved in the hiring and dismissal of employees, but they generally have no role in the formulation of personnel policy. Some of these managers in Primark advance to upper level positions, such as vice president of administrative services.

In small organizations, a single administrative manager may oversee all support services. In larger ones, however, first line administrative managers in Primark often report to mid level managers who, in turn, report to owners or top level managers, sometimes called director of administration, or vice president of administration.


The nature of managerial jobs varies as significantly as the range of administrative required by organizations. For example, Managers in Primark have administrative skills, customer services, motivation, Negotiation, administrative, Financial and budget skills communication skills.

Again, Primark administrative managers acquire Policy formulation, monitoring and evaluation, mentoring, effective decision making and skills for their successful business conduct.

In addition to the above, persons interested in becoming administrative managers in Primark have good leadership and communication skills and be able to establish effective working relationships with many different people, ranging from managers, supervisors, and professionals, to clerks and blue-collar workers. They have used analytical, flexibility, and decisive stills. They use these qualities and skills to coordinate several activities, analyzed them and resolved specific problems, and meet tight deadlines.


Education and experience requirement for managers in Primark vary widely, depending on the size and complexity of the store. In small store unit, experience may be the only requirement needed to enter a position as an office manager. When an opening in administrative services management occurs, the office manager may be promoted to the position based on past performance. In large store unit, however, administrative managers normally are hired from outside and each position have formal education and experience requirements. Some administrative managers Primark have advance degrees.

Primark specific requirements vary by job responsibility. In the Primark management, prefer to hire people who have an associate degree in business or management, although a high school diploma may suffice when combined with appropriate experience. Whatever the manager’s educational background, it must be accompanied by related work experience reflecting their ability. For this reason, many administrative managers have advanced through the ranks of their organization, acquiring work experience in various administrative positions before assuming first-line supervisory duties.


There are terms and conditions governing every institution and companies are of no exception. In Primark most has fixed written terms known as Employment Contract, and for any Primark Administrative manager to work, he/she must sign the contract. This document sets out the standard terms and conditions of the provision of services where you, the manager, are supplying business or management services to a client on your terms.

In Primark a set of standard terms and conditions, is useful when they are to be employed which is compatible with UK employment law and regulation and Europe working directives.


Most administrative managers in small organizations in Primark advance by moving to top management positions or to a larger organization. Advancement is easier in large firms that employ several levels of administrative services managers. Attainment of the Certified Manager (CM) in Primark designation offered by the Institute of Certified Professional Managers (ICPM), through education, work experience, and successful completion of examinations, can enhance a manager’s advancement potential. In addition, a master’s degree in business administration or a related field enhances a first-level manager’s opportunities to advance to a mid-level management position, such as director of administrative services, and eventually to a top-level management position, such as executive vice president for administrative services. Those with enough money and experience can establish their own management consulting firm. Methods like job shadowing, job rotation, sitting with Nellie; coaching, mentoring and computer-based training can be delivered on-the-job.

Administrative managers held about 247,000 jobs in 2006. About 65 percent worked in service-providing industries, most of the remaining managers worked in wholesale and retail trade, in management of companies and enterprises, or in manufacturing.


There are two major incentives for motivation: Financial and nonfinancial incentives:

Earnings of administrative services managers in Primark vary greatly. It depends on the speciality, and the geographic are: For Example manager in London earns 2 more than those in Northampton. I.e. managers in cities received more incentive peacase because of London weighting. In general, however, median annual earnings of wage and salary administrative services managers in May 2006 were 67,690.In Primark the middle 50 percent earned between 48,200 and 90,350. The lowest 10 percent earned less than 34,970, and the highest 10 percent earned more than 117,610.

Non-financial motivation fringe benefits like car, cheap travel, holiday and vouchers. Good condition of work: Flexible working hour’s holidays can also bring motivation in work. Opportunities for development, promotion and interest in the job can bring motivation.

In Primark other forms of incentives are given to administrative managers. Like vacation trips and all paid pleasure vacations are also some of the great motivators that administrative managers enjoy in other to give off their best.


All organizations in Primark need timely and effective office and administrative support to operate efficiently. In Primark Office and administrative supervisors and managers coordinate this support. These workers are employed in virtually every sector of the economy, working in positions as varied as teller supervisor, or shipping and receiving supervisor.


Although specific functions of office and administrative support supervisors and managers vary significantly, they share many common duties. For example, in Primark supervisors perform administrative tasks to ensure that their staffs can work efficiently. Equipment and machinery used in Primark departments must be in good working order. If delivering of clothes goes down, the supervisors must try to correct the problem. They also request new equipment or supplies for their department when necessary.

Lower level planning work and supervising staff in Primark are key functions of this job. To do these effectively, the supervisor must know the strengths and weaknesses of each member of staff, as well as the resources required and time allotted to each job. Supervisors in Primark make allowance for unexpected staff absences and other disruptions by adjusting assignments or performing the work themselves if the situation requires it.

After allocating work assignments and issuing deadlines, Primark office and administrative supervisors oversee the work to ensure that it is proceeding on schedule and meeting established quality standards. This may involve reviewing each person’s work on a computer as in the case of accounting clerks or listening to how a worker deals with customers as in the case of customer services representatives. When supervising long term projects, the supervisor in Primark may meet regularly with staff members to discuss their progress of work.

Administrative supervisors in Primark usually interview and evaluate prospective employees. When new workers arrive on the job, supervisors greet them and provide orientation to acquaint them with their organization and its operating routines. Some supervisors in Primark may be actively involved in recruiting new workers for example, by making presentations at high schools and business colleges. They also may serve as the primary liaisons between their offices and the general public through direct contact and by preparing promotional information.

Supervisors help train new employees in organization and office procedures. They may teach new employees how to use the telephone system and operate office equipment. Because most administrative support work is computerized, they also must teach new employees to use the organization’s computer system. When new office equipment or updated computer software is introduced, supervisors train experienced employees to use it efficiently or, if this is not possible, arrange for their employees to receive special outside training.

Administrative supervisors in Primark often act as liaisons between the administrative support staff and the professional, technical, and managerial staff. This may involve implementing new company policies and restructuring the workflow in their departments. They also must keep their superiors informed of their progress and any potential problems. Often, this communication takes the form of research projects and progress reports. Because supervisors and managers have access to information such as their department’s performance records, they may compile and present these data for use in planning and designing new policies.

Administrative supervisors in Primark also may have to resolve interpersonal conflicts among the staff. In organizations covered by union contracts, supervisors must know the provisions of labor management agreements and run their departments accordingly. They also may meet with union representatives to discuss work problems or grievances.


Administrative supervisors in Primark require postsecondary training and in some cases, an associate or even a bachelor’s degree. In addition, supervisors must pay close attention to detail in order to identify and correct errors made by the staff they oversee.

They are promoted from within the company. Several years of on the job experience in Primark are usually the best preparation to become a supervisor or manager. After acquiring some experience, the employee should have a thorough knowledge of other personnel and company operations.

Administrative support in Primark workers with potential supervisory abilities may be given occasional supervisory assignments. To prepare for full-time supervisory duties, workers may attend in house training or take courses in time management, project management, or interpersonal relations.

In addition, when evaluating candidates, supervisors in Primark look for strong teamwork, problem solving, leadership, and communication skills, as well as determination, loyalty, poise, and confidence. They also look for more specific supervisory attributes, such as the ability to organize and coordinate work efficiently, to set priorities, and to motivate others. Increasingly, supervisors in Primark need a broad base of office skills coupled with personal flexibility to adapt to changes in organizational structure and move among departments when necessary.

In some managerial positions, administrative supervisor in Primark positions are filled with people from outside the organization. These positions may serve as entry level training for potential higher level managers. New college graduates may rotate through departments of an organization at this level to learn the work of the organization before moving on to a higher level position.


Much of what supervisors do is solve problems and make decisions. Supervisors, in particular, often make solve problems and decisions by reacting to them. They are “under the gun”, stressed and very short for time. Consequently, when they encounter a new problem or decision they must make, they react with a decision that seemed to work before. It’s easy with this approach to get stuck in a circle of solving the same problem over and over again. Therefore, as a new supervisor, get used to an organized approach to problem solving and decision making. In Primark not all problems can be solved and decisions made by the following, rather rational approach. However, the following basic guidelines will get you started. In Primark after you’ve practiced them a few times, they’ll become second nature to you enough that you can deepen and enrich them to suit your own needs and nature. Difficult problems which are complicated in nature are referring to the managers to respond to it.


In Primark to become eligible for promotion to a supervisory position, administrative support workers must prove they are capable of handling additional responsibilities.


Administrative supervisors in Primark also evaluate each worker’s performance. If a worker has done a good job in Primark, the supervisor indicates that in the employee’s personnel file and may recommend a promotion or other reward. Alternatively, if a worker in Primark is performing inadequately, the supervisor discusses the problem with the employee to determine the cause and helps the worker to improve his or her performance. This might require sending the employee to a training course or arranging personal counseling. If the situation does not improve, in Primark the supervisor may recommend a transfer, demotion, or dismissal.


Financial motivation in Primark is one of the fundamental modes of incentive. Example: median annual earnings of administrative supervisors in Primark were 43,510 in May 2006; the middle 50 percent earned between 33,730 and 56,130. The lowest paid 10 percent earned less than 26,530, while the highest paid 10 percent earned more than 71,340. In May 2006, median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of office and administrative support supervisors were:

In Primark good employment opportunities are expected because of the need to replace the large number of workers who leave the occupation each year. Most salespersons work evenings and weekends, particularly during sales and other peak retail periods. Employers look for people who enjoy working with others and who have tact, patience, and an interest in sales work, a neat appearance, and the ability to communicate clearly.

Most salespersons in Primark especially those who work in department and apparel stores make out sales checks; receive cash, checks, debit, and charge payments; bag or package purchases; and give change and receipts. Depending on the hours they work, retail salespersons may have to open or close cash registers. In Primark this work may include counting the money in the register; separating charge slips, coupons, and exchange vouchers; and making deposits at the cash office. Salespersons often are held responsible for the contents of their registers, and repeated shortages are cause for dismissal in many organizations.

Retailers stress the importance of providing courteous and efficient service to remain competitive. For example, In Primark when a customer wants an item that is not on the sales floor, the salesperson may check the stockroom, place a special order, or call another store to locate the item.

For some sales jobs, particularly those involving expensive and complex items, retail salespersons need special knowledge or skills.

Salespersons in Primark also may handle returns and exchanges of merchandise, wrap gifts, and keep their work areas neat. In addition, they may help stock shelves or racks, arrange for mailing or delivery of purchases, mark price tags, take inventory, and prepare displays. Frequently, salespersons must be aware of special sales and promotions. They also must recognize security risks and thefts and know how to handle or prevent such situations.


Most salespersons in Primark retail trade work in clean, comfortable, well lit stores. However, they often stand for long periods and may need supervisory approval to leave the sales floor.

In Primark this occupation offers many opportunities for part-time work and is especially appealing to students, retirees, and others seeking to supplement their income. More than 32 percent of retail salespersons worked part-time in 2006. However, in Primark most of those selling big ticket items work full time and have substantial experience.

Retail salespeople typically learn their skills through on-the-job training. Although advancement opportunities are limited, having a college degree or a great deal of experience may help retail salespersons move into supervisory positions through to management level.

There usually are no formal education requirements for this type of work, although a high school diploma or the equivalent is often preferred.

In most small stores, an experienced employee or the store owner instructs newly hired sales personnel in making out sales checks and operating cash registers. In large stores, training programs are more formal and are usually conducted over several days. Topics discussed often include customer service, security, the store’s policies and procedures, and how to work a cash register. Depending on the type of product they are selling, employees may be given additional specialized training by sales representatives. For example, In Primark those working in cosmetics receive instruction on the types of products the store offers and for whom the cosmetics would be most beneficial. In Primark since providing the best possible service to customers is a high priority for many employers, employees often are given periodic training to update and refine their skills.

Employers look for people who enjoy working with others and who have the tact and patience to deal with difficult customers. Among other desirable characteristics are an interest in sales work, a neat appearance, and the ability to communicate clearly and effectively. The ability to speak more than one language may be helpful for employment in communities where people from various cultures live and shop. Before hiring a salesperson, some employers may conduct a background check, especially for a job selling high priced items.


If salespersons gain experience and seniority, they usually move to positions of greater responsibility and may be given their choice of departments in which to work. This often means moving to areas with higher potential earnings and commissions.

In Primark retail selling experience may be an asset when applying for sales positions with larger retailers or in non-retail industries, such as financial services, wholesale trade, or manufacturing.


In Primark due to the high level of turnover in this occupation, opportunities are expected to be good. The average projected employment growth in this occupation reflects the expansion of the economy and consumer spending.

Employment is expected to grow by 12 percent over the 2006-16 decade, which is about as fast as the average for all occupations. In fact, due to the size of this occupation, retail salespersons will have one of the largest numbers of new jobs arise, about 557,000 over the projections decade. This growth reflects rising retail sales stemming from a growing population. Many retail establishments will continue to expand in size and number, leading to new retail sales positions. In Primark since retail salespeople must be available to assist customers in person, this is not an occupation that will suffer negative effects from advancements in technology. To the contrary, software that integrates purchase transactions, inventory management, and purchasing has greatly changed retailing, but retail salespersons continue to be essential in dealing with customers. They will also be an increased demand for retail salespersons in warehouse clubs and super centers, which sell a wide assortment of goods at low prices, since they continue to grow as many consumers prefer these stores.

As in the past, Primark employment opportunities for retail salespersons are expected to be good because of the need to replace the large number of workers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force each year. Warehouse clubs and super centers are expected to have excellent job prospects as they continue to grow in popularity with consumers. In addition, many new jobs will be created for retail salespersons as businesses seek to expand operations and enhance customer service.

At Primark opportunities for part-time work should be abundant, and demand will be strong for temporary workers during peak selling periods, such as the end-of-year holiday season. In Primark the availability of part-time and temporary work attracts many people seeking to supplement their income.

At Primark during economic downturns, sales volumes and the resulting demand for sales workers usually decline. However, In Primark because many retail salespersons constantly transfer to other occupations in search of better pay or career opportunities, employers often can adjust employment levels simply by not replacing all those who leave.

Median hourly earnings of retail salespersons, including commissions, were 9.50 in May 2006. The middle 50 percent earned between 7.81 and 12.83 an hour. The lowest 10 percent earned less than 6.79, and the highest 10 percent earned more than 18.48 an hour. Median hourly earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of retail salespersons in May 2006 was 853



Recruitment involves the process of looking in the correct place in order to find the suitable staff for a particular role in business.

Every business needs a recruit staff for many reasons. Selection involves the act of choosing the right applicant to occupy the position required.

The recruitment process is vital for business if it wants to stay competitive.


The best way to get the right person for a particular job, Primark has many stages that they pass through during their recruitment and section process. The main purpose why Primark values getting the right person for a particular job, this help them to save money, as well as time and developing sustainable business.

Example: if they fail to employ the right person on sales assistant job, it may means that they will have to employ less qualify person which means training cost may be inevitable. More over if the recruitment process is successful then the business is less likely to face high staff turnover and will maintain staff and individual morale.

When employees move from Primark to other business or they may retire, then Primark often find it ideal to replace the member of staff with the new one. Because of this identifying a vacancy tent to be the first stage in the recruitment process at Primark. Occasions that lead Primark to identify certain vacancies could be when their business has expanded or when one employee leaves because of being ill.

Primark made a decision that they require a new employee to occupy a certain vacancy then they clearly outline responsibilities to be allocated to the new employee. At Primark relevant personal carry out a discussion to look into the responsibilities that are being undertaken by the existing employee and in most cases they will carry out a skills audit. Having done this it Primark then sends a detailed summary stating what the job entails as well as the main responsibilities, which means that the stage in Primark’s recruitment process is drawing up a job description.

Another stage in Primark’s recruitment process is drawing up a person specification. Primark’s person specification document clearly states the educational qualification, knowledge/skill as well as the experience that the applicant should have if they are to be accepted for that particular job.

Main purpose of drawing a person specification is to enable the applicant to compare the skills that they hold to those that are required, so that they can see if they fit that particular position.

Primark advertising the vacancy tend to be next stage after a person specification is drawn. The crucial thing at this stage is selecting where to advertise the new vacancy. There are several ways in which Primark advertise their vacancies. Primark normally advertise new vacancies using national newspapers and many cases specialist newspaper and magazines. Advertising in shop windows is also one way in which Primark advertises new vacancies.

Sometimes recruitment agencies and job centers are also used.

However different jot position may require different methods of advertisement.

Example: Primark requires individual to occupy a senior management position, they tent to advertise this using national newspaper while in most cases they advertise a sales assistant vacancy in local newspapers.

When job advertisement is completed, Primark normally receives quite significant number of applications mainly due to the fact that it is popular and reputable organisation. In addition in order to avoid high interview those whose skills are most close to those on the person specification based on the candidate’s application form. This recruitment stages therefore includes short listing of applicants.

The important stage in the recruitment process of Primark that follows the short listing of applicants is the interviewing stage. Interviewing has given employers the opportunity to discover the personal qualities of the candidate while it also a great chance to find out about the business and see if they would like to work for them. Not only this stage costly, but it is also time consuming as it requires careful preparation if it is to be effective.

Example: At Primark, they make sure that all members of the interview panel have looked at the candidate’s application form carefully and thoroughly.

Furthermore, they also need to ensure that all interview pane members know exactly the part they will play in the interview as well as the questions they will be asking to candidates. Importantly, they must also ensure that the rooms the interviews will take place are available and that free from obstruction.

Selection and appointment of a new employee is Premark’s last stage in the recruitment process. There are some factors that Primark employers use in order to determine the successful applicant. These are the way in which the applicant presented themselves during the interview, i.e. Body language and dressing .They also base their decision on the way the candidate answered the questions as well as the interest that the candidate shows in the job.

Primark, the mail process use mailing to notify their candidates that their application has been successful in normally telephone and occasionally they can also send a letter to them. Primark does not just ignore unsuccessful candidates, but instead they offer them some feedback showing their interview performances which will hopefully them their future interviews.

The recruitment flow chart above explains that processes of recruitment in Primark. This start from vacancy Identification, drawing up of job description and person specification, through to interview and appointment.


Various documents are used by business during their recruitment and selection process. Especially key documentation include: person specification, job advertisements, curriculum vitae, job descriptions and application form or a letter of application.

A job description is a document that is issued to potential employees stating the job summary as well as the main responsibilities associated with a particular role. The main purpose of job description is to give the applicant an opportunity to discover exactly what the position they are applying for entails A good job description should clearly state the reason of the job, key task and responsibilities as well as special requirement such as essential language.

In all a job description consists of two different types of information, which are the description of the job’s task and behaviours that are to complete these tasks effectively

People’s specification on the other hand is to design to enable the potential applicant to go with their own skills to those that are required for a particular job in order to see if they would be suitable for the job being advertisement. In other way it is clear that a person specification set out the education qualification, experience as well as knowledge and skills that the candidate requires to complete a job. All the qualities that are outline on a person specification are usually divided into essential requirements, desirable requirements as well as contra indicators. Specification is also known as a Person personnel profile.

Job advertisements are designed to attract applicants who fit the company’s person specification and the job description. Advertisements are worded so that they attract only the people that are most suitable for the job. To achieve this, the business needs to think carefully of the target audience. Example candidate applying for a sales assistant position at Primark are more likely to be readers of the sun and daily mirror, while those applying for highly specialised jobs are more likely to be readers of specialist and technical journals.

Furthermore, good advertisements clearly mentions show the applicant should apply for. Example: It may mention that the candidate should submit an application from and curriculum vitae.

Several documents that are normally used by business to help them decide on which potential applicants to shortlist.

Curriculum vitae (CV) are one of the documents used to collect information on each candidate. A CV is made by the applicant and the main reason is to supply details of the applicant to the employer. Example it includes details such as the applicant’s personal detail, their Educational qualifications, work experience, their interest and ambitions as well. Good CV is the one that is convincing to the employer and outlines valuable skills that the applicant may bring to the company. Moreover, the employer could gather details of the candidate using an application form. The main difference between an application form and a CV is an application form is constructed by the business while the applicant completes their own CV: Business considers an application form to be part of the applicant’s contract of employment. In addition, when completing an application form all candidates must provide true and accurate information and avoid any false claims because this may affect employment and in most cases could result in the applicant being dismissed.

PEST factors prior to recruitments

In most of the business there are various external factors that have an impact in the recruitment process when it takes place. These factors may be Economic, Political, Social and Technological, and these tend to influence the recruitment and selection process in two ways.

For examples In Primark they may increase or possibly decrease the need for staff.

There are different political factors that may affect recruitment in every business. In UK, one of the main focuses for the government is to encourage business to actually promote equal opportunities when recruiting staff. For this reason it means that business like Primark must ensure that applicants are not discriminated on the grounds of their age, gender, ethnicity or disability.

For example, an official report shows that may UK large business such as Primark are now employing older workers. Moreover as older people are willing to stay in employment, this in turn affect the recruitment styles of Primark in the sense that they will they will only need to recruit fewer staff.

Other Economic factor that could affect the recruitment process is the country’s minimum wage. This means that if the legislation increases the rate of minimum wage, then the business may need to reduce the number of employees they recruit in order to keep the costs of the business at lower level. Similarly, if the employment legislation extends the number of hours that employees are allowed to work in each week, this may result in the business recruiting a reasonable less number of stuff as the existing staff are in a position of complete more due to the amount of time they get.

A PEST analysis or factor is the external macro-environmental effect that affects all firms. Such external factors usually are beyond the firm’s control and sometimes present themselves as threats. However, changes in the external environment also create new opportunities and the letters (thus, PEST) sometimes are rearranged to construct more optimistic term of STEP analysis. Prior to recruitment taking place, PEST factors play a major role in making it successful. At Primark a number of checklists have been developed as ways of cataloguing the vast number of possible issues that might affect an industry in terms of recruitment.

At Primark a PEST analysis is one of them that are merely a framework that categorizes environmental influences as political, economic, social and technological forces. The use of PEST analysis can be seen effective for business and strategic planning, market planning, business and product development and research reports.

PEST also ensures that company’s performance is aligned positively with the powerful forces of change that are affecting business environment.

PEST is useful when a company decides to enter its business operations into new markets and new countries. The use of PEST, at Primark, helps to break free of unconscious assumptions, and help to effectively adapt to the realities of the new environment.

Now in relation to the impact of PEST factors prior to recruitment, it is very crucial to consider each PEST factor as they all play a part in determining the overall business environment and successful recruitment.

At Primark economic conditions affect how easy or how difficult it is to be successful and profitable at any time because they affect both capital availability and cost, and demand.

If demand is buyout, for example, at Primark if the cost of capital is low, it will be attractive for firms to invest and grow with expectations of being profitable. In opposite circumstances firms might find that profitability throughout the industry is low. The timing and relative success of particular strategies can be influences by economic conditions. When the economy, as a whole or certain sectors of the economy, are growing, demand may exist for a product or service which would not be in demand in more depressed circumstances.

Economic conditions are influenced by political and government policy, being a major influence affecting government decisions. The issue of whether European countries join, or remain outside, the single European currency is a case in point. At Primark any one time either exported or imported goods can seem expensive or inexpensive, dependent upon currency exchange rates there are many other ways, however, in which government decisions will affect organizations both directly and indirectly, as they provide both opportunities and threats.

While economic conditions and government policy are closely related, they both influence a number of other environmental forces that can affect organizations. Capital markets determine the conditions for alternative types of funding for organizations. Primark tend to be a subject to government controls, and they will be guided by the prevailing economic conditions. The rate of interest charged for loans will be affected by inflation and by international economics and, although the determining rate may be fixed by a Central bank as it is the case with the Bank of England, that will also be influenced by stated government priorities.

The sociocultural environment encapsulates demand and tastes, which vary with fashion and disposable income, and general changes, can again provide both opportunities and threats for particular companies. Over-time most products change from being a novelty to a situation of market saturation, and as this happens pricing and promotion strategies have to change. Similarly, some products and services will sell around the world with little variation, but these are relatively unusual.

Organizations should be aware of demographics changes as the structure of the population by ages, regions, and numbers working and ageing population can have an important bearing on demand as a whole and on demand for particular products and services. Threats to existing products might be increasing: opportunities for differentiation and market segmentation might be emerging.

At Primark technological breakthroughs can create new industries which might prove a threat to existing organizations whose products or services might be rendered redundant, and those firms which might be affected in this way should be alert to the possibility. Equally, new technology could provide a useful input, in both manufacturing and service industries, but in turn its purchase will require funding and possibly employee training before it can be used.

To this end, prior to any recruitment, these all important factors impacts positively in attaining the optimum desired results.

PEST analysis looks at the external business environment and is an appropriate strategic tool for understanding the “big picture” of the environment in which business operates, enabling to take the advantage of the opportunities and minimize the threats faced by company’s business activities. When strategic planning is done correctly, it provides a solid plan for your company to grow into the future.

With a PEST analysis, Primark Company can see a longer horizon of time, and be able to clarify strategic opportunities and threats that the company faces. By looking to the outside environment to see the potential forces of change looming on the horizon, firms can take the strategic planning process out of the arena of today and into the horizon of tomorrow.

PEST is not a set of rigid compartments into which ideas need to be sorted. It is better thought of as a set of hooks that can be used to fish for important facts. Once the factors have been fished out, it does not matter which hook they were attached to.

There are different levels of National Minimum Wage in Primark, depending on the age of the worker. The rates from 1 October 2007 are as follows:

* adults (which means people aged 22 and over) receive the full rate of 5.52 an hour

* a ‘development rate’ of 4.60 an hour is paid to workers aged 18 to 21 inclusive

* young people (those older than school leaving age and younger than 18; you’re under school leaving age until the end of summer term of the school year in which you turn 16) receive 3.40 an hour

Apprentices under the age of 19 are not entitled to the National Minimum Wage. Apprentices who are 19 or over and in the first 12 months of their apprenticeship are not entitled to the National Minimum Wage.


At, Primark, the recruitment and selection process is largely governed by equal opportunities legislation. Their equal opportunity legislation suggests that during recruitment and selection process, every candidate must be treated in the same way regardless of their race, disability, sexual orientation or gender nationality and religious affiliation.

The main legal obligations that affect the recruitment process at Primark is the Employment Rights Act 1996 that declares that if any employee is provided with work lasting for more than one month then they must receive a contact of employment. Purpose of this contract of employment is to provide employees with every bit of information that may concern them in terms of their job. For example Contract of employment at Primark includes details of the job title, hours of work, holiday entitlement rate and method of payment as well as notice of termination required.

The Race Relation Act 1976 affects the recruitment and selection process of Primark. This Law requires the business not to discriminate candidates on the grounds of their race but rather judge them on their qualification, skills and knowledge. Example Primark is a British company, they must be sure that candidates are not discriminated against if they are not English.

Primark’s recruitment and selection process is affected by the sex Discrimination Act 1975. Legislation suggests that gender should not be not be use to discriminate against of any candidate. Example Primark ensure that during the recruitment and selection process, individuals should be differentiating according to their level of qualifications, skills and knowledge rather than gender.

Primark also act according to Equal Pay Act 1970, Example during the recruitment and selection process they ensure that all employees whether male or female are provide with the same rate of pay with the same level work. The recruitment and selection process at Primark affects by The Disabled Person Act 1995. Primark take reasonable effort to offer a job to disabled person provided that they are suitable for certain job. They accommodate any disabled person as long as they have the qualifications, skills and knowledge that is essential for the job.

In line with the ethical obligation, Primark’s focus is on achieving continuous and sustained workplace improvements throughout our supply chain. They recognise that, where breaches are pinpointed some suppliers may be unable to meet all the terms contained within Primark’s Code of Conduct with in a short timescale.

However they commit to working with and continuing to support our suppliers to achieve positive progress within reasonable timeframes agreed.

One other ethical obligation that affects Primark is, when recruiting or selecting staff they must ensure that they are honest to applicants and that all the information they are given is objective. For Example; Primark’s job description states that they are entitled to 4 weak paid holidays each year, and then the business must act accordingly. If in any case Primark fails to fulfill this promise then it possible that the employee may resent, which could affect their business image.

Moreover, during the recruitment process Primark employers tend to put maximum effort in maintaining confidentiality and to be fair on every candidate. At Primark, any member of staff involved in the recruitment of information they provide is kept confidential which is in line with data protection Act. Ideally, at Primark applicants are given the right to be informed of the progress of their applications and they are also given feedback regarding the recruitment procedure.


Interviewing is the most common method of gathering evidence from candidates. An interview is in two ways: It helps the employer to find out information concerning the candidate such as their pervious experience and their personal qualities, while it is also an opportunity for the candidate to find out a lot of information about the business on which to based their decision whether to take the job or not.

As interview also part of my assessment objective, I will interview two candidates and I will also take part in the interviewee of these two participants.

In order to have a good and successfully interview I will make sure that, I plan my interview process very well. Firstly I will provide all the required documents to candidates such as application forms, job descriptions, and person specification. During the interview will consider finding a lot of information about where the interview will take place and how we are going to arrange the interview.

For examples I will meet with my fellow candidates to discus what we can do to make our interview successful. I will bring the suggesting that we should plan about where our interview will take place, the date we will do our interviews, people who are involve and the documents that I will need.

At the time am going to the interview I will make sure I arrange the room where the interview will take place and ensure that it is free from any distractions area. I will consider placing some prospective of Primark on the table representing as the office of the manager. In order to avoid wasting time and confusion I will also consider studying the candidate’s application form or their CV to know a bit about them before the day of the interview.

As interviews are a crucial stage in the recruitment process, I will consider spending a considerable amount of time designing the questions that encourage candidates to give as much information as they can on their working background and also their previous work experience. Example I will put a question why have you applied for this job as a supervisor.

I will make sure that I will asked a closed question so that I will not get a “yes” or “No” answer. I will also asked a question that if the applicant is working at the moment to know if he or she is still working or not. This will indicate that if the applicant can do the job. Using a lot of opening question will give me some indication on whether the potential applicant can actually do the job or an ideal of how they are likely to cope with various situations. Furthermore, to make sure the candidate feels at ease and are free to talk I will be friendlier to them. During my interviewing, I will try to avoid asking questions that will lead the candidate to feel discriminated. Example their gender or clothes.

It is important that I listen to the applicant am interviewing actively. In order to make sure that interviewees reveal their ability, experience and motivation I will make sure they do most of the talking and I will make sure I understand what they will be saying. I will avoid busy thinking about asking the next question instead of concentrating on the information coming forth so that I will not miss many potential leads.

When interviewing I expect a good candidate to avoid small talk in this case I will help to build rapport at the beginning of the interview, especially “Yes or “No”.

When interviewing it is very important to me that I will give out the right signals and always looking attentive so that I will not slouch in my chair. Obviously, the candidate’s body language techniques are also a good way of assessing their strength or weaknesses.


The two main types of training that are often used by businesses are: on the job and off the job.

On the job training is undertaken within the business. This type of training is directly related to the job that the person is performing. For example at Primark this is how their training and development are:

Job Specification

They `re looking for ambitious, enthusiastic, self starters with the potential to succeed in a business which has developed a reputation for high quality and outstanding value.

Full Job Specification

As a Trainee Manager their role will be to assist the Store Manager and Management team in the day to day running of the store. They will be assigned to a department (s) within the store where you will receive training in all aspects of:

? Sales Floor

? Merchandising

? Cash Office

? Stock Room

? Human Resources

Their training will give them a complete working knowledge of all the systems and procedures used a modern retail store. As part of their Training and Development they will also attend external training courses which will include:

? Management Development Course

? Train the Trainer Course

? Recruitment and Selection Course


? Managing Registers, authorisation of cheque/card payments

? Answering register bells and supplying floats

? Customer Service, dealing with any queries/complaints and ensuring good customer relations are maintained


? Merchandising to include department layouts, store presentation and replenishment of stock


? Comparison of sales figures, floats and lodgements


? Deliveries, monitoring delivery shortages/overages

? Use of Computerised Stock Control System


? Wages

? HR, Recruitment and Selection, Training

Hertzberg introduces a two factor theory that influences job satisfaction. These are motivators, whose job is to induce job satisfaction. These include:

* Being granted extra responsibility

* Opportunity for advancement

* Good performance recognition

* Achievement within the job

* Work satisfaction

Also, hygiene factors are factors which are essential for preventing dissatisfaction but they are not necessarily sufficient to motivate employees. According to Hertzberg, these include:

* An employee salary

* Supervision and technical conditions

* Interpersonal relations

* Working conditions

* Company policy

Primark has put all of these factors that Hertzberg suggested into practice. Example Primark offers sales assistants extra responsibility such as putting them in charge of an in store advertising project. This has a motivating effect as it gives the employee some great sense of control therefore their aptitudes and abilities can be utilized more.

An alternative to Hertzberg’s theory is Mallow’s hierarchy of needs. This theory suggests that people in a business are motivated by needs. This theory suggests that people in a business are motivated by needs that are vital to their existence as well as those that are linked with attitudes. The main assumption of Maslow is that employees will strive to go up the hierarchy.

Below is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs


Morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, lack of prejudice, acceptance of facts


Self-esteem, Confidence, achievement, respect of others, respect by others.


Friendship, family, sexual intimacy


Security of body, of employment, of resources of morality, of the family, of health, of property.


Breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, homeostasis, excretion

To start with Primark meets their employee’s physiological needs by providing basic pay or by ensuring the comfort of the working environment. Security or pension arrangements, while giving membership of lively team could as a result satisfy social needs.

Some staff members at Primark are often offered with a large company car which means that this will meet their need for self esteem. As I said earlier, that Primark often increase levels of responsibility and control, this in turn will enable the employee to actually satisfy their self actualization needs.

Furthermore, McGregor proposed anther motivation method which is specifically relevant to the manager. He introduced two types of theories which are theory X and theory Y. According to this a theory X manager is negative for example portrays employees as lazy which in most cases leads to self fulfilling prophecies. In contrast a theory Y manager portrays employees as creative and self disciplined. Overall this theory in itself suggests that employee’s motivation is the responsibility of manager. At Primark it is very clear that their company spends a lot of millions every year to show that Primark’s employees are greatly valued and appreciated. For example they have in the pervious decade’s operate a very expensive annual performance review and also a career review which aims to direct staff on how to meet and develop their targets. This is motivates employees and improves their performance.

In addition, in order to ensure that store managers improve personal effectiveness and that the team is working effectively aiming towards maximizing productivity, Primak suggests every store manager to take part in a programme called Stores Leadership. This programme is good way of motivating their staff, to show that it helps members of staff to put more effort in their job and show their capabilities therefore they probably like their job more. This fulfils self actualization of employees as supported by Maslow.

Primark develops the skills capabilities of employees are by offering educational opportunities for students and graduates. Example they offer A level option programme, Debut club, Apprenticeship and graduate options programme. Doing this not only will this help skilled workforce for Primark but fulfilled careers for their staff and makes them feel part of the company which result in increased productivity.


In other to make recruitment and selection process highly successful, there is a number of factor which need to be taken into account. These include the documentation used, the interview process and training and motivation.

Training and Motivation of employees is to the succeed of recruitment and selection process. If a member of Primark’s employees are motivated, than the result in attendance rates, co-operation, improved performance regarding productivity any quality. Motivation methods in Primark dose not only goes for the individuals who are already working for the business, but they also applied during the recruitment and selection process. Example Bonuses are offered to employees and a pay increase on a regular basis. They do this to increase their chance of attracting new recruits as well as forming a productive working environment. Primark performs a range of training schemes and programme which aims to equip employees with new skills or upgrade the ones they already have, this in turn makes employees feel valued and also keep them committed.

The training and development schemes, bonus payments a regular wags increase give Primark a very go reputation within the communities it operation in therefore they are more likely to attract workers and it is relatively easy for them to recruit new members of staff. In addition if the business has a bad reputation of treating employees or low wage rate, then this may make recruitments a long and difficult process for that company. In this situation I can tell that Primark motivation and training methods are crucial in the recruitment and selection process. The documents used by employers happen to ply a huge part in the effectiveness of the recruitment and selection process. Without the job description it is a bit difficult for Primark to communicate information on what the job entails or the responsibilities associated with a enhances the company’s reputation and will hopefully, be able to recruit more staff easily.

In all a number of things that Primark must consider improving is that their recruitment and selection process is very effective. This may also show by the number of employees that Primark recruit each and every year.


To a large extent is appears that Primark’s recruitment and selection process is very effective.

First of all I suggest that recruitment documentation used at Primark is very effectively in the sense that it helps the managers to gather a lot of information about individual who are working there experiences, qualities, abilities, skills and knowledge. Example, at Primark they need application form and a very detailed CV. In my opinion I think this is a good suggesting that will help the business to employ the right and suitable person for the job.

It also seems that in some situations Primark’s recruitment documents mainly are too complex and well too demanding for other applicants especially those applying for lower positions in the company, such as supermarket cleaners or sales assistance. For this reason some would argue that, Primark’s recruitment documents are only good and appropriate for higher positions such as managers therefore the needs for those in the lower. In addition, if the recruitment documentation is complicated and time consuming, applicants will be put off by Primark’s recruitment process and they will consider applying to other businesses where documentation is less complicated and straight forward. Probably, this will hugely affect the number of people Primark recruits.

In order make this successful, I think it is important that Primark consider having different application forms and terms and conditions for different job positions in their business.

Summary of findings

I will conclude that business development involves processes and various actors, which includes: managers, supervisors and sale assistant.

In every business it success depend in the chain of command and they relates and co-ordinate team playing. Effective coordination and team working are major contributory factors to a sustainable business. The roles, responsibilities skills of each level of staff impact on the business growth and promote good customer service. In my personal assessment in people in business unit 2 has developed my knowledge to know how motivation contribute toward staff ability to contribute toward successful business.

In Primark in other to develop good customer and public confidence recruitments are always base on fairness and selection processes are not based on gender social orientation, nationalities and religious affiliation.

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