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Area of knowledge 6: recognising and responding to abuse:

1. Types of abuse
a) Emotional abuse
b) Physical abuse
c) Sexual abuse
d) Neglect abuse
e) Domestic abuse

CYP is the experience of an event by a child that is emotionally painful or distressful, which results in lasing mental and physical effects. If the right support is out in place, one can recover even from extreme abuse.

2. Emotional abuse is the most common form of abuse, it is also experienced by children witnessing domestic violence and this will affect still people when they grow up. They will have problems to show love and affection to others, they struggle to have relationship. The signs being withdrawn and emotionally disengaged than their peers, feels unhappy, frightened and distressed, behaving aggressively and antisocially or too mutually for their age, difficulties with school attendance and achievement, find it hard to make friends, experience incontinence and mysterious pains.

3. Physical abuse is any non-accidental physical act inflicted upon a child by a person having the care of a child. It is not always a result of intent to hurt a child but sometimes can be justified as being a form of discipline. The signs of physical abuse in CYP are being aggressive and violet behaviour, shy and avoidant behaviour leading to rejection or victimisation.

4. Neglect abuse is the common reason for child protection act, can have serious and long lasting effects. It could be by leaving a child alone to the very worst cases where a child dies from malnutrition or being denied the care they need. At times could result in disability. The effects could last long term or short term that last throughout their life. Some will find it difficult to maintain good relationships and experience mental health problems and some will suffer depression and post-traumatic stress disorder.
Signs could be multiple persistent which indicates that there is a problem. The other signs are wetting the bed, misses’ school, and withdrawn, self-harm, drugs alcohol may lead to suicide.

5. Sexual abuse is when someone is forced or pressurised or tricked into taking part in any kind of sexual activity with another person. This can happen to girls and boys. Sexual abuse is not always full sex but is when touching, kissing, oral sex could be a relative or someone you trust girlfriend or boyfriend or stranger. The signs of children who has been sexually abused might avoid being alone with people and seem frightened of a person or reluctant to socialise with them. The behaviour changes, can get, aggressive, withdrawal, clingy, can have difficulty sleeping or start wetting in bed and can be depressed and post-traumatic stress disorder.

Area of knowledge 7: Working with other agencies
The meaning of multiagency: covers the whole range of different organisations, services and professionals who provides services for the good health of children and their families e.g. doctors, nurses, social workers, police, schools, safeguarding people etc. All agencies share information and take the reasonable measures to ensure that the risks of harm to children and young people are dealt with in time.

The Health visitors are the one who notices the signs first because they work closely to support families with children from birth up to five years. They have contact with many different multi agencies and they support the work of the local Safeguarding Children Board. Health visitors are trained to a high level to recognise the risks that the children might be in. They should use their judgemental to when to share the information of the young people they provide developmental checks.

b) When the young person has been abused or harmed, the psychology services have a role and responsibility to provide support for children who have been abused or harmed.

c) When a child or young person has gone missing from care, alert colleagues and registered manager on duty at the Pears Centre via telephone

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Not to tell the YP they must be kept safe
The one in charge to keep the parents informed
Incident form to be completed on safe return.
Area of knowledge 8: reporting failures in duties

If abuse is suspected, one should take action according to policies and procedures which is See Think Act. Speak up for young children and young people in your care. Contact a designated Safeguard head now. The importance of early identification of abuse is to avoid death and potential for abuse before it occurs. Then provide education and support services in order to prevent the onset of child abuse in these high-risk situations.

Every child deserves to be loved and protected as they cannot speak for themselves. Warning signs may be misinterpreted or ignored especially when the child is silent or denying abuse is taken as a reason for doing nothing.

The reasons why the CYP may not recognise that they are being abused because they think what is happening to them is normal.

The young people may not disclose that they are abused because they blame themselves for it or fear the consequences of speaking out. Children often do not recognise that they are being abused.
The effects of different types of bullying on children and young people are (a) physical bullying: anything that physical contact between one individual to another and any form of violence e.g. pushing, kicking, poking and choking. (b) Emotional bullying: excluding, tormenting, ridicule and humiliation. (c) Verbal bullying: calling names, insults, sarcasm, and race, spreading rumours and teasing. (d) Cyberbullying: use of technology particularly mobile phones and internet to deliberately top upset someone.
All these types of bullying makes CYP not to do well at school, isolation, self-harm, depression, anxious, withdrawn, mental health problems, low self-esteem, attempt suicide and night mares.

Anti-bullying at work and equal opportunity are the policy and procedure to be followed in response of any bullying. They are necessary because it reminds people to work together as a team.
One can support a CYP by praising for telling someone and how brave they are. Provide with websites a CYP can look up and read how to deal with bullying e.g. Ant bullying. Net, Kidsscap.org/uk and Parent line Plus.

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