Motivation Letter and Study Plan
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1. Discuss the three components of an attitude.
The three components of an attitude are cognitive, affective, and behavioral. a) The cognitive component is the opinion or belief segment of an attitude. b) The affective component is the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. c) The behavioral component of an attitude refers to an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.
2. What are the dimensions in Big Five Model of Personality? Extroversion – Sociable, outgoing, active and proactive
Agreeableness – Good-natured, cooperative, and trusting.
Conscientiousness – Responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized. Emotional Stability – Calm, self-confident, secure under stress Openness to Experience – Curious, imaginative, artistic, and sensitive
3. Why are values important to the study of OB?
Values are important to the study of OB because they lay the foundation for our understanding of people’s attitudes and motivation and because they influence on our perception. Values also contain interpretations of right and wrong. As a result, values could objectivity and rationality.
4. The types of Interactionist Conflict.
Interactionist View of Conflict
The belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but that it is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively This approach encourages conflict on the grounds that a harmonious, peaceful, tranquil, and cooperative group is prone to be becoming static and non-responsive to needs for change and innovation. The three types of conflict are task, relationship, and process. Task Conflict
Conflicts over content and goals of the work
Low-to-moderate levels of this type are FUNCTIONAL
Conflict based on interpersonal relationships
Almost always DYSFUNCTIONAL
Conflict over how work gets done
Low levels of this type are FUNCTIONAL
5. What is the definition of power?
Power is a capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B, so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes. This implies a potential that need not be actualized to be effective and a dependency relationship. Power may exist but not be used. It is, therefore, a capacity or potential. One can have power but not impose it. A person can have power over you only if he/she has something you desire.
6. How do employees learn culture?
Culture is transmitted to employees in a number of forms, the most potent being stories, rituals, material symbols, and language. Stories
Anchor the norms and the rationale for current practices
The repetitive sequences of activities that express and reinforce the key values of the organization Material symbols
The layout of the office, the logo of the firm, the brand name….etc can convey the message to the employees and outsiders Language
Language, acronyms and jargons as ways to identify members of a culture or subculture 7. a)Functions of Culture
Defines the boundary between one organization and others
Conveys a sense of identity for its members
Facilitates the generation of commitment to something larger than self-interest Enhances the stability of the social system
Serves as a sense-making and control mechanism for fitting employees in the organization
b)Three stages of civilization Process
The period of learning in the socialization process that occurs before a new employee joins the organization Encounter
The stage in the socialization process in which a new employee sees what the organization is really like and confronts the possibility that expectations
and reality may diverge Metamorphosis (Transformation)
The stage in the socialization process in which a new employee changes and adjusts to the work, work group, and organization
c) Give an example of ethical culture
Characteristics of Organizations that Develop High Ethical Standards High tolerance for risk
Low to moderate in aggressiveness
Focus on means as well as outcomes
Managerial Practices Promoting an Ethical Culture
Being a visible role model
Communicating ethical expectations
Providing ethical training
Rewarding ethical acts and punishing unethical ones
Providing protective mechanisms
8. a)Identity what factors that influence our perception?
Factors that influence our perception are:
Factors of the perceivers. Individuals have different attitudes, motives, interests, experience and expectations. Factors in the target. The same object would give different impression when compared against different motion, sounds, size and background. Factors in the situation. The same object that appears at different time, work setting and social setting would attract different interpretation.
b)Illustrate the component of attribution theory.
Our perception and judgment of others is significantly influenced by our assumptions of the other person’s internal state. When individuals observe other persons’ behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused. Internally caused behaviors that are believed to be under the personal control of a person. Externally caused behavior is seemed as resulting from outside causes. i.e., the person is seemed as having been forced into the behavior by the situation. There are three attribution factors affecting how a person judging others are: Distinctiveness: whether one shows different behaviors in other situations Consensus: whether one’s response is the same as others who are facing a similar situation Consistency: whether one responds in the same way over time
9. a)Identify forces that act as stimulants to organizational changes. Nature of the Workforce
Faster, cheaper, more mobile
Internet chat rooms
Iraq War and the opening of marketsin China
b)Discuss the sources of resistance to change.
Habit, security, economic factors, fear of the unknown, and selective information processing Organizational
Structural inertia, limited focus of change, group inertia, threat to expertise, threat to established power relationships and resource allocations
c)Kotter’s Eight-Step Plan for implementing change
Establish a sense of urgency by creating a compelling reason for why change is needed Form a coalition with enough power to lead the change.
Create a new vision to direct the change and strategies for achieving the vision Communicate the vision throughout the organization.
Empower others to act on your vision by removing barriers to change and encouraging risk taking and creative problem solving Plan for, create and reward short-term “wins” that move the organization toward new visions Consolidate improvements, reassess changes, and make necessary adjustments in the new programs Reinforce the changes by demonstrating the relationship between new behaviors and organizational success