Managing Army Change Summary Review Notes
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F101, Strategic Change
F102, Developing Army Organizational Capability
F103, Total Army Analysis (TAA) and Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution (PPBE) F104, Developing Materiel Capabilities (Acquisition)
F105, Manning the Army
F106, Army Force Generation
F107, Operational Contract Support
There are no specific reading requirements unique to this lesson; we assume that you have read all the reading assignments pertaining to each individual lesson.
F101 Strategic Change
During this lesson, you were introduced to the strategic agencies and the force management processes used to change the Army. Specifically, you examined how key strategic Constitutional/Legal Basis
Why is Congress Important?
They make and amend the laws that govern how the Armed Forces operate (to include Title 10). Their primary role is in oversight and resourcing. Through each body’s Armed Services Committee, Congress provides oversight and guidance of how we operate and what we procure. Budget and appropriations committees determine the resources that will be made available to us to accomplish our missions. Often the relationship between Congress and the SecDef determines how adversarial their relationships with the Services will be. Additionally, politics always plays a role in congressional actions and relations with the Services.
Those forces whose primary missions are to participate in combat and the integral supporting elements thereof. Generating Force:
Those organizations whose primary mission is to generate and sustain the operational Army’s capabilities for employment by joint force commanders. OPCON:
Operational control (OPCON) is inherent in COCOM, and is the chain of command for employment of the unit. ADCON:
Direction or exercise of authority over subordinate or other organizations in respect to administration and support, including organization of Service forces, contro
You studied the various documents used by the Army to explain its vision and strategies. You learned that the institutional instrument for defining the Army’s organizational stra
Remember, you go to war with the Army that was developed and programmed a number of years prior. The real problem is getting the vision or strategy correct so you end up with the force you need. Force Management
You must conceptualize change management processes and understand that changing or This process aﬀects leaders and aﬀects the Soldiers that they lead.
transforming includes changing those processes.
F102 Developing Army Organizational Capability
During this lesson, you learned about the key agencies and major force management processes used in developing warfighting capability provided to combatant commanders DOTMLPF Construct
Doctrine • Organizations • Training • Materiel • Leadership and Education • Personnel • Facilities
You then looked at the process known as the Joint Capability and Integration Development System, or JCIDS. You were also given an opportunity to review
the role of TRADO
You reviewed TRADOC’s three major missions and ARCIC’s role in the force development process. TRADOC
It is responsible for mission command, doctrine, collective training and leader development. It also plays a role in recruiting and accessions.
The third major mission is capabilities development.
Capability development is headed by the Army Capabilities Integration Center (ARCIC). ARCIC designs, develops, integrates and synchronizes force capabilities for the Army across
the DOTMLPF imperatives into a joint, interagency,
Force Management Processes
Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System
A capability-based approach to identify current and future capability gaps in joint force ability to carry out joint Top-down, guidance driven
Provides linkage between joint concepts and integrated architectures Conducts rigorous analysis on the front end and throughout
Solicits all DOTMLPF solutions prior to gap solution
warfighting missions and functions
Army Force Development Phases
Phase 1: Develop Capabilities. The Army emphasis during Phase 1 is to analyze the capability gap from their DOTMLPF perspectives and to further refine concep Phase 2: Design Organizations. The Design Organizations phase analyzes the proposed organization for doctrinal correctness. Phase 3: Develop Organizational Models. Phase 3 of the Army Force Development Model transitions organizational development responsibilities from the TRADO Phase 4: Determine Organizational Authorizations. This phase is the analysis stage for determining the Army force structure “mix” or how organizations (resourc Phase 5: Document Organizational Authorizations. This process results in the generation of organizational authorizations documented as modification tables of o
F103 Total Army Analysis (TAA) and Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution (PPB
During this lesson, you continued to focus on the key agencies and major force management processes used in developing warfighting capability provided to combatant comm
PPBE is the DOD’s primary resource management system.
PPBE ties together strategy, programs, and resources.
It makes and captures decisions and is a decision support system for modernization, readiness, force structure, etc. Its purpose is to produce a plan, program, and a defense budget that is strategy driven within a resource-constrained environment. It is an art and a science, a dynamic and disciplined interactive system.
Army Force Management
Total Army Analysis (TAA) Purpose
The purpose of TAA is to determine the required “operating and generating” forces necessary to support and sustain the “operating force,” echelon-above-brigad The specified combat forces and the EAB support forces determined during the TAA process are referred to as “operating forces.”
Vision and Strategies
Total Army Analysis (TAA)
Determines the correct mix of organizations required and resourced that comprise a balanced and aﬀordable force to meet the guidance. Develops requirements and authorizations defining the force structure the Army must build, raise, provide, sustain, maintain, train, and resource, providing the comba Provides the analytical underpinning for developing, explaining, and defending the Army force structure in the POM. Intent of PPBE
PPBE is DOD’s and the US Army’s primary resource management tool. The entire process focuses on assessing required Army capabilities, both for today and for what the Army requires in the future. Congress and the executive branch adjust or refine these capabilities when they fulfill their constitutionally-mandated responsibilities.
Who Manages PPBE
The Budget Process
TAA and PPBE
Remember, PPBE is the process for convincing OSD and Congress to provide the resources that the Army needs to provide desired capabilities and then balancing the checkbook to ensur
PPBE is the process for convincing OSD and Congress to provide the resources that the Army needs to provide desired capabilities, and then balancing the checkbook
The Total Army Analysis process takes us from the Army of today to the Army of the future.
F104 Developing Material Capability
During this lesson, you learned about the materiel development and acquisition process. You saw how the Defense Acquisition Management System fits in with other DOD prim
Sometimes a capability gap that is identified through the Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System (JCIDS), or through the Army’s version (ACIDS), can When this occurs, there is an eﬀort to minimize the amount of research and development required—cost and time—to bring a system on line and field it.
The Defense Acquisition System exists to manage the nation’s investments in technologies, programs, and product support necessary to achieve the National Security
Acquisition Strategies (AS)
You reviewed the two basic acquisition strategies, single-step acquisition, and evolutionary acquisition.
Spans concept to fielded system in a “single step” (procurement, reduced R&D). Required capabilities are known and the technology is available to fulfill them (currently COTS & GOTS). There are no evolutionary/incremental builds.
DOD’s preferred strategy for rapid acquisition of mature technology for the user. Delivers capability in increments, recognizing up front, the need for future capability improvements. Each increment depends on demonstrated, mature technology.
Each increment is a militarily useful and supportable operational capability that can be developed, produced, deployed, and sustained. Successive technology development phases may be needed to mature technology for multiple increments.
Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System (JCIDS) User Needs based on Analysis Technology Opportunities & Resources
You studied the Defense Acquisition Management System to include the five phases broken into three acquisition activities: pre-systems acquisition, systems acquisition, and
You learned that programs may enter the process at diﬀerent points.
You learned about the Acquisition Program Baseline and trade-oﬀs and balancing an acquisition program in terms of cost-performance and schedule in providing a materiel so
Army Acquisition Strategy
Framework for planning, directing, and managing an acquisition program to satisfy an approved warfighting materiel capability, Master schedule for research, development, test, production, fielding support, and other essential program activities, Business and technical management approach designed to achieve program objectives within imposed resource constraints.
Army Acquisition Categories (ACATs)
Rapid Fielding Initiative (RFI)
RFI provides oﬀ-the-shelf technology and equipment items to Soldiers to enhance their survivability, lethality, and mobility. RFI helps save Soldiers’ lives by fielding items such as the “Improved First Aid Kit” to every Soldier in theater. The Army has
issued more than a million RFI equipme
Rapid Equipping Force (REF)
REF mission is to quickly assess what operational commanders need and fill those needs by providing them with governmental and commercial oﬀ-the-shelf items th Key items deployed into combat have included armored kits for vehicles, improvised webcams to assist in searches for weapons caches, systems for searching da
F105 Manning the Army
During this lesson, you were introduced to the elements of Phase 5 of the force development process, “Document Organizational Authorizations.
” You reviewed how the Army acquires the necessary military manpower needed to sustain the force, and you completed a tutorial and two practical exercises familiarizing you
You learned that it is important to understand how the Army changes its organizational structure and the authorizations that it creates within the context of ongoing strategic co
You learned that it is important to understand how the Army changes its organizational structure and the authorizations that it creates within the context of ongoing strateg
Active Army Military Manpower Program (AAMMP)
The manpower program is produced as monthly updates and as
It is the report produced by the Enlisted Grades (EG) Model.
decision programs for the POM, Oﬃce of the Secretary of Defense
(OSD) budget submissions, and
Definition: An Internet application which augments TAADS, having vast information dissemination, along with multi-user collaboration in a real-time environment. Purpose: Provides an intuitive interface with a
single source for TAADS data analysis and extrapolation. PMAD It is one of the major systems used to support the Force Management System (FMS), which is designed to eﬀectively manage manpower, personnel, equipment, read Army Retention
Army retention is a program that ensures all Soldiers, regardless of the operation (oﬀense, defense, defense support to civil Unit commanders and unit leaders are ultimately responsible for retaining Soldiers at their level.
authorities), have access to career couns
Remember, the emphasis on this lesson is for you to understand how the Army manages change, rather than making you a functional expert on force management.
The purpose of this lesson was to introduce you to the system by which Army units are organized, and their authorizations for personnel and equipment. Authorizations for per
F106 Army Force Generation
The purpose of this lesson was to acquaint you with the Army’s structure for force generation. We discussed the challenges that necessitated a move to cyclic readiness.
The purpose of Army Force Generation is to provide:
A steady-state supply of trained, ready, and cohesive modular Army forces. Assured predictable access to RC forces to meet operational requirements. A cyclical system to allocate resources based on unit deployment schedules. More predictable unit deployments for Army Soldiers, Families and employers. An optimal deployment capability that can be sustained: deployment to dwell ratios of 1:3 years (AC) and 1:5 years (RC). An opportunity to stabilize personnel to join, train, deploy, and fight together.
Meeting the geographical combatant commander’s force requirements Restructuring (modularizing) the force while feeding the fight Equipping and manning
Handling unwieldy alert/mob/deploy processes
Focuses on continuous operations, including continued warfighting Postures for sustained level of global commitment
Establishes “pools” of units (Available and Train/Ready Force Pools) ready to fight Accepts risk with units in reset and retraining (Reset Pool) Deploys all units, AC and RC, with modernized equipment
Force Pools (Structured Progression of Readiness over Time)
RESET Force Pool
This is the initial Army Force Generation force pool.
It begins with establishing a unit‘s return date, or as they transition from the Available Force Pool. A redeploying unit establishes a return date when more than 50 percent (50 percent plus one) of the unit‘s personnel have returned to Units that are newly activated, or were previously in the Available Force Pool but have not deployed, return to the RESET Force Pool.
their home sta
Train/Ready Force Pool
Units increase training readiness and capabilities, given resource availability to AC units may be deployed and RC units may be mobilized for deployment.
meet established readiness goals.
Available Force Pool
Units are at the highest state of training and
All AC and RC rotational units cycle through
readiness capability, and are the first to be considered for sourcing operational the Available Force Pool, and may deploy or may remain focused on a specific
We discussed how Army Force Generation focuses each rotational unit against future missions as early as possible in the sourcing process, and assigns each unit to a specifi
Deployment Expeditionary Force (DEF)
AC or RC, modular or task-organized unit(s), assigned or deployed to execute Includes Defense Support of Civil Authorities
RC DEFs are mobilized, alerted, or sourced against a future requirement.
an operational mission
Contingency Expeditionary Force (CEF)
AC or RC, modular or task-organized unit prepared or preparing to execute a contingency operation plan (OPLAN) Operational units are assigned to a combatant command, which always has real-world missions and OPLANs. Exist in the Train/Ready or Available Force pools and are capable of rapid deployment Have not yet been alerted to deploy (AC) or have not been alerted for mobilization (RC) AC CEFs flow first in response to contingences.
AC CEFs are supported or relieved by RC forces in order to support the RC’s post-mobilization training requirements. AC CEFs are re-designated DEF(s) if alerted to deploy.
RC CEFs are re-designated DEF(s) when notified of sourcing (NOS) to deploy.
We discussed how Army Force Generation has established three levels of demand to meet force requirements and address imbalances.
Three Levels of Demand
The Army is capable of supporting decisive action
AC ratio: 1:3
RC ratio: 1:5
while maintaining an all-volunteer force indefinitely.
The current state
The level of demand exceeds forces in the Available Force Pool (at Steady State rotational rates). AC Ratio: 1:2
RC Ratio: 1:4
The “worst-case” state
Demand exceeds the maximum amount of modular unit forces that the Army can rotate continuously. Characterized by operationally employing more than half of all forces or capabilities in a component Under Global Force Management, we discussed how the Department of Defense manages military forces across all requirements. Assigned Forces
Forces and resources placed under the combatant command (COCOM) of a unified commander by the direction of the SecDef. Forces and resources are operational control (OPCON) to combatant commanders (CCDRs) IAW the Global Force Management Implementation Guidance (GFMIG). These forces are generally theater-committed and may rotate under Army Force Generation, based on global priorities and policies. Allocated Forces
Provided to a unified commander by the President and SecDef for execution
planning or operations. Are Army Force Generation DEFs.
CCDRs use the GFM process to request force allocation.
The Army Force Generation synchronization process validates and sources the requests. Apportioned Forces
Forces/capabilities the CJCS apportions to CCDRs for contingency planning. Level IV contingency plans, with associated time-phased force and deployment lists (TFPDLs), identify specific Army forces. Army forces are Army Force Generation CEFs until allocated for execution planning or actual execution. We also discussed the seven-step method used to respond to combatant commanders’ requests for forces and capabilities. Emergent Force Request Process
Step 1: Requests Submitted and Validated
Step 2: Joint Staﬀ Determines Responsible Joint Force Provider (JFP) Step 3: Joint Staﬀ Develops DRAFT Deployment Order (DEPORD) Step 4: Primary JFP Recommends Global Sourcing Solutions
Step 5: J31/JFP Completes the DRAFT DEPORD
Step 6: JS Recommends Global Sourcing Solution
Step 7: Joint Staﬀ Staﬀs DRAFT DEPORD with Agencies and DOD In the context of Global Force Management, we discussed how the Army manages its forces. Army Operating Forces (Globally Available Structure)
Organizations whose primary purpose is to fulfill global operational requirements Deployable, and rotational
Army Operating Forces (Theater Committed Structure)
Deployable, but primarily considered for use in assigned theaters Deployed on a temporary basis in accordance with the Global Force Management Board’s (GFMB’s) recommendations Generating Force Structure
TDA units/organizations that generate and sustain the operational Army’s capabilities for employment by joint force commanders Units/organizations with operationally-useful capabilities that can be employed by, or in direct support of, joint force commanders Available as required, but not rotational
We discussed how the Army mans, equips, trains, and sustains forces under
Army Force Generation. Army Force Generation Manning
Fill with enough of the right personnel to be able to accomplish the tasks associated with each force pool. Complete manning by deployment or transition into the Available Force Pool. Army Human Resources Command (AHRC) cannot man all authorizations to the documented grade and skill. Units must accept that some authorizations must be filled with substitutions or not at all.
F107 Operational contract Support
Soldiers / Contractors
The nature of these ideas change when contractors are part of the operation. Risk analysis.
Planning the operation.
Force flow, force caps, and JRSOI operations.
Mission command versus management.
Risk Analysis • At the personnel level: – From the perspective of keeping contractors secure. – From the perspective of keeping Soldiers secure from contractors. – How Planning the Operation • Planning from the receipt of mission • Pre-deployment for both the contractor and US forces • In-theater management and support • Through the Capabilities Available • Inherent government functions—things for which you cannot contract • Low density or highly technical specialties • Not just for logistic functions International Considerations • Is viable host-nation support available or required? • Is there a status of forces agreement (SOFA)? • Does the SOFA address contractor empl Diﬀerences in Leading Contractors/Soldiers • Chain of command versus the management chain • Legal authority • Giving orders and directing actions • Force protection Force Protection and Contractors Area and base commanders do have the authority to direct contractor personnel for matters related to force protection.