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Gung Ho Argumentative

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Most people over the age of 16 who live in Scotland will be entitled to vote. As with other UK elections, to get a vote you will need to register in advance. Unlike other UK elections, 16 and 17 year olds will be able to vote in the referendum. For more information for young voters see the Electoral Commission’s FAQs for young voters What will the question be?

The referendum question will be: “Should Scotland be an independent country?” and voters will choose yes or no. Whichever option has the most votes will win the referendum, regardless of how many people turn out to vote. What’s the process?

Constitutional arrangements are the responsibility of the UK Parliament. However, the power to legislate for the referendum was transferred to the Scottish Parliament, following the Referendum Agreement, which was signed by Prime Minister David Cameron and First Minister Alex Salmond on October 15 2012. As a result of this, the Scottish Parliament passed the Scottish Independence Referendum Act 2013 and Scottish Independence Referendum (Franchise) Act 2013 to set out the arrangements for the referendum which will take place on 18 September 2014. Why is this happening now?

This is happening now because the Scottish National Party, who campaign for Scotland to be independent, won a majority at the last Scottish Parliament election. What happens if there is a yes vote?

If a majority of those who vote want Scotland to be independent then Scotland would become an independent country after a process of negotiations. Following the negotiations Scotland would leave the United Kingdom and become a new and separate state. What happens if there is a no vote?

If a majority of those who vote want to stay part of the UK, Scotland would remain a part of the United Kingdom, with its own devolved Parliament. The UK and Scottish governments would continue to make the changes to the powers of the Scottish Parliament and Scottish government that were agreed by the parliaments in the Scotland Act 2012. (…) The UK government is not neutral on the issue of the referendum. It has a clear policy that it wishes to see Scotland remain part of the UK. On the other side of the argument, the Scottish government is clear in its policy of seeking independence. Source: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/scottish-independence-referendum

18 March 2014
Scottish independence: What’s going on in Scotland?
By Andrew Black, Political reporter, BBC Scotland

On 18 September, voters in Scotland will be asked in a referendum whether they want the nation to become independent from the rest of the United Kingdom.

Why is it happening?
The Scottish National Party (SNP), whose central aim is independence, won the 2011 Scottish Parliament election by a landslide, giving them a mandate to stage the vote. On referendum day itself, voters across Scotland will head to polling booths2 to answer the yes/no question: “Should Scotland be an independent country?” The arguments for and against

The Scottish government, led by First Minister Alex Salmond, says the 300-year-old Union is no longer fit for purpose and that an independent Scotland, with its oil wealth, would be one of the world’s richest countries. He says it’s time for Scotland to take charge of its own destiny, free from what he describes as the “shackles”3 of a London-based UK parliament. On the opposite side of the debate, the UK government, led by Prime Minister David Cameron, says Britain is one of the world’s most successful social and political unions. What are the key issues?

In recent months, two major issues have emerged – oil and currency.

North Sea oil and gas reserves (or more precisely the tax take from Scotland’s share) are vital to the Scottish government’s case for independence. Mr Salmond says earmarking a tenth of revenues – about £1bn a year – could form an oil fund similar to the one operated in Norway, creating a £30bn sovereign wealth pot over a generation.

Mr Cameron says the North Sea has been a British success story – and now the oil and gas is getting harder to recover it’s more important than ever to back the industry with the “broad shoulders” of the UK. The SNP’s opponents also argue they’re pinning future hopes on something that’s eventually going to run out. Currency

Currency has been the other big area of disagreement.
Under independence, the Scottish government wants to keep the pound as part of a formal currency union with the rest of the UK. It argues this is in everyone’s best interests, but the three main UK parties – the Conservatives, Labour and the Liberal Democrats – won’t go for it, and say that whoever’s in power after the next UK election will not agree to such a move. This position came as the UK Treasury published analysis from its top civil servant, Sir Nicholas Macpherson who outlined several reasons why currency unions were “fraught with difficulty”. On the currency, the PM says Alex Salmond is now a man without a plan Do people want independence?

Hard to say with any great certainty at the moment.
Polls generally indicate that most people don’t want independence, but Yes campaigners say the needle is swinging in their direction. Polling expert John Curtice said that, for a long time, support for independence wavered between about a quarter and a third. The professor of politics at Glasgow’s Strathclyde University now says the average “Yes” vote may have edged up to more than 40%, but warns there is still “considerable uncertainty” as to how close the referendum race is. Of the six polls published in February, Yes averages at 42% once the undecided voters are excluded.

Who gets to vote
Everyone aged 16 and over who lives in Scotland gets a direct say on Scotland’s future. That means the 800,000 Scots who live in other parts of the UK don’t get a vote, while the 400,000 people from elsewhere in Britain who live in Scotland do.

Eligibility to take part in the referendum also includes members of the armed services serving overseas who are registered to vote in Scotland.

What happens on 19 September?

On the day after the referendum, if there’s a “Yes” vote, the Scottish government is likely to have a big party. After that, it will get down to the process of negotiating4 with the rest of the UK. Mr Salmond wants to declare “Independence Day” in March 2016 with the first elections to an independent Scottish parliament in May. But, first, an agreement will have to be reached with what remains of the UK on issues like Scotland’s share of the national debt5. However, if there’s a “No” vote, the UK government is likely to have a big party, then turn its attention to the issue of giving more powers to the devolved Scottish Parliament. The Liberal Democrats have been considering this issue the longest, and a commission led by former leader Sir Menzies Campbell, says there is now growing agreement among the pro-Union parties that the Edinburgh parliament should get significant new financial powers, like increased responsibility over tax-raising.

Let’s end with a history lesson
Thanks to the 1995 Hollywood blockbuster Braveheart, many people are familiar with the Scottish wars of independence, fought between the late 13th and early 14th centuries. A series of events saw England’s King Edward overpower the Scottish kingdom in 1296, before Robert the Bruce inflicted some serious payback in the battle of Bannockburn in 1314 – an event which celebrates its 700th anniversary this year.

Other key moments through the ages included Bonnie Prince Charlie’s ill-fated invasion of England in 1745, culminating in defeat at Culloden the following year. Despite various challenges, Scotland is generally regarded to have asserted its independence from about 843, until the official unification with England took place in 1707. At the time, the view was that Scotland was desperate for cash, but opponents of the move were outraged by claims that the Scots who put their names to the Act of Union were bribed. The episode moved Scotland’s Bard, Robert Burns, to write: “We are bought and sold for English gold. Such a parcel of rogues in a nation.” The Scottish government now hopes to write another chapter in Scotland’s history. Source: http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-scotland-scotland-politics-26550736


What is Twitter? Use 5 minutes to write down what you know about Twitter, and what makes it different from for example Facebook.

Look in the compendium p. 13 (and use the link to Twitter) and find what you think is the best Twitter response to #YesBecause. Argue why you have chosen this one (funny, persuasive, dull, interesting, loud etc.)

1. Do you agree that a Twitter campaign help ‘show the diversity of the Yes movement’? Why/why not?

2. What seem to be the main argument for independence on Twitter? Why do you think that is?

3. What about the arguments against listed in the article? Do you find them persuasive towards the No-side? Why/why not?

4. Consider the 6 Yes/No- faces included in the article.

a. Will they help persuade the voters? Why/why not?

b. What is significant about the No-faces included here*?

* not included in this extract are J.K. Rowling and David Bowie as opponents of independence

#YesBecause – some of the best tweets on backing independence NEWS: The #YesBecause hashtag has become one of the top trending topics6 on Twitter, with supporters of Scottish independence using the tag to give their reasons for supporting a ‘Yes’ vote. We’ve compiled some of the best tweets here – click the link to follow the discussion on Twitter. Playwright David Greig ‏(@DavieGreig) tweeted: “#YesBecause it’s our chance to invent not just a new country, but a new way of being a country.” Carolyn Leckie ‏(@carolynleckie) tweeted: “I’m #YesBecause it gives me hope. For me, my family, my friends, my country and humanity.

I want to live free from fear. Seize the day. Live.” Aye Talks (@AyeTalks) tweeted: “I’m #YesBecause an unelected head of state, an unelected upper house and a cabinet full of aristocrats and millionaires isn’t a democracy.” Drew McGowan (@TheRealMcGowan) tweeted: “I’m #YesBecause Scotland is the 14th wealthiest nation in the world but, in the housing schemes, it doesn’t look like a wealthy country.” Graham Spencer (@grhmspncr) tweeted: “I’m from London and I’m #YesBecause Scotland can show the way with devolved power. Love this city but it sucks life out of nations & regions”

View more Tweets at:

Source: http://www.scotsman.com/scottish-independence/yesbecause-some-of-the-best-tweets-on-backing-independence/

#YesBecause Day Takes Over Twitter As Scots Tell The World Why They’re Voting For Independence (extract) The Huffington Post UK, Posted: 21/08/2014

Thousands took to Twitter Thursday to tell the world why they will be voting ‘Yes’ in the upcoming Scottish independence referendum. #YesBecause is trending across social media platforms this morning as a campaign was launched urging Scots to “show the diversity7 of the Yes movement.” The social media campaign, triggered by a group of Edinburgh-based artists and writers called the National Collective, has the ultimate aim of “arguing the positive case for Scottish independence and imagining a better Scotland.”

The idea, inspired by the popularity of the hashtag #IndyReasons – which the group says reached over two million people in 24 hours – is for Yes activists to create Tweets, Facebook status updates, photographs and films of their reasons for voting Yes using the hashtag. And it’s quickly catching on, with thousands weighing in8 to voice their reasons for supporting an independent Scotland. Yes campaigners have long argued that Scotland will prosper through independence and that if Edinburgh was given full control over social policy, it would flourish9 economically as a country and become an equal to England. But not everyone is so keen on the idea of independence, with many taking to Twitter in retaliation with the defiant10 #NoBecause hashtag. ( https://twitter.com/search?f=realtime&q=%23nobecause&src=typd)

Earlier this week, two opinion polls showed that Scotland’s voters are narrowly divided on whether to leave the UK one month before the referendum. Sunday’s published polls both found that a majority of decided voters want Scotland to stay within the UK alongside England, Wales and Northern Ireland. But they found support for independence growing ahead of the September 18 vote — and still-undecided voters holding the balance. Here’s where some prominent faces stand:

Source: http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/2014/08/21/yesbecause-day-scottish-independence-_n_5697231.html?utm_hp_ref=tw Pre-reading
What kind of different newspaper articles do you know of? Name at least three kinds What is the difference between these kinds of articles? Choose three and explain aspects like objectivity, reporting, opinion etc. Homework

Write a letter to a friend about Scotland and the referendum. The letter should be approx. 200 words long and must include all of the following words as they are written here (you can change the first letter to a Capital letter): gentleman


Questions for the text
1) What kind of article is this? Explain why – with examples from the text

2) According to the author, what is the main reason for Scots wanting their independence from Britain?

3) What has Britain’s reaction been to the Referendum?
From Parliament?
From the public?

4) What will be the ultimate consequence of Scotland becoming independent? (According to this article)

5) Will this be a good or bad thing for England? Why? (Use the text to explain the author’s reasons)

Øverst på formularen
If I were a Scot, I might vote yes to independence. As it is, I can only plead with them to stay (extract) Ignored for so long, it’s little wonder so many in Scotland are straining to break away. But heaven help us all if they do Share 10785 in Share7
Jonathan Freedland, Friday 7 February 2014

‘If the Scots leave the union, those left behind will have to make, say, ‘English’ a looser, more inclusive category.’ Illustration by Toby Morison Even before David Cameron had opened his mouth, a Scottish friend of mine got in touch. “Today reminds me of an old joke,” his email began, “about a pilot announcing that he’ll have to make an emergency landing in the sea. Panicked passengers ask the flight attendant where the life vests are. ‘Oh,’ says the flight attendant, ‘so now you’re interested.'” For Scots, especially those who have grappled11 with the question of home rule12 for 35 years or more, the British prime minister and the rest of the London political class have left it awfully late to start paying attention now.

With just seven months to go till Scots vote yes or no to independence, the rest of the United Kingdom is like a husband whose wife has been threatening divorce for three decades – but waits till she’s got a suitcase in her hand and her coat on before looking up from the couch to say: “Can’t we talk about this?” Cameron mentioned divorce in the speech – more a plea, really – that he delivered in the Olympic Park in London today, but this is not only about him. … The truth is, the whole of non-Scottish Britain is implicated in this one. Wherever you look, the attention paid to Scotland’s choice has been scant. And that’s putting it nicely. Cameron was right to say that the response of the country that could become rUK – the rump United Kingdom that will be left behind – on 19 September has consisted either of a two-fingered13 good riddance; a regretful sigh, resigned that there is nothing to be done; or else a neutral, unbothered shrug of the shoulders.

The PM was surely right too that the first reaction – outright hostility – is rare. Lethargy and inaction dominate. It’s odd, this reaction. If France or the US were facing the possibility of losing of their landmass and a tenth of their people, you can bet they’d be at least curious. But here the apathy14 is deafening. Some will say that’s only because the prospect is not serious, given that polls show the no side comfortably ahead. If that’s the explanation, it could be resting on a faulty premise. As the SNP15 leader, Alex Salmond, likes to point out, the last seven polls have tightened – in favour of yes. More to the point, … previously hard ground is shifting in Scotland. Once solid unionists, including those from staunch Labour backgrounds, are at least considering voting for independence.

Even activists for the save-the-union Better Together campaign admit that where there is movement, it is from no to yes: next to no one is moving in the other direction. Unionists also admit that in Salmond’s SNP they face a rival that can summon deeper resources, more activists and greater enthusiasm, as well as a formidable on-the-ground operation. But the shrug16 shown to Scotland by the rest of Britain is about more than a reading of the polls. There has also been a failure – and I include myself in this – to take seriously the motivation for independence. If London-based commentators like me have engaged in this debate at all, it’s mainly been to make the case for the union and leave it at that. Too few of us have probed deeply into why so many Scots want to break away. (…)

What’s driving so many Scots to consider saying yes has less to do with their view of Scotland than what they believe has happened to Britain. Again and again, from people who would never describe themselves as nationalists, I heard the same story. Since 1979 Britain has been breaking away from what used to be called the postwar settlement. Led by an overdominant London and south-east, British politics has been tugged rightward. The prevailing ethos of the past 35 years has been one of turbo-capitalism, privatisation and a shrinking welfare state. Yes, the process was begun by Margaret Thatcher, but Tony Blair and Gordon Brown did little to stop it, and in some cases accelerated it. And Scotland wants no part of it. (…)

This, then, is what’s driving so many Scots to consider making the break: a despairing fear that, given the way a few marginal seats in middle England can decide UK elections, Britain will never again return to the kind of social democratic values that still find a ready consensus in Scotland. It’s not that the Scots are leaving Britain – it’s that Britain has left them. Viewed like this, the campaign for independence requires a different response from those outside Scotland. It is devilishly difficult, as Cameron’s speech showed. That he delivered it in London highlighted the most obvious problem: that for the English to get involved immediately looks like hectoring from on high. When the case for the union is made by a southern English Tory public schoolboy, it simply reinforces everything yes voters want to get away from. (…)

The loss for Britain’s progressives would be great indeed. Gone would be that tug leftward, that counterbalance to the politics of the overheated English south-east. This is not abstract. If Scotland goes, so too will 59 MPs for Scottish seats – only one of whom is currently a Conservative: the bloc that has made Labour governments possible. (…) There will be another loss, too. “British” has become a capacious, even a generous, category. It hyphenates easily. Because it always stood for a plural, multinational identity, it is able, by definition, to accommodate difference: you could always be Welsh-British or Scottish-British, so now you can be Black British or Muslim British. “Welsh” or “English” have not functioned the same way.

That’s not to say they can’t. If the Scots leave the union, those left behind will have to make, say, “English” a looser, more inclusive category. But that is the work of at least a generation. And it will feel like building from scratch a house we built long ago. So I no longer dismiss the Scottish yearning behind yes. If I were a Scot, I might well be leaning that way myself. But since I’m not, I can only plead with them to stay. I can see what they might gain by leaving. But it will be our loss.

Prime Minister on Scotland: “Put simply: Britain works. Britain works well. Why break it?”

From: Cabinet Office and The Rt Hon David Cameron MP
Delivered on: 10 February 2013 (Transcript of the speech, exactly as it was delivered) History: Published 10 February 2013
Part of: Informing the debate on Scotland’s constitutional future and Scotland

Next year Scots will be asked to make a huge political decision: whether to stay in the UK or to go it alone. As Britain’s Prime Minister I’ve always been clear that this is a decision for people living in Scotland to make. But I do care passionately about the outcome – and I will make the case for the UK with everything I’ve got. For me that case comes down to two things: heart and head. It’s about heart because our nations share a proud and emotional history. Over three centuries we have built world-renowned17 institutions like the NHS18 and BBC, fought for freedom and democracy in two World Wars, and pioneered19 and traded around the world. Our ancestors explored the world together and our grandfathers went into battle together as do our kith and kin20 today – and this leaves deep, unbreakable bonds between the peoples of these islands.

But the case for the UK is about head as well as heart – our future as well as our past. I have no time for those who say there is no way Scotland could go it alone. I know first-hand the contribution Scotland and Scots make to Britain’s success – so for me there’s no question about whether Scotland could be an independent nation. The real question is whether it should – whether Scotland is stronger, safer, richer and fairer21 within our United Kingdom or outside it. And here, I believe, the answer is clear. Britain is admired around the world as a source of prosperity22, power and security. Those glorious Olympics last summer reminded us just what we were capable of when we pull together: Scottish, English, Welsh, Northern Irish, all in the same boat – sometimes literally.

If you told many people watching those Olympics around the world that we were going to erect barriers between our people, they’d probably be baffled. Put simply: Britain works. Britain works well. Why break it? Of course there are difficult challenges to face and tough choices to make. There always are – in government and in our everyday lives. These wouldn’t disappear if Scotland broke apart from the UK. But those arguing for separation want to force you to make another choice – to choose between Scotland and Britain. I say why should you be forced to make that choice? Our United Kingdom is four nations united for the common good of all its citizens.

With its own Scottish Government and Parliament within the UK, Scots can take important decisions affecting their daily lives: decisions about what their children are taught at school; the way in which hospitals provide care; and how public transport operates across the country. Scots can take all of these decisions and more to meet the specific needs of Scotland – and they can do so without losing the benefits of being part of the UK and having a full say in its future – economic strength and opportunity, international influence and national security. Scotland within the UK has a system of government that offers the best of both worlds. Why swap23 Scottish MPs24, Scottish Cabinet Ministers and Scots throughout UK institutions, for one Scottish Ambassador in London?

So what should happen from here until the vote? I know those arguing for independence are already preparing their separation transition 25 plan, as though they’ve got this in the bag, but to me that is wrong. It’s like fast-forwarding to the closing credits before you’ve been allowed to see the movie. The Scottish people still have many months to think about this decision and they are hungry for facts, evidence and expert opinion to help them make up their minds. As one of Scotland’s two governments, the UK Government has a duty to help inform people with hard facts. So we’ll be providing expert-based analysis to explain Scotland’s place within the UK and how it might change with separation – and our first paper is published tomorrow.

We don’t shy away from putting facts and evidence before the Scottish people. We want you to scrutinize26, challenge and form your own opinion. This must not be a leap in the dark, but a decision made in the light of day. This big question is for Scotland to decide. But the answer matters to all of our United Kingdom. Scotland is better off in Britain. We’re all better off together and poorer apart. Devolution

Prime Minister on Scotland
Rhetorical analysis
Make a rhetorical pentagon for the speech – what is the intention/purpose of the speech?

Find examples of the forms of appeal (ethos, pathos, logos) and explain why they are used (or not used)

Find examples of rhetorical devices – and explain how they are used ( for instance, when looking at a contrastive pair – why is it these two that are put together – what is the author trying to say?)

Find at least 4 examples of English idioms – and translate them into Danish

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