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Functional Areas of a Business

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The functional areas basically refer to the organizational structures set by companies so as to achieve their set goals. Some of the functional areas of a business include; Human resource department, marketing professionals, customers service and the accounting professionals CITATION Sut14 l 1033 (Suttle, 2014). The human Resource Department is responsible for hiring the employees and ensuring that the employees get proper training so as to perform their jobs effectively. The marketing professionals determine the type of products that the company should introduce into market after conducting marketing research and determining what the consumer needs CITATION Sut14 l 1033 (Suttle, 2014). The customer service representative on the other hand are in charge of answering calls and requests from customers. Finally, the accounting professionals mainly deal with the accounts receivable, payroll and the accounts payable CITATION Sut14 l 1033 (Suttle, 2014).

Stare Decisis

        Stare Decisis is a Latin term that means “to stand by things decided.” The court cite stare decisis when an issue had already been brought to court before and a ruling made over it. In most cases the court is likely to adhere to the previous ruling CITATION Cor14 l 1033 (Cornell University Law School, 2014). The general principle in common law is that similar cases should be decided in such a manner that they give predictable and similar outcomes. The principle of precedent on the other hand refers to the mechanism by which the goal is attained.

The Appellate Process from the Superior Court to the Supreme Court

        The Superior Court, mainly deals with two major types of cases, and these are civil and criminal cases. The trials in both civil and criminal cases are conducted the same way. A petition for review is only filed at the Supreme Court if a party would like the Supreme Court to hear the case CITATION Ari14 l 1033 (Arizona Supreme Court, 2014). After the filing of the petition, the record is transferred from the Superior Court to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court then examines the petition and the support material after which it decides whether to deny or grant review of the appeal. If the courts grants review of the appeal, then the appeal will be declared successful CITATION Ari14 l 1033 (Arizona Supreme Court, 2014).

The Federal Appellate Districts in the United States

Court of Appeal Region

1st Circuit District of Maine

District of Hampshire

District of Puerto Rico

2nd Circuit District of Rhode Island

District of Connecticut

Eastern District of New York

Southern District of New York

Western District of New York

District of Vermont

3rd Circuit District of Delaware

District of New Jersey

Eastern District Pennsylvania

Middle District of Pennsylvania

Western District of Pennsylvania

District of Virgin Island

4th Circuit District of West Virginia

Northern District of West Virginia

Western District of Virginia

Eastern District of Virginia

District of South Carolina

Western District of North Carolina

Middle District of North Carolina

Eastern District of Carolina

District of Maryland

5th Circuit Eastern District of Louisiana

Middle District of Louisiana

Western District of Louisiana

Southern District of Mississippi

Eastern District of Texas

Northern District of Texas

Southern District of Texas

Western District of Texas

6th Circuit Western District of Tennessee

Middle District of Tennessee

Eastern District of Tennessee

Western District of Tennessee

Northern District of Ohio

Southern District Ohio

Western District of Michigan

Eastern District of Michigan

Western District of Kentucky

Eastern District of Kentucky.

7th Circuit Northern District of Illinois

Central District of Illinois

Southern District of Illinois

Northern District of Indiana

Southern District of Indiana

Eastern District of Wisconsin

Western District of Wisconsin

8th Circuit Western District of Arkansas

Eastern District of Arkansas

Northern District of Iowa

Southern District of Iowa

District of Nebraska

District of North Dakota

9th Circuit District of Alaska

District of Arizona

Central District of California

Eastern District of California

Northern District of California

Southern District of California

District of Guam

District of Hawaii

District of Idaho

District of Montana

District of Nevada

District of the Northern Mariana Island

District of Oregon

Eastern District of Washington

Western District of Washington

10th Circuit District of Colorado

District of Kansas

District of New Mexico

Eastern District of Oklahoma

Northern District of Oklahoma

Western District of Oklahoma

District of Utah

District of Wyoming

11th Circuit Northern District of Alabama

Middle District of Alabama

Sothern District of Alabama

Northern District of Florida

Southern District of Florida

Northern District of Georgia

Middle District of Georgia

Southern District of Georgia

The figure above shows the Federal Appellate Districts in the United States CITATION Fed14 l 1033 (Federal Judiciary, 2014).


BIBLIOGRAPHY Arizona Supreme Court. (2014, October 18). How a Case Moves Through the Court System. Retrieved from Azcourts.gov: http://www.azcourts.gov/guidetoazcourts/HowaCaseMovesThroughtheCourtSystem.aspx

Cornell University Law School. (2014). Stare decisis. Retrieved October 18, 2014, from http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/stare_decisis

Federal Judiciary. (2014, October 18). COURT LOCATOR. Retrieved from UNITED STATES COURTS: http://www.uscourts.gov/court_locator.aspx

Suttle, R. (2014). Functional Areas of a Typical Business. Retrieved October 18, 2014, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/functional-areas-typical-business-10024.html

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