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Evolution of Management Argumentative

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1. Scientific Management- A Subfield of classical management perspective that emphasized scientifically determined changes in the management practices as th solution to improvin labor.

Fredirick Winston Taylor (1856-1915)- Taylor theory that labor productivity could be improved by scientifically determined management practices. “father of scientific management” taylor philosophy is encapsulated in his statement “In the past the man has been first, In the future the system must be first”.

Henry Grant- Associate of Taylor, developed the Grant Chart. A bar graph that measures planned and completed works along each stage of production by time elapsed.

Lilian M. Gilbert (1878-1972) Frank B. Gilbert (1868-1924)- His “time and motion and her work in industrial psychology pioneered many of todays management and humar resourses.
2. Bureaucratic Organization – emphasized management on an impersonal, radical basis through such elements as clearly defined authority and responsibility, formla recordkeeping, and separation of management and ownership.

Max Weber (1864-1920)- The German theorists concept on bureaucratic organization have contributed to the efficiencies of many of today’s corporation.

6 Weberian ideal bureaucracy: 1. Division of labor with clear definition of authority and responsibility, 2. Position organized in a hierarchy of authority, 3. Manager subject to rules and procedures that will ensure reliable predictable behavior, 4. Management seperate from the ownership of the organization, 5. Administrative acts and decision recorded in writting, 6. Personnle seleced and promoted based on Technical Qualification. 3. Administrative principles – A subfield of classical management perspective that focused on the total organization rather than the individual worker, delineating the management function of Planning, Organizing, Commanding, Coordinating, and Controlling.

Henry Taylor (1841-1925)- French mining engineer. Must significant work General and Industrial Management discuss 14 general principles of management several of which are part of management philosophy today.

“Division of Work”- Managerial and Technical work are amenable to specialization to produce more and better work with the same amount of effort.

“Unity of Direction”- similar activities in an organization should be grouped together under one manager.

“Scalar Chain”- A chain of authority extend from the top to the bottom of the organization include every employee.

5 basic function or element of management: Planning, Organizing, Communicating, Coordinating, and Controlling.

Mary Parker Follet (1808-1933)- He emphasized on worker participation and shared goals among manager.

Chester I. Barnard (1886-1961)- His contribution his concept of “Informal Organization” occurs in all formal organization and includes cliques and natural occurring social grouping. Another contribution was the “acceptance theories of authority” which states that people have free will and can choose whether to follow management order.

Humanistic perspective
Mary Parker Follet and Chester Bernard were early advocates of a mere “Humanistic Perspective” on management that emphasized the importance of understanding human behavior needs and attitudes in the workplace as well as social interaction and group processes.

3 subfield based on humanistic perspective

1. The Human Relation Movement- A movement in management thinking and practices that emphasized satisfaction of employees basic needs as the key to increased worker productivity.

2. The Human Resources Perspective- Espoused as “dairy form” view of management. A management to meet higher level need by allowing workers to use their full potenetial. two of the best known contributors:

Abraham Maslow(1908-1970)- Suggested a hierarchy of needs. started with psychological needs and progressed to safety, belongingness, esteem and finally, self-actualization needs.

Douglas McGregor(1908-1970)- formulated Theory X and Theory Y.

3. Behavioral Science Approach- Applies social science in an organizational context, drawing from economics, psychology, sociology and other discipline.

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