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Describing the Different Types of Abuse

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1. Physical abuse – This is causing someone physical harm, for example hitting, pushing, slapping, kicking etc. 2. Sexual abuse – Any form of sexual activities that a person has not or cannot give consents to or have been forced into, for example rape. 3. Emotional/psychological – This is causing some mental distress by using verbal abuse, threats, humiliation, control and intimidation. 4. Financial abuse – Taking people’s money goods or property without their permission 5. Institutional abuse – Services that fail to recognise the rights of service users and offer a poor quality of care or which tolerate ways of working which cause harm to vulnerable people. 6. Self-neglect – Failure of an adult to take care of himself/herself. 7. Neglect by others – When an individual is denied their basic rights and is given inadequate care. (Aii)

Signs and symptoms of the different types of abuse
Physical Abuse:
* Unexplained injuries
* Unexplained burns, cuts, bruises, Marks
* Flinching when approached

Sexual Abuse:
* Withdrawn
* Not wanting to be touched
* Unexplained injuries to genitals
* Overly sexualised Behaviour or language
* Genital soreness or infection

Emotional/Psychological Abuse:
* Lack of concentration on difficulty in focussing
* Overly anxious to please
* Loss of skills or abilities
* Withdrawal
* Agitation
* Depression

Financial Abuse:
* Suddenly unable to pay their bills
* Unexplained lack of money
* Being extra protective of money and possessions
* Sudden unexplained withdrawal of money from accounts.

Institutional Abuse:
* Inadequate equipment to support care given
* No care or support plan
* Inability to make choices or decisions
* Agitation if routine is broken
* Shared possessions in a residential setting.

* Dirty or dishevelled appearance
* Medication taken incorrectly or not taken
* Unexplained marks, cuts or bruises
* Not eating any food
* Weight loss
* Lack of confidence and self-esteem
* Drug and alcohol dependency
* Medical conditions that are obvious left untreated.

Neglect by others:
* Absence of prescribe medication
* Absence of food, heat and hygiene
* Not allowing client to have access to services
* Dirty or unkempt appearance
* Weight loss or gain.

Actions that should be taken if you suspect an individual is being abuse:
1. Follow organisational procedures.
2. Report immediately to the correct person.
3. Record exactly what is suspect and why you come to that conclusion.
4. Keep it confidential – only disclose it to those who have a need to know. (Aiv)

Actions that should be taken if an individual told you they are being abused:
1. Follow organisational policies and procedures.
2. Listen to them carefully.
3. Assume the individual is telling the truth.
4. Report it to your manager.
5. If it is a criminal matter you need to call the police.
6. Reassure the individual.
7. Do not ask leading questions.
8. Tell the individual what you are going to do and why.
9. Record exactly what the individual told you.
10. Preserve any evidence.

Examples of ways to ensure that any evidence of abuse is kept safe: * Do not handle items unless it is necessary to move them and make them safe * Avoid physical contact with the victim if it is possible * Try to keep people out of the way

* Keep it in a safe so the perpetrators won’t find it
* Advise the individual not to move or touch anything relevant * Photographs may be taken if it is appropriate and the individual agrees * Anything used as weapon should be left on site.

The National Policies That Sets out Requirements for Safeguarding Adults: * Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS)
* Care Quality Commission (CQC)
* ‘Safeguarding Adults’ policy review (2009)
* employer/organisational policies and procedures
* ‘No Secrets framework and codes of practice for health and social care (2000).

The local and organisational systems for safeguarding:
* Local Area Agreements (LAAs)
* Local Safeguarding Adults Boards (LSABs) and protection committees

The roles of different agencies and professionals that are involved in safeguarding individuals are:

1. Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS) – Checks police records of individuals to make sure they are suitable to work with children and vulnerable adults. 2. Social Worker – Carryout the assessment in

3. Medical Professionals (nurses, doctors etc.) – They examine and treat injuries, illness and medical conditions. They can also gather evidence to support police investigation into suspected abuse. 4. Care Quality Commission (CQC) – If you have followed organisational policies and procedures and reported a situation of abuse and you are not getting reasonable feedback about what action is being taken and you do not believe your complaint has been act upon. 5. Police – They investigate crimes and will take action to prosecute if sufficient evidence is found. In addition, they can arrange support for victims of crimes. 6. Regulator Body – They register and inspect agencies and care providers, and can require changes to practice to protect individuals.

Social care workers can access support, advice and information to help them to understand their role in safeguarding from:

* The Manager or senior member of staff
* The company’s handbook
* Relevant website for example, www.birming.gov.uk/safeguarding adults.
* Training Sessions.

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