Declarative and Procedural Knowledge
- Pages: 2
- Word count: 484
- Category: Knowledge
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Declarative knowledge, also called explicit memory, is the memory of facts and events. It would include the memeory of a birthday party when a person was a child as well as the facts about family and friends. Hence it is a completely conceptual memory (Brannon, & Koubek, 2001; Kirkhart, 2001; Kowalski, & Westen, 2005; Reber, Knowlton, & Squire, 1996).
Procedural knowledge, also called implicit memory, is exactly the opposite of declarative knowledge. Procedural knowledge is just that, the ability know of how to do something, or the procedure to complete a task, like math problems, or playing an instrument (Brannon, & Koubek, 2001; Kirkhart, 2001; Kowalski, & Westen, 2005; Reber, Knowlton, & Squire, 1996).
Both types of knowledge can be recalled unconsciously, such as when something is an automatic response to a particular cue that does not require thought. But memories can also be recalled consciously, but again cues must be present to stimulate the mind to bring the event or action to consciousness (Brannon, & Koubek, 2001; Kirkhart, 2001; Kowalski, & Westen, 2005; Reber, Knowlton, & Squire, 1996).
Through language studies it has been shown that the two types of knowledge are separate and do not work in relation to one another. The fact that someone can know a specific rule about a language, but fails to use the rule is a prime example of how the two types of knowledge work independently. There are ways in which people can help create bonds between the procedural memory and declarative memeory and thereby gaining the positive aspects of both. One was is by association of the idea, or skill. When associating the task with the opposite the memory becomes both declarative and procedural (Strategies for Learning Grammar).
The basis of all memory is declarative and procuderual. Even to doctors these are the types of memory based on the prototypical and exemplar types of categorization. When they all work together memories are stored and easily recalled. The more associations between memories, the more detail the memory and the closer it is to consciousness.
Brannon, N.G. & Koubek, R.J. (2001, Oct). Towards a conceptual model of procedural knowledge degradation. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science. 2(4). pp. 317-335. Retrieved January 12, 2009 from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=6590430&site=ehost-live
Kirkhart, M.W. (2001, Oct). The nature of declarative and nondeclarative knowledge for implicit and explicit learning. Journal of General Psychology. 128(4). pp. 447 – 462. Retrieved January 12, 2009 from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=6693257&site=ehost-live
Kowalski, R. and Westen, D. (2005). Memory. In Psychology. 4th Ed. (pp. 191-227). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Reber, P.J., Knowlton, B.J., & Squire, L.R. (1996, Oct). Dissociable properties of memory systems: Differences in the flexibility of declarative and nondeclarative knowledge. Behavioral Neuroscience. 110(5). pp.861-871. Retrieved January 12, 2009 from
Strategies for Learning Grammar. (n.d.). Retrieved January 12, 2009, from http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/grammar/stratgram.htm