We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy

Declarative and Procedural Knowledge

The whole doc is available only for registered users
  • Pages: 2
  • Word count: 484
  • Category: Knowledge

A limited time offer! Get a custom sample essay written according to your requirements urgent 3h delivery guaranteed

Order Now

            Declarative knowledge, also called explicit memory, is the memory of facts and events.  It would include the memeory of a birthday party when a person was a child as well as the facts about family and friends.  Hence it is a completely conceptual memory (Brannon, & Koubek, 2001; Kirkhart, 2001; Kowalski, & Westen, 2005; Reber, Knowlton, & Squire, 1996).

            Procedural knowledge, also called implicit memory, is exactly the opposite of declarative knowledge.  Procedural knowledge is just that, the ability know of how to do something, or the procedure to complete a task, like math problems, or playing an instrument (Brannon, & Koubek, 2001; Kirkhart, 2001; Kowalski, & Westen, 2005; Reber, Knowlton, & Squire, 1996).

Both types of knowledge can be recalled unconsciously, such as when something is an automatic response to a particular cue that does not require thought.  But memories can also be recalled consciously, but again cues must be present to stimulate the mind to bring the event or action to consciousness (Brannon, & Koubek, 2001; Kirkhart, 2001; Kowalski, & Westen, 2005; Reber, Knowlton, & Squire, 1996).

Through language studies it has been shown that the two types of knowledge are separate and do not work in relation to one another.  The fact that someone can know a specific rule about a language, but fails to use the rule is a prime example of how the two types of knowledge work independently.  There are ways in which people can help create bonds between the procedural memory and declarative memeory and thereby gaining the positive aspects of both.  One was is by association of the idea, or skill.  When associating the task with the opposite the memory becomes both declarative and procedural (Strategies for Learning Grammar).

The basis of all memory is declarative and procuderual.  Even to doctors these are the types of memory based on the prototypical and exemplar types of categorization.  When they all work together memories are stored and easily recalled.  The more associations between memories, the more detail the memory and the closer it is to consciousness.


Brannon, N.G. & Koubek, R.J. (2001, Oct). Towards a conceptual model of procedural knowledge degradation. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science. 2(4). pp. 317-335.  Retrieved January 12, 2009 from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=6590430&site=ehost-live

Kirkhart, M.W. (2001, Oct). The nature of declarative and nondeclarative knowledge for implicit and explicit learning.  Journal of General Psychology. 128(4).  pp. 447 – 462.  Retrieved January 12, 2009 from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=6693257&site=ehost-live

Kowalski, R. and Westen, D. (2005). Memory.  In Psychology. 4th Ed. (pp. 191-227). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Reber, P.J., Knowlton, B.J., & Squire, L.R. (1996, Oct). Dissociable properties of memory systems: Differences in the flexibility of declarative and nondeclarative knowledge. Behavioral Neuroscience. 110(5). pp.861-871.  Retrieved January 12, 2009 from


Strategies for Learning Grammar. (n.d.). Retrieved January 12, 2009, from http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/grammar/stratgram.htm

Related Topics

We can write a custom essay

According to Your Specific Requirements

Order an essay
Materials Daily
100,000+ Subjects
2000+ Topics
Free Plagiarism
All Materials
are Cataloged Well

Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email.

By clicking "SEND", you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy. We'll occasionally send you account related and promo emails.
Sorry, but only registered users have full access

How about getting this access

Your Answer Is Very Helpful For Us
Thank You A Lot!


Emma Taylor


Hi there!
Would you like to get such a paper?
How about getting a customized one?

Can't find What you were Looking for?

Get access to our huge, continuously updated knowledge base

The next update will be in:
14 : 59 : 59