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Database Development Process

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  • Pages: 4
  • Word count: 956
  • Category: Business

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1. Define business processes
Many database development efforts begin by defining the key business and/or operational processes within the organization
Developers first create high-level models showing the major activity steps associated with marketing, sales, production, human resource management, public relations, research and development, and so on

Taken together, these process maps represent an enterprise-wide model of the organization and its core 2. Determine scope of database development effort

The next step in the database development effort is to select one process or a set of related processes for further analysis and improvement 3. Define the information needs

Once a business process (or set of processes) has been selected, the next step is to define the information needs of users involved in or affected by the business process. 4. Develop conceptual design

A basic understanding of these needs is used to create a conceptual design for the database
At this stage, a conceptual data model is created that illustrates relationships between information sources, users, and business process steps 5. Develop logical data model

The conceptual data model is used to develop a logical data model based on one of the primary DBMS types: relational, hierarchical, network, or object-oriented approaches. 6. Develop physical design

With the logical data model in hand, developers move to the physical design, which involves determining the specific storage and access methods and structures 7. Create and test database
Once this step is complete, developers can go ahead and create the database using whatever DBMS has been selected
Small amounts of data can be entered into the database for testing purposes

This is also the time to start developing sample screens and reports to determine if the database design will meet the predefined requirements
It is much easier to revise and change the database during this testing phase, before all of the data have been entered
The term prototyping refers to the iterative process used to try different report formats and input screens to determine their suitability and effectiveness Information Systems Architecture (ISA)

Conceptual blueprint for organization’s desired information systems structure Consists of:
ď‚—Data – represented as some type of entity relationship diagram ď‚—Processes – manipulate data; represented by data flow diagrams ď‚—Data Network – transports the data; often shown as schematic networks links ď‚—People – key sources and receivers of data and information ď‚—Events and Points in Time – when processes are performed; often shown as state transition diagrams ď‚—Reasons (Rules) for events that govern the processing of data; listed in policy and procedure manuals Information Systems Architecture(ISA)

Information Engineering
A data-oriented methodology to create and maintain information systems Top-down planning: a generic IS planning methodology for obtaining a broad understanding of the IS needed by the entire organization Four steps to Top-Down planning:

Information Engineering Methodology
ď‚—top management goals and critical success factors
how technology can be used to create new opportunities or competitive advantages A high level overview is created of the enterprise, its functions, data, and information needs Analysis
what processes are needed to run a selected business area how these processes interrelate, and what data is needed Design
How selected processes in the business area are implemented in procedures and how these procedures work. Direct end user involvement is needed in the design of procedures Implementation
ď‚—Implementation of the procedures using, where practical, code generators, fourth generation languages, and end user tools ď‚—Desire is link to construction by means of prototyping

Strategic Information Systems Planning
The process of identifying a portfolio of computer-based applications to be implemented, which is both highly aligned with corporate strategy and has the ability to create an advantage over competitors (Doherty et al., 1999) Strategic Information Systems Planning

Comprehensiveness –“the extent to which an organization attempts to be exhaustive or inclusive in making and integrating strategic decisions” Formalization – “the existence of structures, techniques, written procedures, and policies that guide the planning process” Focus – “the balance between creativity and control orientations inherent within the strategic planning system” Top-down flow – SISP should be initiated by top managers, with the aid of support staff Broad participation – even though the planning flow is top-down, participation must involve multiple functional areas and, as necessary, key stakeholders at lower levels of the organization High consistency – SISP should be characterized by frequent meetings and reassessments of the overall strategy The Role of a Repository

Repository is a place where things are deposited or stored.
In DBMS, a repository is consists of database tables that store metadata which by default consists of 247 objects (183 tables and 64 views). It saves the mapping information and notations. In Microsoft® SQL Server™ 2000, there is a Repository Component, and this Repository Component has a Repository Engine, a service that provides basic functions for storing and retrieving objects and maintaining the relationships among them, a Repository API, a programming interface that is used to drive the repository engine from within application code, and a Repository Database that stores physical data. Such data includes repository type libraries that contain type information or object instance data, and tables used to map or otherwise manage object relationships. Pitfalls of Strategic IS Planning

Strategic information systems planning (SISP) is the process whereby an organization establishes a long-range plan of computer-based applications in order to achieve its goals. A number of problems can potentially impede information systems planners as they carry out the process. The current study uses a survey of eighty IS planners to investigate a causal relationship among the problems. It reveals a casual model describing: (1)The influence of organization problems on hardware, cost, and database problems, and (2) The influence of organization, hardware, cost, and database problems on implementation problems, where in cost problems had the largest direct effect on implementation problems.

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