Cyber crime: types and its impact on human life
- Pages: 11
- Word count: 2575
- Category: Identity Theft
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Computer widely used to connect the world and also used to perform various tasks at once. Individuals, organization, government and committees use computer technology to innovate the most of things of their daily routine, such as food, care, entertainment, services, communication, and education. Every technology has very advantages and it also comes with certain drawbacks. Cyber crimes are one of the most harmful drawbacks of computer technology. Cyber crime makes speedy and fast life of people dangerous, unsecure and deadliest type of criminality. Therefore, in this paper a systematic understanding of cyber crimes and their impacts over various areas like social, political, youth, economical, etc are explained.
INDEXED TERMS- Cybercrime, omnipresent, technology.
Crime is a term used to describe criminal activity; like that Cybercrime is broadly used to describe criminal activity in computers or computer networks, which are a target or a place of criminal activity. In short Cybercrimes are Crimes in which computer is used as a weapon to launch a denial-of-Service (DoS) attack. The Cyber crime can misguide the planes by misguiding with wrong signals, it may cause any important confidential data of government to be fall in hands of foreign countries, it can halt any railway where it is, and it can collapse e-media within fraction of seconds.
The present study has been undertaken to highlight some aspects, effects of cyber crime in India. Today, criminals of cyber crime are not motivated by ego or expertise. Instead, they use their knowledge to gain money promptly. They misuse their brain to snip and exploit people as they find it easy to earn money without having stress and hard work and also without doing honest work.
Cyber crime involves both hardware and software. Common types of cyber crimes are Computer Frauds, Harassment, Stalking and Identity Theft.
Different Survey on Cybercrime
The Secret Service’s Electronic Crimes Task Force (ECTF) investigates cases that electronic crimes, particularly attacks on the nation’s financial and critical infrastructures. The Secret Service also runs the National Computer Forensics Institute (NCFI), which provide state and local law enforcement, judges and prosecutors with training in Computer forensics. The Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3), a partnership between the FBI, the National White Collar Crime Center (NW3C) and the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), accepts online complaints from victims of internet crimes or interested third parties. In 2017, as per the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In), a total of 27,482 cases of cybercrimes have been reported across the world. In India, at least one cyber attack was reported every 10 minutes in the first six months of 2017.These include phishing, scanning or probing, site intrusions, defacements virus or malicious code, ransom ware and denial-of-service attack.
Types of Cyber Crime:
In order to protect our self everyone need to know the different ways by which our computer can be compromised and our privacy infringed. In the current manuscript common tools and techniques employed by the cyber criminals. The idea of the loopholes in networks and security systems, which can be exploited by attackers, and also their possible motives for doing so.
In simple sentence, hacking means is an act committed by an intruder by accessing any one’s computer system without their permission. Hackers are basically expert computer programmers, who have an advanced understanding of computers and commonly misuse their knowledge for devious reasons. Hackers hacks any system to steal personal banking information, a corporation’s financial data, etc. They also try to modify systems so they can execute their tasks. Hackers displaying such destructive conduct are also called “Crackers” or “Black Hat” hackers. They are responsible for writing malware, which is a method used to gain access to these systems. They can also be involved in cyber espionage, protest or perhaps are just addicted to the thrill of cybercrime. They not only seek to steal data but also to modify or destroy data as well.
Hackers who use their powers for good rather than evil are known as ”White Hat Hackers”. White hat hackers can sometimes be paid employees or contractors for companies as security specialist that attempts to find security holes via hacking. White hat hackers do hacking with permission from the owner of the system first, which makes the process completely legal. And that‘s why they are different from black hat hackers.
Grey hat hackers are a blend of both black hat and white hat hackers. Often they will look for vulnerabilities in a system illegally. If issues are found then report to owner, sometimes requesting a small fee to fix the issue. If owner does not respond then they will post the newly found exploit online for the world to see. These types of hackers are not inherently malicious with their intensions.
Some of the most famous computer geniuses were once hackers who went on to use their skills for constructive technological development. The first step towards preventing hackers from gaining access to your systems is to learn how hacking is done.
There are various techniques used by hackers to hacking via the internet.
- SQL Injection:
An SQL injection technique attack any type of unprotected or improperly protected SQL database of the software that runs a web site. An SQL injection is usually an additional command that inserted into the web form tries to change the content of the database to reflect the successful login. It can also retrieve information such as credit card numbers or passwords from unprotected sites.
- Theft of FTP password:
This is another very common way to tamper with web sites. FTP password hacking takes advantage of the fact that many webmasters store their website login information on their poorly protected PCs. The thief searches the victim’s system for FTP login details, and then relays them to his own remote computer. He then logs into the web site via the remote computer and modifies the web pages as he or she pleases.
- Cross-site scripting:
- Virus dissemination
“Virus” is Computer programs or malicious software that attaches itself to other software’s. Viruses affect a system data, and have a power to spread it over network. They interrupt the working computer and affect its data by modifying or deleting it. Computer viruses are usually spreads to a system through emails- opening the attached documents of email, visiting an already infected advertisements or websites and also by clicking on executable files. Sometimes viruses can also spread while connecting with removable secondary storage devices like pen drives.
All computer viruses cause direct or indirect economic damages. Based on this, there are two categories of viruses:
1) Those that only disseminate and don’t cause intentional damage
2) Those which are programmed to cause damage.
- Logic bomb:
Logic bomb is piece of program code which is explicitetly inserted into the software to perform harmful or undesirable task. Logic bomb get execute when any special event occurs in a system.
Logic bomb is much similar to virus in behavior, but it’s not actually a virus. Logic bomb is intentionally inserted in the system where it is in dormant state until some compatible conditions do not met. Some malicious softwares like viruses and worms also contains logic bomb and get triggered when any event occurs or at any predefined time. Program code whose devotion is triggered by a time is known as “Time-Bomb”.
Logic bombs are usually used by dissatisfied employees in the IT field to delete data of the databases of their company. Mostly, logic bombs stay only in the network they were employed in. So in most cases, they’re an insider job.
- Denial-of-Service attack
A denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is a cyber attack in which the criminal seeks to make a computer or network resource inaccessible to its users by for time or infinitely disrupting services of a host connected to the Internet. It consists flooding of requests more than a computer in network can handle. That means it overloads the server with extra request than its bandwidth, which causes the server load down frequently so no one able to access the resource.
In Distributed Denial-of-service-attack (DDoS), the flooding on resource by request is done by various machines which make it impossible to stop the attack by only blocking a single machine. The target of Denial-of-service attack is mostly the high rated website servers like banks and credit card payment gateways.
Phishing is a method of gathering personal information through call, text messages or email. Mostly phishing is carried out through email. The goal is to fraud the user by believing that the mail is something they need like a request from users bank, or any note from their company and then they click on link to download an attachments. The attacker’s impersonation as trusted person of some kind. Phishing is one of the oldest types of cyber crime which is still most widespread. In phishing, ransomware installed on user’s computer itself and theft personal information.
Web jacking is similar to “Hijacking”. In web jacking, hackers clone a website fraud fully. Sometimes, hacker controls a website and may modify the content of it for his own interest or he may divert the user to some similar looking fake website which is controlled by him. When user would like to visit any website the hacker will display a link with saying that the link or site has moved to another place. And when the user clicks on that link, it will display with malicious web host. The name of new website will slightly different from original website.
Cyber stalking is a cyber crime in world when computer user attends or followed online. Cyber stalker follows the user virtually by following user’s internet suffering rather than following physically. Now days, everyone has actively present in virtual online world. That’s why, it’s very easy to search any person on Google, Anyone can easily get one’s all personal information, contact number, address, participating to the danger which is cyber stalking.
Basically cyber stalking can do by two ways:
In internet stalking, victim is harassed by the stalker using the internet. Stalker can send crude content and any malicious data via emails. Internet stalking is not done by using emails only, stalker uses many more ways to harass the victims.
In computer stalking, stalker uses their computer skill to harass the victim by gaining unauthorized access and control over the victim’s computer. They gain control over victim’s computer by following their access of internet and operating system of their computer.
Cyber stalking mostly spread now days because of the wider use of social networking sites like Facebook, YouTube, Amazon, etc. Everyone curios to upload their profile photo frequently, which provides maximum information to stalker to stalk them.
Identity Theft and credit Card Fraud:
Identity theft is the theft which happens when any one steals your private information and use to access you resources like bank accounts, company’s private data, credit cards, or any other misuses of you identity, etc. Sometimes, criminal steals anyone’s personal information to attempt any big crime. The frequency of credit card fraud is very much. A criminal uses stolen credit cards for his own transactions.
Criminal can use the stolen card for shopping; online transactions of money until the owner of the card don’t report about missed card or blocked it. Mostly, criminal uses authorized person’s credit card number and signature which is generated on receipt after credit card payment, which the authorized person forgot to collect.
IMPACTS OF CYBER CRIME
World without crime or Crimeless society are just a impossible concepts. Crime committed in every field, any area, everywhere. Crime is omnipresent phenomenon. Mostly Impact of cyber crime includes financial losses, theft of intellectual property, and loss of user’s confidence and trust on digital world. The overall monetary impact of cyber crime on society and government is estimated to be billions of dollars a year. Criminals take advantage of technology in many different ways. Cyber crime affects the society online and also offline. ‘Billions of dollars in losses have already been discovered. Billions more have gone undetected. Trillions will be stolen, most without detection, by the emerging master criminal of the twenty-first century-the cyberspace offender’ (Stephens, 1995, p. 24). 
On Economy: Impact of cyber crime is 0.8% of global gross domestic product (GDP) per year, according to the study. Mostly, effects of cyber crime include loss of confidential data of organization. To prevent an organization from cyber attacks organization needs to create cyber insurance or have to maintain the recovery from cyber attacks. Doing business using digital methods requires much money to protect their system. After facing cyber attack, trust of people on company gets automatically decreases and they feel unsecure to invest in that company any more. Cyber crime affects economical growth, inventions, innovation and jobs.
As per analysis, percentage of cyber crime rapidly increases in these 5 years. Mostly, the fear of cyber bulking is found on youth, they are very susceptible about cyber crime. According to inspection, fear of phishing, hacking is on young female is worst. When any person gets negative comments or unwanted messages from another person is known as cyber bulking. This all cyber bulking is done using core technologies via online.
Mainly, cyber attacks are done on youth through online chatting, posts, comments or instant messaging, etc. The main sources of online chatting are social media like facebook, twitter, orkut, etc. Due to the fear of cyber attacks person can cross the limit of stress, will goes in depression, humiliation. That means person may be go in deep depression up to the level where he or she can harm themselves.
Emotional Impact of Cyber crime: According to new study of Norton, 65% global users of internet are affected by cyber crime which includes computer viruses, fraud of credit card and cyber stalking, etc. In the study on emotional impact of cyber crime on society, it founds that victim’s emotions changes rapidly. Mostly their emotions are irritated, annoyed, cheated. They blame themselves for being cheated on internet. Among 100 victims, only 3% victims think that it didn’t happened with them, and remaining don’t have any issue about what happened with them, they doesn’t expect justice for themselves.
When technology starts too grown up to the highest position to satisfy the needs and desires of peoples from that the cyber crimes also starts to increase.