Cyber Crime How and Why Hackers Attacks Systems
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Masking one’s IP address is a standard practice when conducting illicit activities. A well-configured proxy provides robust anonymity and does not log activity, thereby frustrating law enforcement efforts to identify the original location of the person(s) involved. A proxy allows actors to send network traffic through another computer, which satisfies requests and returns the result. Students or employees can use proxies to communicate with blocked services such as Internet Relay Chat (IRC) and instant messaging, or to browse websites that administrators block. Attackers also use proxies because Internet Protocol (IP) addresses are traceable, and they do not want to reveal their true locations. As one example, iDefense wrote about the fast-flux architecture (ID# 484463), which uses a proxy infrastructure to satisfy requests. Proxies are also a common source of spam e-mail messages, which use open relays (a simple mail transfer protocol [SMTP] proxy). Proxies are useful to attackers in many ways.
Most attackers use proxies to hide their IP address and, therefore, their true physical location. In this way, attackers can conduct fraudulent financial transactions, launch attacks, or perform other actions with little risk. While law enforcement can visit a physical location identified by an IP address, attackers that use one (or multiple) proxies across country boundaries are more difficult to locate (see Exhibit 2-1). The endpoint can only view the last proxy with which it is directly communicating and not any of the intermediary proxies or the original location. Exhibit 2-1: Multiple proxies make identifying the true source of an attack difficult. Proxies provide attackers with a way to lower their risks of investigator identification of their true IP address. In the hypothetical attack displayed in Exhibit 2-1, the victim’s log file contains only one of the many IP addresses that investigators need to locate the attacker.
Attackers operate free proxies or alter a victim’s proxy settings because proxies can serve as a monitoring tool. AnonProxy is one example of a malicious proxy that its authors designed to monitor users and steal information such as social-networking passwords.1 Since a proxy relays traffic, it also has the ability to log and alter sensitive pages or information. Attackers must either convince users or install malicious code to modify proxy settings themselves. Malicious code authors also install local proxies. By altering the host’s file or browser configuration to use the proxy, the attacker redirects requests and captures confidential information. Some banking Trojans give attackers the ability to proxy requests through the victim’s browser because conducting fraud from a legitimate user’s IP address is less suspicious. Local proxies are more difficult to identify because the local proxy does not open any network ports and scanning the system will reveal no changes. Types of Proxies
Proxies are so common that many attackers scan the Internet for common listening proxy ports. The most common proxies listen on TCP port 80 (HTTP proxies), 8000, 8081, 443, 1080 (SOCKS Proxy), and 3128 (Squid Proxy), and some also handle User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Attackers who install custom proxies often do not use standard ports but instead use random high ports. Some lightweight proxies are written in scripting languages, which run with an HTTP server and are easier for attackers to modify. Application proxies require configuration. Some applications either do not operate correctly through proxy services because the proxy server removes necessary information or cannot satisfy the request. Some services like The Onion Router (Tor)2 also give users the ability to proxy traffic and hide their original location from victims.
A virtual private network (VPN) acts as a more versatile proxy and supports more security features. Instead of configuring the application to use a proxy, users can tunnel all traffic through the VPN. VPN services usually support strong authentication and are less likely to leak information that could identify the user of a proxy. Attackers commonly use free or commercial proxies (e.g., SOCKS and VPN) that operators advertise on hacking forums. Attackers may prefer these services to public proxies because they advertise anonymity and claim they do not keep logs, unlike Tor, where community operators can monitor traffic going through an exit node that it controls. Proxy services that keep logs are a danger to attackers who use these services for conducting fraud and can lead to their arrests. Some commercial VPN and SOCKS proxy services include http://secretsline.net http://vpn-secure.net http://thesafety.us http://5socks.net http://vpn-service.us http://vip72.com http://www.cryptovpn.com http://www.vipvpn.com http://openvpn.ru
Another example of such a service from web-hack.ru shows free and commercial proxies that are available (see Exhibit 2-2). Translated from Russian, these free Proxy and SOCKS services are updated every three hours; users can also purchase proxy access through the store. Attackers may prefer proxy services advertised on hacking forums because they are less responsive to abuse requests. For example, commercial proxy services like FindNot keep logs of their users for a maximum of five days to protect the system from being used for abusive purposes, while many of those services advertised on hacking forums do not keep any logs. Operating proxy services is not illegal because it has legitimate purposes related to anonymity for users; however, some commercial proxy services are more willing to respond to abuse than others. Exhibit 2-2: Free and commercial proxies available from web-hack.ru. Detecting the Use of Proxies
Detecting proxies is difficult and not always reliable. Since many malicious code authors install custom proxies and use encrypted or custom protocols, it is very difficult to detect all proxies. There are techniques to detect common proxies, but such techniques are unlikely to be effective against attackers who use proxies aggressively. Port scanning on corporate networks can identify proxies that listen on default ports. Organizations should also monitor changes to proxy configuration because such changes could indicate that an attacker compromised a host. The registry key at HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionInternetSettings, ProxyServer, controls the proxy settings for Internet Explorer. To detect proxies on the network with intrusion detection systems (IDSs), organizations may use proxy rules available from emergingthreats.net. The domain name system blacklist (DNSBL) is one example of a blacklist that allows administrators to block certain proxies.
Certain proxies do not proxy all traffic. For instance, a Web application can force users to perform unique DNS requests with subdomains (see Exhibit 2-3). The application links the DNS request to the user’s IP address and verifies that the HTTP request originates from the same IP address. If they are not the same, indicating the use of a proxy, the application can determine that the proxy IP address made the HTTP request and that the user’s actual IP address made the DNS request. Similarly, some Web plug-ins may query the local information rather than using the proxy address. As an example, decloak.net is a Metasploit project that uses the following application plug-ins to determine the true IP address of a proxy user: Word Java Flash QuickTime iTunes Exhibit 2-3: Certain proxy protocols may provide a way to identify the user of a proxy. Metasploit has even provided an application programming interface (API) for website owners to determine the true IP addresses of their visitors. iDefense configured a browser
International Research Journal of Management Science & Technology http:www.irjmst.com Page 249 to use a proxy and showed that the Flash test correctly identified the real IP address because Flash does not use Internet Explorer proxy settings. More aggressive techniques, such as operating proxies, allow law enforcement to determine the source and target of attacks that utilize proxies. While such measures are useful, they are generally very difficult to operate because of abuse. Analysts must carefully monitor activity because attacks now originate from proxy nodes and may result in illegal or otherwise unwanted activity. Conclusion
Free and commercial proxies are very numerous on the Internet and can use standard protocols and ports. Other proxies are more difficult to identify, and administrators can detect the use of proxies through configuration changes, IDSs, or tools like decloak. net. Attackers who want to hide their locations have resources available to them. Since it is difficult to detect all proxy users accurately, proxy tools and services will continue to be useful for attackers.