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Challenger Expedition

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Besides conducting sampling of the waters on its journey, what were the main findings from the Challenger voyage?

•What tool was used to do measure the depths of the ocean?
•What are the 2 pieces of equipment used to collect bottom samples on the Challenger?
•What was a newly invented piece of equipment used on the Challenger ship to get water samples called? Rocky Shore (Lesson 02.04)

•Be able to name the 4 zones of rocky shore
•In which zone of the rocky shore would you most likely find only grasses and patches of lichens?
•What type of animal uses the rocky shore for their ‘feeding’ grounds?
•What is the name of a plant-like species found in rocky shores?
•What is the special adaptation of these organisms found in the rocky shore ecosystem?—to do this, match up the following (Match the organism with its adaptation)

•Sea squirts
•Store water during low tide, soft jelly like bodies
•Holdfasts to anchor themselves and slimy mucus
•Muscular foot, cup shaped shell
•Cement to rocks, close their valves so they do not dry out, conical shape
•Think about the organisms that live in the rocky shore and tidal pools—what kinds of adaptations do they have that enable them to survive the pounding waves while staying in place, tidal changes (periods of time covered with water or periods of time with no water), sunlight exposure, evaporation of water that may leave concentrated salts behind, blending in to avoid predators
•What are the physical changes that occur in the rocky shore (3 main ones—think tides, salt content, and wave action)?
•Be able to give basic descriptions of the rocky shore ecosystem areas—to do this, match up the following (Match the area with its description)

•Rock pools
•Boulder fields
•flat area of rock, back part forms a cliff where the front part is flat and in the water, formed by waves, wind, and rain •sloping shoreline where group of large rocks found on calm shorelines
•depression left from a boulder grinding into a rock that hold water Crustaceans (Lessons 02.05 and 02.04)

•What 3 special adaptations do crustaceans have that allow them to survive in the rocky shore ecosystem?
•What characteristics do all crustaceans share (need to be specific)
•What is the best characteristic to help you identify a crustacean?
•What are the 3 main example types of crustaceans?

Tidal Pool (Lesson 02.06)
•What are the 3 conditions organisms in a tidal pool ecosystem must be able to withstand?
•What does the term ‘benthic’ mean?
•Know the adaptations of organisms found in the tidal pool ecosystem – to do this, match up the following (Match the organism with its adaptation)
•Sea cucumber
•Clumps together, ability to keep water in its shell and release it as needed to stay moist
• Soft bodies that absorb wave energy, can fold inward to hold in moisture
•Use tube feet to suck food off floor of tidal pool

•Glue themselves to rocks, filter food during high tide, trap door to store moisture in shell
•Holdfast to secure to rocks, photosynthesize to make food
•Spines that absorb energy, hides in rocks and crevices to avoid pounding waves
•Walking fish, pants to force water over gills

•Tube feet to move to shady area
•Occupy empty shells to hide, hard outer protection
Lobsters (Lesson 02.07)
•Know size limits of lobsters—too small and too large
•What are the laws to keep lobster population high?
Light Zones (Lesson 02.09)
(Match the zone with its description)
•zone in ocean where enough light penetrates to allow photosynthesis to take place
•zone in ocean where there is enough light for organisms to see but not for photosynthesis
•deep zone in ocean where no visible light penetrates/ none penetrates
•zone in ocean that extends from ocean surface, light varies depending on cloud cover
•zone in ocean found on the floor of the ocean

•Know order of these zones from bottom to top in ocean profile (photic, disphotic, aphotic)

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