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Where question at 2 scales, why differences occur,& distribution within urban spaces The process which the population of cities grow
LDC: migration of rural residents to the cities in search of jobs in manufacturing/ services. MDC: a consequence of changes in economic structure Delhi, Jakarta, Mexico City, Mumpal, Sao Paulo, and Seoul.
Reversal of historical trend, is not a measure of an improved level of development Lack o agreement among authorities sources on the worlds 10 most populous cities reflects how difficult it is. Social consequences for urban residence, to compete for survival in limited space Has greater freedom in an urban settle than in a rural settlement Have blurred the traditional physical differences
An urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self government unit The central city & the surrounding built-up suburbs
Urbanized area, country within a the city, A adjacent countries with a high population It includes extensive land area that is not urban
Smaller urbanized area
A country between 2 central cities may send a large of commuters to jobs in each From Boston to Washington D.C.
Central business district, Zone of transition, Zone of independent workers homes, Zone of better residences, Commuters zone City develops in a series of sectors. Certain areas of the city are more attractive. As a city grows activities expand A complex structure that includes more than one center around which activities revolve Which contain approximate 5,000 residents& correspond where possible to neighborhood and boundaries Compare distributions of characteristics and create an overall picture of where people tend to live They explain why different types of people live in the city Because they want people with similar incomes
European: cluster in 1 sector, don’t live in suburbs, U.S.: live in the suburbs Latin America: located in Mexico& the Andean highlands Africa: cities found along the western coast Asia: follow the north& east coast Surrounding the religious core
Called Tenochtitlan consisted a small temple, few huts of thatch and mud British: wider streets7 public squares, larger houses French: completely demolished Spanish: a gridiron street plan centered church, individual houses Rio de Janeiro: people clustered in the center and to the south, Mexico City: treelined boulevard patterned Cairo: palaces along the Reforma House shortage, large percentage of poor immigrants to urban areas Number of low-income residents increase the city
Process of subdivision of houses& accompany by successive waves of lower- income people Require to maintain houses in good condition
Drawing lines on a map to identify areas in which they will refuse to loan money Cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private owners relocate the residents& business A house Authority established by the local government manages the buildings, federal government pay cost of construction Process by which middle class people move into deteriorated inner city neighborhoods& renovate the housing The under class suffers from relatively high rates of unemployment, alcoholism, drug addiction, etc.
Roughly one third ( 3million)
By family problems or job loss
Because they live in a culture of poverty
Drug users obtain money through criminal activates
One side attracting the higher income residents and the other left to lower status and minority families The cost of needed services and the ability of funds to pay for them Process of legally adding land area to a city. Residents prefer to remain legally independent of the large city Central city, suburban residential area, shopping mall, industrial district, office park, service center, airport complex, combined employment and shopping center Urban area consists of an inner city sounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together Around the beltway are nodes of consumer and business services Number of people living in the center has decreased, trend is less density difference within urban areas.
Rings of open space. Older suburbs. Planned extensions
It was a twentieth- century phenomenon
Positive: spatial separation,& prevented mixing of land uses. Negative; low-income people are unable to live in the because of the high cost, unfriendliness of established residents
The 4 consecutive 15-minute periods that have the heaviest traffic GPS and electronic mapping are playing central roles in the design of intelligent transportation systems to ease congestion
The United States does not fully recognize that the public transportation is a vital deserving do subsidy to the degree long assumed by the European governments Because having to many local governments if are firefighters summoned at an area two or three departments sometimes respond Government functions that were handled separately by city and country now are combined into a joint operation in the same office building Legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preservative farmland