Theories on Origin of Universe
- Pages: 8
- Word count: 1844
- Category: Evolution
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The problem of origin of universe is an old controversial question which no one has really explained. It is like the same argument of what came first, the chicken or the egg. The argument has been dominated by the scientific conjectures in view of the theory of natural selection and the multiple universe theories against the religious view of the existence of a superior being who is responsible for the creation of universe and all that lives in it. In view of these contradicting arguments, we understand that there are two possible options that can explain the origin of universe. First, we can stand by the Intelligent Design option which means that there is someone somewhere who made the universe or a superior being. The other option would be belief that the universe made itself or the Random Chance assertion. A third option which has not looked into carefully is the recent assertion that the universe has always been there which means that it is no longer a feasible alternative. Whichever way we look at the argument, it is clear that the subject is controversial. However, my thesis is that the scientific theories for natural selection and multi universe cannot be used to explain the origin of universe and life as compared to the theory of greater possible being.
Natural selection theory
Theory of natural selection is one of the earliest attempts by scientist to explain the origin of species in the universe. This theory was published by Charles Darwin in 1859 in this historical book The Origin of Species. Since then this theory has become the cornerstone for the development of the modern biology.
The natural selection process asserts that the most favourable traits in a species are inherited to the successive generation while the less favorable traits usually become less common in the successive generations. This means that there are traits which are likely to be lost in the course of evolution of organism. The theory asserts that individual or species with the favorable traits are more likely to reproduce than those which have not favorable trait. Therefore, it is only individuals with favorable characteristic in relation to the environment who are likely to survive and reproduces as compared to those with unfavorable characteristics. This means that there are individual species which are likely to disappear in the course of evolution. This has been used to explain the extinction of some species in the universe. (Moran, 2002)
In the course of evolution, individual species will develop new features in order to adapt to the changing ecological niches. This may eventually lead to the development of new species. Central to this theory is the concepts of survival of the fittest which asserts that it is only species which can adapt to the environmental changes are likely to reproduce for successive generation. (Moran, 2002)
The natural selection theory may have explained important features about the continued genetic variation of species. It is also credited with valid explanation that can account for extinction of some species and the evolution of new species. However the greatest weakness of this theory is that it does not explain the origin of the first species. It just starts from somewhere in the course of evolution where it accounts for the beginning of evolution and variation. This means that although the theory has received empirical science backing, it does not account for the origin of life. (Denton, 1986)
Multiple universe theory
The multiple universe theory constitute of a number of theories which try to explain the possible origin of the universe and the life in it. These theories have been developed in different disciplines lie cosmology, physics, astronomy, philosophy, fiction, and others. Central to the multiple universe theory is the big bang theory that has become central to astronomists and physicist in explaining the origin of the world. (Steven and Ellis, 1998)
The big bang theory assumes that the universe came to existence as singularity some 13.7 billion years ago. However this theory has failed to account for the origin of this singularity and they assert that singularities are zones which defies the current understating of physics. This small, infinitely hot and dense singularity theory has not been accounted for although it is said to have inflated, expanded and then cooled to give rise to the earth. Like the evolution theory, this theory also fails to account for the origin of those singularity zones. (Steven and Ellis, 1998)
Greater possible being theory
This theory can be explained in terms of our religious beliefs. This approach asserts that there is a greater being that can be held responsible for the creation of universe. This theory is intricate in our religious beliefs and even in some traditional belief. For example the Christianity explanation of the origin of the universe and its life assert that in the beginning the earth was void and hand nothing. Then it portrays God (greater being) creating everything in the universe through supernatural power. This theory further asserts that God first created the earth before finding that the earth could not be complete without creating someone to care for it. Therefore God created Adam, the first man on earth. It further asserts that God created man in his own image which means we are like God.
This Christianity explanation can also be found in many other religious beliefs. There is that superior being, who holds power over the universe. In deed the greater deviation in the many environment events which contradict scientific prediction shows that there may be some greater being that controls the world.
Which theory prevails?
A close review of all the theories show that every theory can be questioned in its explanation of creation. While the scientific theories have tried to explain and even prove their explanation of the origin of universe, they fail to account for that first from of life from which everything else happened.
The Darwin theory of evolution gives a very reasonable explanation of the development of the genetic variation in species which can account for the different forms of life that we have. However, it has failed to account for the first form of life from where the rest could have developed from. There was that first form of life from which genetic variation continued.
In the same manner the big bang theory comes with very interesting laws which can explain the expansion of the universe and in deed evidenced by the jigsaw pattern of the continents which shows that there is possibility that the earth was one compact land mass but separated through expansion. However it fails to account for that first form of matter which could have resulted to that expansion. Aristotle argues that there must have been that first source to give rise to the universe. (Cline, 2008)
Most astronomical discoveries have really shown beyond the reasonable doubts that the universe must have started from some point. The universe had a beginning and there was a single moment of creation. Who or what could have been responsible for this first single moment of creation? It means there must be a greater being that created this. Further the universe is found to be order in a number of laws which follow each other consecutively. Where could have these laws come from and for what purpose were they meant to serve? There must have been some forces responsible for institution of these laws. (Philosophy, 2008)
In view of the theory of evolution, the consequent discovery of the genetic material supported the theory and proved that Darwin had a point in this theory. The modern molecular biology has revealed that there is vast amount of complex genetic information which is encoded in every material of a living cell. Molecular biologists have indeed discovered very complex designed machines at the molecular level that support our life. However they have not explained who was responsible for the intelligent designing of these machines. There must have been a designer for these complex materials. This means that there was a superior being how engineered these materials. (Philosophy, 2008)
Most philosophers will conquer with the idea that a transcendent Law Giver can be held responsible for explaining the objective moral standard. This means that there is what anyone, even scientist, will consider right or wrong. There is that conscience that tells everyone what is wrong or right. Who could have given that conscience? Why does that conscience exist even when it cannot be empirically proved? There is a greater being that can be held responsible for all this.
The best view of philosophers to understand the primary cause of the earth can be taken from the Greek philosophers. The first was Thales who believed that there must be a primary cause which unfortunately said it was water. Then Anaximander acknowledges the existence of primary source which he said was indefinite and boundless. Anaximenes conquered with the idea of primary source but he chose air as the primary cause of change and motion. However it was from the era of Pythagoras that it was understood that there is primary cause which could not be matters. Heraclitus later had to acknowledge that there is a primary cause which never changes and he attributed it to be soul. There were other philosophers who came later and showed that there must be a primary source from where all things came from.
The origin of the universe and life in it remains a controversial issue. We all argue on the origin of universe but no one has really explained the cause. The evolution theory states that the modern species have come into being through genetic variation in the process of evolution but it does not explain the origin of the first life. The multiple universe theory like the big bang theory asserts that the universe originated from expansion of singularity zone. However it also does not account for the origin of the firm form of matter or the singularity zone. Therefore the existence of the possible greater being responsible for creation cannot be ruled out. The scientific theories for natural selection and multi universe cannot be used to explain the origin of universe and life as compared to the theory of greater possible being. (Echo of Eden, 2007)
Cline, A. (2008): Cosmological argument: Does Universe require first causes? Retrieved on 18th November 2008 from http://atheism.about.com/od/argumentsforgod/a/cosmological.htm
Denton, M. (1986): Evolution: A Theory in Crisis. Princeton
Echo of Eden, (2007): Early Greek Philosophers and the primary source. Retrieved on 18th November 2008 from http://www.echoofeden.com/bias/philos/
Moran, L. (2002): Evolution is a fact and a theory. Retrieved on 18th November 2008 from http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/evolution-fact.html
Philosophy, (2008): Does God exist? Retrieved on 18th November 2008 from http://www.allaboutphilosophy.org/does-god-exist-c.htm
Steven W. & Ellis, F. (1998): The Cosmic Black-Body Radiation and the Existence of Singularities in our Universe. Astrophysical Journal, 152,