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The Expected Pattern of Children and Young People’s Development from Birth to 19 Years

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  • Category: Emotions

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Through a young person’s development, from birth to 19 they are expected to follow a development pattern including physical, social, environmental, behavioural, intellectual and communicational. The expected pattern is seen as the average time period it would take to accomplish these skills.

The expected pattern starts at 0-3 years where a child is expected to develop the most. They have little control over their bodies at 0-1 years and are dependent on their natural instincts e.g. sucking, grasping but when the child has more control over their body they will start to crawl and eventually progress to walking. By the age of 3 as well as walking the child will have learnt to sound words, whilst speaking at a very basic level e.g. numbers, colours, mummy, daddy, in total they are expected to have retained at least 200 words. This means the child is capable of holding a basic conversation with other children and those around them; this is the start of their confidence building and socialising skills expanding.

At the age of 3 children are expected to speak at a very basic level and have grasped the basic skills such as gripping, holding objects. The child should be able to run and walk with confidence and should be able to understand the emotional attachment through interaction and communication with others.

Physical development.

3-7 years— At this stage, children are able to carry out more co-ordinate movements and growing in confidence as a result. They have more control over fine motor skills such as cutting, writing and drawing. They are also more confident in activities, such as running, hopping, kicking a ball and using larger equipment.

7-14 years— Children continue to grow, develop and refine many of their skills through these years. They may start to have hobbies and interests, such as sport or dance, which means that they are more practiced in some areas. They may also be able to make very controlled fine movements, such as those required for playing an instrument, sewing or drawing. Girls in particular, start to show some early signs of puberty from the age of 10 or 11. In boys puberty usually starts later, when there will be another period of rapid physical growth.

14-19 years —At this stage, children have occasional poor spatial awareness as a result of the body shape changing especially in boys.

Intellectual development (Cognitive).

3-7 years— This period of development in which children start to become skilled with aspects of number and writing, as well as continuing to learn about their world. They still look for adult’s approval and are starting to learn to read.

7-14 years— Children start to develop ideas about activities or subjects they enjoy. They are still influenced by adults and are becoming fluent in reading and writing skills. They are developing their own thoughts and preferences and are able to transfer information and think in a more abstract way.

Social, emotional and behavioural development

3-7 years— Children are still developing their identities and are starting to play with their peers and socializing, using imaginative play. This helps them to develop their concept of different roles in their lives. It is important that they understand the importance of boundaries and why they are necessary. They also respond well to being given responsibilities, for example, as class helper, and need adult approval.

7-14 years— Children’s friendships become more settled and they have groups of friends. They need to have the chance to solve problems and carry out activities that requires more independence. They continue to need praise and encouragement and are increasingly aware of what others think of them.

14-19 years —At this stage, most children show high level of skills like computers the same as adults.

Communication development.

3-7 years— As children become more social and have wider experiences they start to use an increasing number of familiar phrases and expressions. They also ask a lot of questions and are able to talk about things in the past and future with greater confidence.

7-14 years — By this stage, most children are fluent speakers of language and are developing and refining their skills at reading and writing. Their language skills enable them to think about and discuss their ideas and learning in more abstract terms.

14-19 years —At this stage, they use technology communicate and use phones with their friends.

Social development

3-7 years— As children become interest in cooperative play and interest in other children with the odd squabble and argument, they choose friends and responding to adult praise and recognition. Most children starts school at the age of 4, so this is a difficult transition.

7-14 years — By this stage, children have stable friendships, enthusiasm when given areas of responsibility and clear different activities between boys and girls.

14-19 years — They still have strong friendship with enjoyment and confidence. They behave with low-self esteem as smoking and misuse of substances. Emotional

At the start of their lives, babies are programmed to seek out the things that they want by crying. As they mature, though, children’s emotional capabilities expand, allowing them to develop a variety of skills that they will need in their adult lives.

0-12 months:

Warm, attentive care, especially during the first year of life, helps babies to gain a sense that the world is a safe and welcoming place. That sense of security can be a good base for the development of other healthy emotional responses. Babies form attachments to the people closest to them when they are quite young, showing increased anxiety and restlessness when with unfamiliar people. These first and most important relationships serve as a child’s earliest lessons in forming close, emotional bonds.

12months – 24months:
As children move from infancy into the toddler era, they gain a sense of self, separate from their parents and siblings. Since this is a whole new world for them, frustrations can run high (for mum and dad, too!) and they may be prone to Temper Tantrums or other behaviours that their parents find objectionable.

2-3 years:

As with any new skill, learning to control negative emotional responses takes time, so parents should try to be patient with their temperamental toddlers.

3-5 years:

. Children need to learn that there are better and more effective ways to get what they want than to throw tantrums, and parents can help them by exercising firm kindness.


By the time that they are school-aged, children begin to take pride in their ability to exert self-control, and enjoy the feedback that they receive from being responsible and cooperative. This presents parents and educators with the opportunity to foster desirable emotional responses by pointing out situations in which children behaved in mature, compassionate ways.

7-11 years —

By this stage, School-aged children are also faced with their own unique challenges, of course, so parents must do all that they can to help kids to navigate unfamiliar situations. Allowing the children to work things out for themselves is wise (unless the situation gets truly out of control) because each time that the kids resolve an issue, they take steps toward emotional maturity.

Being a pre-teen can be a tricky time. Children at this age are just starting to spread their own wings, and while they want some (limited) independence, they also want the security of strong parenting. Communicating well with pre-teens is vital. Not only does it set the foundation for a strong parent-child relationship, it also will help you both cope better when they cross over that threshold into adolescence. Don’t forget, however, that some pre-teens feel a real need for privacy, and may not want to share everything with Mummy and Daddy. This is a time of self-discovery for many children, and may also be the first time they are struggling to fit in at school, and with friends. Show them that you love them no matter what, and that you are also there. Make the time to spend time together, and help them feel secure and safe, both in their relationship with you and with

14-19 years:

The teen years can be turbulent (a true understatement!), with additional stresses put on adolescents that they may not have encountered in the past. Social and school responsibilities, coupled with a natural desire to make their own decisions without the input of their parents, can be cause for distress as well as opportunities for growth. Adolescents may find themselves dealing with feelings of depression, anxiety, or helplessness, in which case, parents must do all that they can to ease their child’s stress level. Encouraging activities that promote self-esteem and a sense of community will serve teens well, since they are only steps away from taking full responsibility for their lives. Emotional insecurity is often described as a state of general unease or tension. Tweens and teens who suffer from emotional insecurity often feel that they have no talents or value and therefore cannot believe that others truly love them or want the best for them.

Behaviour development:

0-12 months —- From one to four months, your child will cry, laugh, frown and smile. In addition, she will also make cooing sounds in order to express her emotions and communicate with you.

12-24 months —-

2-3 years —-

3-5 years —- At this age they firstly don’t understand wrong and right, but they can follow simple rules, by the age of 6 years they keen to understand and use rules.

5-7 years — By these stage children start telling the rules and they are keen to point out when rules have been broken. They have awareness of sequences of behaviour and increased thoughtfulness.

7-11 years—
16-19 years — most of children understand the right and wrong and the consequences of actions, they have interest in moral issues.

0-3 years A typical baby and 1 year are happiest with their parents they will be shy around people they done know even outgoing and confident children will look for reassurance as they approach their 2 nd birthday they will start to show interest in other children .many children around this time struggle with teething and this can lead to lack of sleep and problems feed as the child has a sore mouth . At this time a child needs lots of love and affection to make them feel happy and secure they will have formed strong attachments to family and trusted child carer despite this they might suffer from separation anxiety .this usually peaks about 18 months and beyond so give lots of love and affection by 2 lack of sleep might be the cause of the terrible 2 so making sure they get plenty of sleep and start putting in boundaries by this age children will become more interested in playing with other children and start developing socializing skills at first they might only play alongside the other children but they will start to copy and will need to be shown how to share and take turns.

At this age they will have a roller coaster of emotions so prepare for dramatic mood swings as they learn how to control their feelings when they can explain how they feel and what they want the temper tantrums will stop as children struggle to become more independent they may desire to escape this is dangerous and must be stopped safely .As the children’s imaginations grows it will change the way they play. They will now want to play imaginative games even sometimes with imaginative friends.

3-7 years children are still developing their identities and are starting to play with their peers and socializing using imaginative play this helps them to develop their concept of different roles in their lives. It is important that they understand the importance of boundaries and why they are necessary they respond will to being given responsibility and need adult approval .At the ages of 4 and 5 bed wetting is very common and should be treated with love and affection no shouting .When children start school they will build relationships away from home they are likely to have special friends children are learning how to be a good friend at this stage of development they have learnt to share and respect others feelings but sometimes this is forgotten. At the age og 4 children can start to know about other peoples feelings and develop a stronger sense of self and will want more private time.

At the age of 5 bullying is common so any changes in children’s behaviour should be taken seriously they might not be able to explain what is happening to them. Children of this age will spend lots of time playing with their friends but will get upset if they don’t win the game .As children become use to school life their might be some changes in their behaviour they might not understand the difference of asking for sometime rather than just taking it. They might show their frustration by hitting or kicking out this should change as they become use to being a group By the age of 7 children face the pressure of exams this causes some children to have anxiety.By the age of 6 friendships are very important to children girls and boys prefer same sexed friends it is very important for a child to feel they belong. Around the age of 6 children start to argue with you by 7 the children will want to start bathing on their own and having privacy.

7-11 years children’s friendships become more settled and they have a group of friends they need to have the chance to solve problems and carry out activities that require more independence they continue to need praise and encouragement and are increasingly aware of what others think of them.

11-16years—- Many children start to clash with adults as they approach their teens this is just a way of they expressing their independence and individuality .Most teenagers want to spend time with their friends socializing and fitting in with their group and having that sense of belonging .By the age of 10 children start to show interest in the opposite *** having boyfriends as well as girlfriends sometimes they have the same *** crush . Until 13 or 14 most have the same sexed friends but will mix with mixed larger groups so spending time with opposite sexed friends which might blossom into boyfriends or girlfriends and become more serious relationships

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