The Camera Case
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From the onset of this course, the writer was told to choose a product that has influenced the writer’s life; the only item would and has been the Camera. As a child the writer has always been intrigued by the ideas of a story, a story that little words but great impact. These short stories can only be told through pictures, through the technology of the camera. As the wise ones say, “A picture paint a thousand words.” The camera allows for the indulgence of the writer’s greatest pastime and hobby. The camera allows for a unique view of the world, a view of one’s perspective of the one’s world.
Behind the lens give reveals the beauty of the life, the beauty of a first kiss, the beauty of the first valentine, the beauty of true love, the beauty of a first born and his first step. Behind the Camera’s lens has allowed the writer to mature into a professional and even more importantly allowed the writer to become a man. The Camera
Invention & the Early Years
4th & 5th Century | Chinese and Greek philosophers describe the basic principles of optics and the camera. The word “Camera” comes from the Arabic word “Kamra” which means “Dark room”, the Camera was invented by a Muslim Astronomer/Physicist/Mathematician Alhazen. (Al-Khalili, 2004).| 16th & 17th Century| The camera was able to project images onto paper or glass but the concept of capturing; processing and printing the images came along much later. At that time scientist believed that light was composed of only ‘White’ which was perceived by the human eye. Sir Isaac Newton, a famous physicist and scientist, discovered that light was actually made up of a spectrum of colours. Although Sir Isaac Newton made a huge contribution to the study of optics he did not make any true advances to the camera.One of the earliest cameras called the Camera Obscura, was no more than a pinhole camera and can be traced back to 1558. The Camera Obscura was seen as a drawing tool for a clearer and realistic portrayal of objects.| 18th and 19th Century| *
In the 19th century an invention named the Camera Lucida that was introduced by Cambridge scientist William Hyde Wollaston that consisted of an optical device that could help an artist view a distant scene or person or object on the artist drawing paper surface. This gives the artist a superimposed image of a subject that will allow for the artist to attempt to draw, trace or paint. Both the Camera Lucida and the Camera Obscura provided an image that was temporary, which could not be lastingly captured on to paper for later reference. * In 1822, however, French researcher Joseph Nicephone Niepce created the first photograph on paper coated with a chemical. The image did not last but it paved the way for further study and development in this photograph. * Seven years later in 1829, Niepce collaborated with another Frenchman Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre. * And in 1839 six years after Niepce death Daguerre announced that he had produced the first permanent photograph. The old saying of ‘a picture paints a thousand words’ came to life with the first of billions to come ‘stories’ or pictures. The process of capturing photographic images that would not fade away, introduced by Daguerre came to be known as the ‘daguerreotype’.
The word ‘photography’ was coined by scientist Sir John F.W. Herschel in 1839 and it is actually is derived from two Greek words ‘photos’ meaning light and ‘graphein’ meaning draw. * During the 1840’s that the use of photographic images in advertisements first started and cameras made their mark on the power of visual communication. * Up until 1850, the process of capturing images was cumbersome requiring up to half an hour of light exposure. * The discovery made in 1851 by Frederick Scott Archer was a blessing since the new method termed the Collodion process called for just 2-3 seconds of light exposure to capture an image. This was a huge innovation paving the way for future innovations. Since 1851 the camera, the camera brands in particular, have been trying to create a faster, sharper form of the camera.
* Prior to 1871, photographers went through a development process where they had to coat the plate with wet chemical each and every time and process the image immediately. With the invention the gelatin dry plate silver bromide process by Richard Leach Maddox, negatives did not have to be developed immediately. This was an important discovery since up until then the captured image had to be processed instantly. This allowed for the taking of several pictures at once and developing the pictures later, a truly time-shortening innovation. * In 1888 George Eastman and Kodak produced the first roll of film available for the masses, allowing for every one access to a camera. An important milestone in our entertainment and communication history was the development of transparent roll film by Eastman. This development led to another key invention – the motion picture camera by Thomas Edison’s in 1891.| (Haslego, 2005) (Greenspun, 2007)
“Boulevard du Temple”, taken by Daguerre in 1838 in Paris, was the first photograph of a person (“Boulevard du Temple”, 2011 )The 20th Century & Lead up to the Digital Era 1913| 35 mm still-camera created, this allowed for multiple pictures to be taken at once.1927: The flash bulb introduced by General Electric Co. The camera before used the flash light power, by using a bulb in provided a faster and easier way to provide light; thus picture would not always be dark and pictures unable to be seen.| 1935-1941| Kodak starts marketing Kodachrome film and subsequently launches Kodacolor negative film. The first true successful mass marketed coloured film.1948: American scientist Edwin Land developed the process for instant photography. (Haslego, 2005)This innovation allowed quick viewing of pictures.| 1957| Frenchman Jaques Yves Cousteau invented the first waterproof 35mm camera for underwater photography named the Calypso Photo. The actual camera was developed by the Belgian airplane technical designer Jean de Wouters based on the blueprint and suggestions given to him by Cousteau.
This allowed for the stories of the deep to be told.| 1972| The electronic camera that does not require film was created and patented by Texas Instruments. This is however not the same as a digital camera though you don’t require film in digital cameras as well. The launch of the digital camera is still many years away.| 1978-1980| Asian players like Konica and Sony begin to make their mark. The ‘point and shoot’ automatic focus camera is launched by Konica while Sony starts talking about the camcorder and demonstrates a prototype. This was the first step in allowing for everyone to have a cheap and high quality camera| 1985| Digital processing technology makes its entry. Digital imaging and processing is introduced by Pixar. The next year Fuji introduces the disposable single use camera.
The industry become more consumer focus and taps the fun and travel connotations behind camera usage.| 1986| Simultaneously in 1986 Kodak takes giant steps in digital development. Digital means, the photographic image is divided into tiny units of dots or squares known as pixels. Each image could be made up of millions of pixels. The use of pixels in digital technology allows storing large volumes of pixels to deliver high definition print quality. Four years later Kodak introduces Photo CD’s, with this development the user-friendly approach of the camera industry began to take concrete shape.| 1991| Kodak introduces a digital camera targeted at professionals and journalists. Kodak is credited with the invention of a pixel based camera technology known to us as the digital camera. Digital cameras don’t use film similar to their predecessor electronic cameras but the storage method is entirely different and the final photograph is of much higher resolution| (Haslego, 2005) (Greenspun, 2007)
The Digital Era
1951| The first video tape recorder which transmitted and received live images from TV cameras by converting the signals into electrical pulses which were known as digital signals. The information was saved to magnetic tape.| 1957| The first image in the history of digital photography was produced on a computer by Russell Kirsch. It was a scanned image of Kirsch’s son| 1960| NASA mapped the surface of the moon from information sent back from space probes by converting the analogue signals into digital signals. Spy satellites in many different countries used the same technology for producing images. NASA also started to use computers to improve the quality of images being sent from the moon. Eugene Lally published a description of how to create digital photos using a photo sensor.| 1969| Smith and Boyle invented the CCD (charge-coupled device) which detects the colour and intensity of light and which all digital cameras use.| 1975| Steve Sasson created the first digital camera using the CCD image sensor technology| 1981|
First consumer camera that did not require film was produced by Sony, the Mavica (Magnetic Video Camera) electronic still camera. The camera produced 720,000-pixel images which were recorded as magnetic impulses on a two-inch floppy disk. Up to 50 images could be stored on a single disc.| 1986| Kodak created the first sensor that could detect megapixels. The sensor produced a 5×7 inch digital printThe Fuji DS-1P was produced, the first device to store images digitally but it was never marketed.| 1987| Kodak released new products that changed the way images could be stored. | 1990| Photo CD system developed by Kodak who claimed that it was “the first worldwide standard for defining color in the digital environment of computers…”
A leap forward in the digital photography timeline took place with the first dSLR released by Kodak. The Kodak DCS-100 had a 1.3 mega pixel sensor, a Nikon F-3 body, and could store 32 images on 1 MB RAM. It allowed photojournalists to get their images back to their agencies with great speed although it cost around 13,000 USD.Logitech produced the Dycam Model 1, a black and white digicam capable of storing 32 compressed images using 1 MB RAM on a 376 x 240 pixel CCD in TIFF format. The camera had to be connected to a computer to transfer the images.| 1994| Apple Quicktake 100 camera was the first to connect to the home computer by a USB cable. It had a 640 x 480 pixel CCD and produced eight images which could be stored in its internal memory.| 1995| The Casio QV-11 with LCD monitor was released.|
1999| The Nikon D1 was released, the first camera on our digital photography timeline to be a serious competitor to the film SLR market. By now, digital cameras had at least 2.0 megapixels.| 2000| The Fuji FinePix S1 Pro was released aimed at non-professional photographers. | 2001| The Canon EOS-1D was released, aimed at the professional market | 2002| Foveon started producing a new type of image sensor. Colour film has three layers, one to record red, one for green and one for blue light; the old digital sensors recorded colour on one single layer of pixels and could only capture part of the colour information available; the new Foveon X3 can capture all of the colour information using three separate layers.| 2003| The Canon Digital Rebel was first produced which allowed non-professional photographers to attach the lenses from their old film cameras| 2004| Kodak stopped producing film cameras
2006| Nikon and Canon stopped producing film cameras. Cameras could now detect up to 22 megapixels. Mobile phone had built-in cameras that could sense up to 4 megapixels.| (Bellis, 2011) (Greenspun, 2007)
Product Life Cycle As with time everything changes and everyone ages, as you aged the memories that once vivid and clean become blurred and forgotten; this is the true value of the Camera. A picture taken years ago could reignite a fading love, or remind of the past. At present, the camera allows for the sharing of thousands of pictures, a couple’s new born can be shared with grandparents who may not have been able to be there for the birth. As with ever growing terrorism threat, a picture can be used to help identify potential terrorist and other related criminals. In today’s world where the truth can sometimes be blurred and obscured, a picture taken through a camera can give undeniable and substantial evidence to the truth and reality.
(Quick MBA, 2011)
The product life cycle (PLC) describes the stages a new product goes through from beginning to end. PLC includes four major stages: market introduction, market growth, market maturity and sales decline. In the market introduction stage, when this type of cameras were introduced to a market for the very first time, customers were absolutely unfamiliar with this type of product, its availability and advantages, so sales of digital cameras were extremely low. Furthermore, industry in a whole also made a loss, because there were numerous expenditures: before introducing such cameras to the market it was essential to make a profound research and development of the product (e.g. find out whether it is worth apply this innovation, whether people really need such product, cost of its production). After the digital cameras were already introduced it was necessary to invest in a lot of money on the promotions etc., because consumers were unaware of their appearance and advantages of digital cameras over ordinary ones.
The better quality if photos, photographic film was replaced by memory stick what makes the use more comfortable and handy, compactness needed to be proved through promotion and advertisement in order to give customers a reason to buy the new product. In the Digital Camera Market growth stage, sales started to grow quickly, as people realised the advantages of digital cameras and that they are already available at the market for purchase (due to huge promotion through all sources of media, electric signs advertisement, posters), therefore profits of the industry also rose significantly and even achieved a peak at this stage. However, the success was noticed by many other producers who were not the “discoverers”, thus forced other Digital Camera Manufacturer’s to replace their production of ordinary cameras into digital ones (N.A, 2012) Innovation
William Coyne, Senior VP for R&D at 3M. He defines innovation as follows: “Creativity is thinking of new and appropriate ideas whereas innovation is the successful implementation of those ideas within an organization. In other words creativity is the concept and innovation is the process”. (Rosenberg, 1986)
Basic Research is basically having the idea, while Applied Research and Development is the nurturing and creating the idea; checking to see if the idea is viable and profitable:-should the idea become a product and creating the product. Diffusion is the way the product is dispersed; this will be further discussed in a later section of the paper. If the film camera is a great invention then the digital camera is truly its greatest innovation. In a digital camera photos are recorded and stored in digital form. This digital data can be transferred to a computer and processed for printing. The digital camera allows for the available transfer of pictures to the computer or a modem to even transfer wirelessly to anywhere on planet Earth, and also to outer-space. North Atlantic Space Agency (NASA) and before the US Air Force, improved the digital camera to spy and to take pictures of the Universe. A digital camera allows for the pictures to be instantly viewed thus ensuring that the pictures taken are exactly what was expected of the photograph.
The picture can be instantly edited or deleted to ensure the picture takers approval, in most cases while still in the camera. Almost all digital cameras have a memory storage that is removable and can store hundreds maybe even thousands of pictures that may only be the size of two thumbs nail. The digital camera has many programmable functions, most as an automatic function. To name a few; noise reduction, anti-shake programs, red eye reduction, face recognition and in certain cameras, smile recognition, which waits for a person to smile before the pictures can be taken. Some digital cameras allow for choice of a traditional black and white picture as well as a high definition coloured picture. Since the picture is visible on the liquid crystal screen, usually on the camera back, you can quickly learn what is good and bad about your photographic technique. Using flash often yields unpredictable results, but the results can be quickly viewed and the picture taken again if necessary.
On the other hand, a 35 mm film camera is usually limited to 24 or 36 pictures on a roll of film, which must be chemically developed in a darkroom. The picture must then be printed or projected to be seen. Truly the most important aspect of the digital era is the cost savings and effectiveness of the digital camera, the first model cameras cost quite a penny to have the pictures developed was even a higher expense. To take a thousand pictures with colour film using 28 rolls of film at 4 dollars per roll of 36 pictures, costs 112 dollars. The cost of developing and printing 28 rolls of film at about 10 dollars each is 280 dollars. (McCabe, 2011) To take 1000 pictures with the digital camera may cost 15 dollars in batteries, or less if rechargeable batteries are used. It costs far less to take and print digital pictures after the initial outlay of the cost of the digital camera and printer is considered. (McCabe, 2011) Many people inclusive of the writer consider digital photography a new and exciting art. (Rosenberg, 1986)
The Chain Model allows for feedback at any time of the Linear Model. Patents
The final innovation model is licensing, is a form of intellectual property. It consists of a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state to an inventor or their assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for the public disclosure of an invention. A licensor may grant permission to a licensee to distribute products under a trademark. With such a license, the licensee may use the trademark without fear of a claim of trademark infringement by the licensor. Marketing
For a business process, market research study is an integral part in providing important information and in guiding business strategy. A detailed market research study provides a more holistic approach of understanding consumer behaviour, market niches and marketing programs. (MRB, 2012)Brand Name
Suggest Retail Price
Suggest Retail Price
(McCarthy, n.d.)The Marketing Mix (4P’s) was developed by E. Jerome McCarthy, which was later revised to the 7p’s. (Gandhi, 2009)
Difference in the Marketing Mix 4P’s and 7P’s
Marketing professionals and specialist use many tactics to attract and retain their customers. These activities comprise of different concepts, the most important one being the marketing mix. There are two concepts for marketing mix: 4P and 7P. It is essential to balance the 4Ps or the 7Ps of the marketing mix. The concept of 4Ps has been long used for the product industry while the latter has emerged as a successful proposition for the services industry. | This Diagram shows a combination of both the Product life cycle and the 4p’s theories.According to Basic Marketing A Global-Managerial Approach, (William D. Perreault, 1999) * the product life cycle are getting shorter * the early bird gets catches the worm * improving the product is the way| Product
| Product Name | US Market| Global Market|
1| Canon| 18.9| 44.5|
2| Nikon| 16.9| 29.8|
3| Sony| 16.3| 11.9|
4| Kodak| 12.8| 13.8|
5| Samsung| 12.9| 0|
6| Panasonic | 5.5| 0|
Figure 1-shows the Chart and Market Share Graph
Canon and Nikon have been the two leading manufacturers in the camera market. This is due to their continuous improvement and new innovations to the digital camera. The Canon vs. Nikon rivalry can be compared to the Coke vs.
Pepsi rivalry, where if one company introduces a new product the competing company does the same. This can be seen in Porter’s 5 under Power of Substitutes as further discussed in Appendix A. It can be seen that Canon is currently ahead in the market. (OnlineMarket-Trends, 2011)
Figure 3-Shows the Battle of the Top Two Brands
Why Nikon P500?
As the writer’s favourite hobby and pastime no expense were spared to obtain a durable and versatile camera. The brand that appealed to the writer the most was the Nikon P500. Although the Nikon may not be the most sort-after brand on the market, as shown in figure 1, it is still truly a great buy. (McCabe, 2011)
Figure 2 Shows the Nikon P500
* 12.1 megapixels
* BSI CMOS sensor
* 36x optical zoom
* 22.5mm wide-angle
* Optical image stabilization
* Max aperture f/3.5
* EXPEED C2 processor
* 3-inch tilting LCD, 921k pixels, rotating scrolling
* Electronic viewfinder
* 1080p HD video, 30fps
* 8fps burst shooting (5 frames max)
* Press-and-sweep panorama
* Manual control (PASM)
* Captures to SD/SDHC media cards
* Rechargeable lithium-ion battery
Although Canon Power-Shot SX30IS has the same specifications, it’s priced at $ 400 US (Amazon.com, 2011) whereas the Nikon is priced at $350 US (Amazon, 2011). The writer especially liked the rotating scrolling Nikon introduced on the S series, the S80 was the first camera bought by the writer. The Nikon brand has always intrigued the writer for its versatility; there has always been a brand for everyone. Nikon targets all types of consumers; Nikon targets the young, the old, the experienced photographer, the newbie. What has always impressed are Nikon’s advertisements; in recent times Actor Ashton Kutcher and become the spokesperson for the Nikon products. The advertisement that features the extended zoom with the gorgeous, flirtatious women is by far the most appealing advertisement yet. Nikon latest innovation, as shown on theirs’ latest advertisement, features the ‘huge is’ where the new Nikon 1 allows for the taking of High Definition videos while simultaneous allowing for pictures taking (Nikon, n.d.). Before videos did not have very good still shots. Promotion, Place and Diffusion
Influence on Society
The influence of the camera truly has had a huge impact on the world, as discussed early in the Benefit & Valve. It is the writer’s belief that the camera allows the world to share in one’s miseries and in their greatest and proudest moments. The Social Impact Theory States that the likelihood that a person will respond to social influence will increase with 1. Strength: how important the influencing group of people are to you. 2. Immediacy: how close the group are to you (in space and time) at the time of the influence attempt. 3. Number: How many people there are in the group. (Latane, 1981) First, the more people present, the more influence they will have on each individual. Additionally, the more important the people are to the individual, the more influence they will have on him or her. Second, the theory of social impact states that while the impact of others on the individual increases as the number of people increases, the rate of increase in impact grows less as each new individual is added. For example, if you are giving a presentation to three people and a fourth one joins the group, this is more significant than if you were giving a presentation to 31 people and one more joined.
Third, each individual can influence others; but the more people are present, the less influence any one individual will have. Thus, we are more likely to listen attentively to a speaker if we are in a small group than if we were in a large group. The use of super models and well-known actors influence a large number of people; an advertisement is view by an average size family of four and if that advertisement is view by ten million home then that means that forty million persons may have watched and possibly decided to buy a Nikon camera rather than a Canon. Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system. The idea suggests that, for good or bad, change can be promoted rather easily in a social system through a domino effect. (Rogers, 2003) Everett Rogers’s Diffusion of Innovations says this takes place over five steps 1. Knowledge – person becomes aware of an innovation and has some idea of how it functions, 2. Persuasion – person forms a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward the innovation, 3. Decision – person engages in activities that lead to a choice to adopt or reject the innovation, 4. Implementation – person puts an innovation into use
5. Confirmation – person evaluates the results of an innovation-decision already made. UPS and Nikon
As Nikon realised that the digital camera was the way of the future distribution became a problem. The challenge was to design and implement a new distribution strategy which would introduce the Nikon product line. Due to the United Parcel Service of America (UPS) Logistics department, mainly the UPS Supply Chain Solutions; which manages air and ocean freight and related customs brokerage. A solution was formed which integrated a system for managing inbound air, and ocean freight, repacking and knitting products for final distribution such as retail stores etc. The results
* Significantly shortened Nikon’s supply chain
* Increased speed to market
* Enabled higher level of service to retailers
* Improved product visibility across the supply chain
* Increase Revenue for Nikon
* A Better share of the Market
Conclusion & Future Outlook
For the future of the digital camera, the features offered by digital cameras can be quite mind-boggling for the average user and pretty exciting for most pros. The camera’s developments that are likely to further improve the process of photography:
1. Rich colours and tones
2. Compatibility across a range of software, hardware and images types
3. Usage in any type of lightning conditions
4. Greater resolution from even the simplest, low cost camera models
While the higher-end digital evolution continues, the prices of the simple camera have crashed to such an extent that even children and teens are proud owners of uncomplicated cameras. The camera and photography interest starts young and this creates a truly large audience base for the camera industry. The camera phone is expected to be greatly improved to allow for extended picture taking capabilities. With this innovation the camera and the cellular phone may seize to exist separately and may merger into one product. This will allow for even greater sharing, but with an added downside of paparazzi; as this will now allow for the invasion of one most private moment (Solutions, UPS Supply Chain, 2005)
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Share_Rankings.php [Accessed 27 December 2011]. William D. Perreault, E.M., 1999. Basic Marketing-A Global Managerial Approach. University of Phonix; Special Edition Series ed. McGraw & Hill.Appendix Appendix A:-Porters Five Forces