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Self Confidence

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Confidence is a quite a simple word, and yet, many people of all ages, races, and genders tend to have a problem with the said word. The very same word encourages us a study it’s important. Confidence is known to be important in every aspect of people’s lives, but still, many of them struggle to find it. They say our confidence is intact when we are born, but diminishes during our childhood. We lose a little of it when we make mistakes, fail, misbehave, get in trouble, feel guilty, neglect ourselves, and or do things we are ashamed of. As we all know, kids can be mean. Many of us can relate to bullied and picked on as kids, which chips away a part of our confidence. However, as an adult, we can lose more of our confidence for many reasons like being criticized by others, when we have negative people in our lives, not achieving the goals that we set for ourselves (consciously or sub-consciously).

Many people will just settle with their current life and will not experience how incredibly rewarding it is to live a life filled with confidence, passion, purpose and enthusiasm because they lack the confidence and knowledge to do so. There is nothing wrong with wanting to feel better about you and to achieve more in life. Sometimes getting there is not easy and there are things that can happen along the way to make the path a lot longer and more difficult. Lack of Self-confidence is not necessarily a general characteristic, which pervades all aspects of a person’s life. Typically, individuals will have some areas of their lives where they feel quite confident, e.g. academics and athletics, while at the same time they do not feel at all confident in other areas, e.g. personal appearance and social relationships.

People who doubt their capabilities shy away from difficult tasks that they view as personal threats. They have low aspirations and weak commitment to the goals they choose to pursue. When faced with difficult tasks, they dwell on their personal deficiencies, on the obstacles they will encounter, and all kinds of adverse outcomes rather than concentrate on how to perform successfully. It is on these premises that the researchers wish to find out the levels of self-confidence of the 3rd year students of Bachelor of Science in Hotel Restaurant Management of St. Therese MTC Colleges La Fiesta Site Molo, Iloilo City for the school year 2012-2013 when they are taken as an entire group and when they are classified according to gender, monthly income of parents and section.

The nature of their course will give them opportunity to work in business establishments such as hotels and restaurants where they always interact with people from all lifestyles. It is extremely important in every aspect of their work to be self-confident since confident people inspire confidence in others, their peers, their bosses, their customers and their friends.

This study will help us realize that it is never too late to become confident and live the life we have dreamed of! With dedication and determination, confidence is an achievable skill that we all deserve to be happy and successful.

Statement of the Problem
The problem of the study was focused on the level of self-confidence among the 3rd year students of Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management of St. Therese MTC-Colleges, La Fiesta Site, Molo, Iloilo City. Specifically, the study aims to answer the following questions: 1. Do the students possess a certain level of self-confidence? 2. What is the level of self-confidence among the 3rd year BSHRM Students of St. Therese MTC-colleges La Fiesta Site Molo, Iloilo City when taken as a whole group and when they classified according to Gender, Monthly Income of Parents, Section. 3. Are there significant differences in the level of self-confidence among the 3rd BSHRM of St. Therese MTC-Colleges, La Fiesta Site, Molo, Iloilo City when taken as an entire group and when they are classified according to Gender, Monthly Income of Parents and Section? General Objective

Generally, the main purpose of this study is to determine the Level of Self-Confidence among the 3rd year students of Bachelor of Science and Hotel Restaurant Management St. Therese MTC-Colleges, La Fiesta Site Molo, Iloilo
City.

Specific Objectives
In this study, here are the specific objectives to our specific problems.
1. To determine whether the students possess a certain level of self-confidence.
2. To determine the level of self-confidence among the 3rd year BSHRM Students of St. Therese MTC-Colleges, La Fiesta Site, Molo, Iloilo City when taken as a whole group and when they are classified according to Gender, Monthly Income of Parents, Section.

3. To determine if there are significant differences in the level of self-confidence among the 3rd BSHRM of St. Therese MTC-Colleges, La Fiesta Site, Molo, Iloilo City when taken as a whole group and when they are classified according to Gender, Monthly Income of Parents and Section.

Null Hypothesis
There are no significant differences in the level of self-confidence among the 3rd year BSHRM students of St. Therese MTC-Colleges, La Fiesta Site, Molo, Iloilo City when taken as an entire group and when they are classified according to Gender, Monthly income of Parents and Section.

Definition of Terms
For the purpose of clarification, the following terms are given their conceptual and operational definitions. Gender. One of the two divisions of organic especially. Human beings respectively designated as male or female (Webster Third International Dictionary, 1993) In this study, “Gender” refers to whether a student is a male or a female. Level. Having no part higher than another conforming to the curvature of the earth surface (Webster Third International Dictionary, 1993). In this study, “level” refers to the process use in finding out the level of self-confidence among students of Bachelor of Science and Hotel Restaurant Management St. Therese – MTC Colleges, La fiesta Site Molo, Iloilo City. Monthly Income. Relating to a month as a payable every month, allowances of parent for the maintenance of the child (Webster Third International Dictionary, 1993)

In this study, “monthly income” refers to the money received by the parents of the respondents, categorized as follows: P19,000-Below, P20,000-40,000, and P41,000-Above. Self-Confidence. Can be defined as having a positive, realistic self-image. With self-confidence comes the ability to handle criticism, show affection, and be optimistic and assertiveness. Self-confident people have a positive outlook and think positive thoughts about themselves, believing that their abilities match with the tasks that they must take in. Emotional maturity and the ability to programmatically evaluate markers (www.livestrong.com, 2010).

In this study, “self-confidence” refers to the self-evaluation reflecting the extent to which a student believes himself to be capable, being competent to cope with the basic challenges of life and of being worthy of happiness.

Significance of the Study
The results of the present investigation are helpful and beneficial to the following: Teachers. May obtain deeper awareness and understanding of themselves and their roles as they go through the process of doing their tasks as teachers. This will also provide the teachers with the information that good self-confidence must be inculcated in the students.

It is also significant in their part for it could remind them of their role as motivators of the student to succeed.
School Administrators. The school administrator can use the findings of this study as a basis in strengthening the student’s development program of the school. These studies were revealed the characteristics of the students in terms of their confidence. They can also provide programs, activities and a favorable environment, which could strengthen and maximize the potentials of the students especially on developing their self-confidence and self-esteem. Guidance Counselor. The findings of this study could provide information to the guidance counselor on the possible programs and activities to be undertaken which could be useful in building good self-confidence of the students.

Parents. The result of the study is also useful to the parents, considering that self-confidence develops from infancy throughout life and parents are the molders and examples to the children. They can do their part in developing self-confidence by seeing to it that they provide good and healthy environment to enhance high level of self-confidence among their children.

Future Researchers. These studies were enabled them to become functionally aware of the importance of having a good self-confidence in all aspects of their lives especially in the performance of their future work and their social relationships. Scope and Limitation

The study primarily confined its investigation on the level of self-confidence among the 3rd year students of Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management of St. Therese MTC Colleges, La Fiesta Site, Molo, Iloilo City during the academic year 2012-2013. The respondents of the study were the 3rd year students of Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management of St. Therese MTC-Colleges, La Fiesta Site, Molo, Iloilo City during the academic year 2012-2013. Data for the study was gathered by using Self Confidence Rating Scale prepared by the researcher. Information was prepared to accompany the data gathering instrument to obtain the data on the respondents’ personal characteristics such as Gender, Monthly Income of Parents and Section.

Statistical tools that were used are the frequency count, percentage, means, and standard deviations for descriptive data analysis. All statistical computations were computed manually.

Chapter II
Review of Related Literature

Conceptual literature
There are certain things that everyone desires. This thing or value is not based on facial features or monetary aspects. It has nothing to do with physical qualities. This positive value or quality attracts more positive values and positivity as well. This is something that people are born with or are infused with. Everyone would like to have this but it cannot be purchased from a store. Some people are lucky to be having healthy doses of it and it can still be developed over time. This quality or value is known as ‘self-confidence’. Merriam-Webster online dictionary defines self-confidence as the confidence in one self and in one’s powers and abilities When a person possess this quality he is more in tune with himself. He is more reliant and more trusting with his own person. He develops a healthy trust for others as well knowing that he can fully trust and rely on his own abilities. Having self-confidence makes him more trusting of his judgments, choices and a decision knowing well that he can trust himself to know what is best for him. He also exudes a youthful glow because of a lower level of anxiety and stress that tends to age one’s appearance. With self-confidence, financial abundance and independence is also achieved because there is the propulsion to go forward and reach for one’s goal, thus being rewarded financially.

This is one thing that most people hope to achieve but find hard to do so. Another consequence of a well-developed personality is self-confidence, when we are aware that we have a pleasing personality we are aware that we have a pleasing personality, we have the confidence to face anybody. Self-confidence elicits positive feeling which are necessary for mental health. We develop negative feelings lie feelings of inferiority when we are aware that our personality is not as good as that of other (Teodoro, 1996). Many people have difficulties in making the right, correct and positive choices. Most often, they feel all alone, left-out, shunned and develops dependency and becomes dependent even in decision making. This is a result of lack of self-confidence, that is why parents do not neglect this problem and tend to take serious actions about it, and they take immediate actions in sending their kids to behavioral psychologists and other professionals. This is just right because indeed it is a serious problem. Much of a person’s future depends upon his ability to process problems and make decisions. Self-confidence is vital in making such choices. Self-confidence is not an inborn trait. This is a trait that people develop from the time they were born and is dependent on a lot of factor in one’s life.

Babies need confidence in order to learn the basic motor skills necessary for growth, such as standing up, walking and even talking. It is a developmental need. A healthy dose of self-confidence gives people the ‘can-do’ attitude – that everything that one wishes to have or do is achievable and doable, given the proper contexts and the proper motivations. This gives people a positive attitude towards life and a sunny disposition. Experts on the other hand would show that a lack of self-confidence might be traced to a troubled or problematic past experience. It may be due to a traumatic episode, and most likely, a dysfunctional family life that fails to support the growth of confidence in a person. Perhaps the most powerful factor that comes into play for people who lack self-confidence is being self-conscious. These people feel negativity towards the self and they have inferiority complex, thinking themselves less than others. As they start to feel less acceptable, ugly, or less desirable, then the tendency is withdrawal. What also come into play too are our perceptions and judgments. Comparing our self with others will always yield negative results because we are our own harshest critics and we will never measure up. One thing that can be done is to be inspired by other people’s achievements instead.

We learn to emulate those we admire so we achieve our goals too. If we want financial stability, then we follow those who have achieved abundance and stability. We emulate their positive traits to achieve what they have achieved. We must learn to pre-occupy ourselves. When we do not have things to do, our minds become hyperactive and critical and that is when we fall into the traps of self-consciousness. We must not criticize ourselves. Although criticisms are meant to be positive, once it comes from our own selves, they become counter-productive and become self-destructive instead. Self-criticism erodes self-confidence leading to a hypersensitivity and being hyperactive critical of our own selves, ultimately leading to loss of self-confidence. On the other side, this is the secret to building self-confidence – the belief and trust in one’s own self. If we believe in our own special skills and talents and if we are able to convince ourselves that we are self-sufficient, we build self-confidence.

Self-confidence is achieved through a good habit of self-reliance and belief. If we continue to motivate ourselves, we continue building trust and continue building self-confidence. Be interested in your own achievements even if they are just humble and little things. Learn to congratulate yourself and give yourself credit for a job well done. This will give you the zest and zeal to do more and exceed your own achievements. Developing self-starts with having a high regard for one’s own self. We must have a healthy self-image. One only gains self-confidence if we keep from discouraging ourselves. We must not dwell on past failure, forgive ourselves, and be gentle with our selves. We must not be ‘defeatist’ instead, we must look at the lessons our failures have given us and how we can learn from them and pick up from where off. “Concentrate on the positive things that you have done and accomplished and make them inspiration. In time, you will have more faith in yourself, and hopefully, more decision” (Johns, http://www.unlimitedconfidence.com/).

People who are self-confident have positive outlooks in life because of the positive self-image they possess. They have trust in their own abilities and can follow through with plans, take actions and bring any endeavor they have started to a complete, meaningful and fruitful fruition. They have realistic goals and expectations and they take other people’s opinion in stride and not easily discouraged because they draw strength from their own selves. Low self-esteem people on the other hand take to heart negativity. They concentrate on the negative things other people say. They berate their own selves, thus, set themselves up for a fall because they feel inadequate, and most likely, always seek for approval from others. Self-confidence boosts the probability of one succeeding in a given situation with given constants and factors. Self-confidence is always interacting with given situations and given factors for. Although situational, self-confidence may also apply in a broad spectrum of any given situation. There are some areas that people feel confident about, such as academics, intra and interpersonal relations, sports, music, career, family and many others.

While it is but normal for some to feel less confident in other factors or areas of their lives, still, there is an attitude of acceptance, knowing one’s strengths and willingness to work on challenging areas. On the other hand, childhood experiences that lead to low self-esteem include being harshly criticized, being yelled at or beaten, being ignored, ridiculed or teased, being expected to be “perfect” all the time and experiencing failures in sports or school. People with low self-esteem were often given messages that failed experience (losing a game, getting poor grade, et.) were failures of their self. People with low self-esteem often rely on how they are doing in the present to determine how they feel about themselves. They need positive external experiences to counteract the negative feelings and thoughts that constantly plague them. Low self-esteem has devastating consequences.

It can create anxiety, stress, loneliness, and increased likelihood for depression. It can cause problems with friendships and relationships. It can seriously impair academic and job performance. It can lead to underachievement and increased vulnerability to drug and alcohol abuse. Worst of all, these negative consequences themselves reinforce the negative self-image and can take a person into a downward spiral of lower and lower self-esteem and increasingly non-productive or even actively self-destructive behavior. Self-confidence is the difference between feeling unstoppable and feeling scared out of your wits. Your perception of your self has an enormous impact on how others perceive you. Perception is reality – the more self-confidence you have the more likely it is your succeed. Although many of the factors affecting self-confidence are beyond your control, there are a number of things you can consciously do to build self-confidence. By using these 10 strategies, you can get the mental edge you need to reach your potential (http//www.pickthebrain.com). Ways for Improving Self Confidence

Fake it till you make it. Act as if you are a person full of self-confidence and very often you start to be exactly that. Dress sharply, sit straight and walk tall. Look people in the eye. Pretend you have unlimited faith in yourself even when you’re quaking in your shoes. You’ll find that when you “fake it”, and later tell people how nervous you were, they often will say “I couldn’t tell. You didn’t appear nervous at all.” Speak up. If you lack confidence, you may speak softly or not at all. You may worry that others will ridicule or reject you if they knew what you really thought or who you really are. This is a form of reacting to what you think people are thinking. In the end, does the opinion of other people matter all that much? Ask yourself this question: How much energy do you spend worrying about what strangers are thinking? As Peter T. Mcintyre said, “Confidence comes not from always being right, but from not fearing to be wrong.” Praise yourself. When you decide to improve your confidence, your tendency to be self-critical has to end.

Look for what you do right each and every day. Don’t miss an excuse to lavish yourself with praise, even if all you can say is that you’ve been trying awfully hard. Encourage yourself. By whatever means necessary, you need to develop the habit of self-encouragement. Picture yourself succeeding. Practice daily affirmations and keep reminding yourself that you will succeed. As Henry Ford said, “Whether you think you can or think you can’t, you are right.” Think positive. You have to take charge of your own mind. What are the thoughts that fill your head in the course of the day? Negative self-talk cannot be allowed to stay. When it starts, immediately replace it with a positive thought. Think about what you’ve done right and what you like about yourself. Think about the goals that you are in the process of accomplishing. Get to know yourself. When you are trying to build self-confidence, your worst enemy is yourself. The best way to defeat an enemy is to know all there is to know about him. Get to know your strengths and weaknesses.

Keep track of your accomplishments, large and small. Pay attention to what types of situations make you judge yourself harshly. Help others. Nothing builds self-confidence like extending a hand to someone in need. By thinking of the needs of others, you will stop dwelling on your flaws. This is an easy thing to accomplish: most people can use some kind of help from carrying groceries to washing their car to painting their house to just being a willing ear for someone that is lonely or stressed. Choose your friends wisely. If there are people in your life who spend their time telling you that you can’t do whatever you’re trying to do, deliberately choose to limit your time with them. Seek out positive people, people who are encouraging, people who notice what you’re doing right. Take a class. Sign up for something you’ve always wanted to do – learn to play the guitar, learn a foreign language or learn to build a birdhouse. Being able to accomplish a new skill will give your self-confidence a quick boost (http://www.selfesteem2go.com/self-confidence.html, 2011). RELATED STUDIES

Local studies
The study conducted by Colbeck et al., (2001) entitled “Learning Professional Confidence: Linking Teaching Practices, Students’ Self-Perceptions, and Gender” Revealed that for too long, college and university faculty have focused their instructional efforts on their own teaching performance. As a result, faculties have paid insufficient attention to ways they might successfully encourage students’ motivation and self-confidence (Barr & Tagg, 1995). Because the undergraduate attrition rates in science and engineering are high for both women and men (National Science Foundation, 1996), there is particular concern that teaching methods still prevalent in these fields may alienate students (Adelman, 1998). Undergraduate student attrition rates remain high from science and engineering programs even as demand for degreed workers in these fields outstrips supply in the United States and around the world (National Science and Technology Council, 2000). Historically, white males have comprised the majority of the engineering and science workers, but this group is declining as a proportion of the total U.S. workforce.

In the last quarter century, increasing participation of women and minorities has helped prevent a severe shortage of science and engineering workers; but if current rates of gender and ethnic participation in these bachelor degree programs do not change, the number of qualified workers will soon be inadequate to meet the science, technology, and engineering needs of our society. A recent report from the National Science and Technology Council (2000) asserts that enlarging the science, technology, and engineering talent pool depends on “encouraging greater participation of all ethnic and gender groups” (p. 4). Efforts to recruit a more diverse student body will not solve the workforce gap if retention rates in science and engineering degree programs remain low. Students’ classroom experiences are critical to their persistence. Prior research shows that female students perceive science and engineering instruction as too competitive and that both male and female students regard science and engineering faculty as unresponsive and unmotivating (Strenta et al., 1994; see also Sax, this issue, for a study of gender differences in graduate science programs).

More than one-third of the students who leave science and engineering cite poor teaching as their primary reason for changing majors (Seymour & Hewitt, 1997). It is not surprising that poor teaching negatively affects students’ persistence in engineering and science. But what encourages students to stay? This study investigated how classroom practices contribute to female and male undergraduates’ positive perceptions of themselves as students and as future professionals. Improved understanding of the link between teaching practices and students’ self-perceptions may guide efforts to increase learning and persistence. Self-efficacy is the expectation that one can accomplish specific behaviors necessary to produce a desired outcome (Bandura, 1986). Most research on college students’ self-efficacy and other self-perceptions has focused on the extent to which self-perceptions affect educational outcomes (Pajares, 1996). For example, college students’ self-perceptions influence their cognitive engagement (Pajares & Miller, 1994), their academic performance, choices of majors and careers (Drew, 1996; Hackett & Betz, 1992; Sax, 1994a), and their intent to persist in science and engineering (Seymour & Hewitt, 1997).

A meta-analysis of 39 studies found that self-efficacy beliefs account for about 14 percent of the variance in students’ academic performance and 12 percent of the variance in their academic persistence (Multon, Brown, & Lent, 1991). Student self-perceptions are better predictors of academic performance than objective measures of ability (Hackett et al., 1992; Pajares & Miller, 1994). Gender apparently is related to the accuracy of self-perceptions (Bandura, 1986; Pajares 1996). Even when college women have higher SAT scores or grades than men, they are more likely than college men to underestimate their objectively measured math abilities (Drew, 1996; Felder et al., 1995). This underestimation has a negative effect on women’s performance and persistence (Meece & Courtney, 1992; Pajares & Miller, 1994). It has a relation to our study because this study tells about what are the strategies thus the teachers used when they are teaching, if they encourage and help students to study well, and what course they choose in order for them to be professional someday. What fields they are more skilled and confident they are.

Another study conducted by Benabou et al., (2002) entitled “Self-Confidence and Personal Motivation” Said that they analyze the value placed rational agents on self-confidence, and the strategies employed in its pursuit. Confidence in one’s abilities generally enhances motivation, making it a valuable asset for individuals with imperfect willpower. This demand for self-serving beliefs (which can also arise from hedonic or signaling motives) must be weighed against the risks of overconfidence. On the supply side, we develop a model of self-deception through endogenous memory that reconciles the motivated and rational features of human cognition. The resulting intrapersonal game of strategic communication typically leads to multiple equilibria. While “positive thinking” can improve welfare, it can also be self-defeating (and nonetheless pursued). Study conducted by Antonio et al., (2004) entitled “The Influence of Friendship Groups on Intellectual Self-Confidence and Educational Aspirations in College”. In this study, the author examines the influence of college friendship groups on students’ intellectual self-confidence and educational aspirations.

Findings indicate that at the interpersonal level, the competing effects of relative deprivation and environmental press are present among white students. Racial diversity in the friendship group was found to have positive effects, but only for students of color. This study relate to our study because it tells what impact of the group friends in college level is. What is the effect having a lot of friends that can affect your studies which bring you failure grades not only your academic but also your behavior. Sometimes it has a good positive effect having friends when you know how to manage it. A study conducted by Meyer et al., (2006) entitled “Asian management research needs more self-confidence” Concluded that the challenges faced by Asian businesses merit scholarly investigation, both to help local business and to enrich the global scholarly discourse. Such research should be able to make major contributions, for instance by explaining context-specific variables and effects, and by drawing on traditional Asian thought in developing new theories.

Yet, recent work, in part due to a lack of self-confidence to analyze the implications of indigenous contexts, seems to have made little progress on this agenda. I first discuss how Asian management research could potentially contribute to global management knowledge. On this basis, I outline institutional constraints that may suppress indigenous and innovative research and thus inhibit the potential impact of local work. I conclude that Asian scholars ought to be more careful in applying theories developed in other contexts, and they can be more self-confident in exploring locally relevant research issues, and in developing theories that explain Asian phenomena.

In this study it talks about what is the contribution of those researches to their business. What are some knowledge and theories they can share in order for them to help there. It relate to our study because we also find theories, that explain thus the self-confidence is relevant to us as student especially in hospitality industry. The study of David et al., (2010) entitled “Self-Esteem and Social Class in the Philippines”. In this paper examines the hypothesis that a significant positive relationship exists between the self-esteem and social class of adolescent Filipinos. Ss were 250 male and female liberal arts and science students at a major Filipino university. The coopersmith self-esteem inventory was used to classify the Ss into two groups-the top and bottom 25% of scores being designated as of high and low self-esteem, respectively. Ss in the two groups were then compared with respect to their parent’s level of education and the status of the occupation of their family head. Evidence of a stronger association between self-esteem and social class than typically found in western countries was obtained. The study also has a relation to our study because it finds out what level of self-esteem they have. Thus the level of education and status of occupation of their family affect their lives. This can cause a low self-esteem. Foreign Studies

A study Conducted by Cheng et al., (2002) entitled “Personality, Peer Relations, and Self-Confidence as Predictors of Happiness and Loneliness” This study is set out to examine to what extent peer relations, self-confidence, and school performance correlated with self-rated happiness (OHI) and loneliness (UCLALS) in adolescents. Personality traits (EPQ), self-confidence (PEI), friendship and school grades were all significantly oppositely correlated with happiness and loneliness. Regressional analysis revealed that extraversion and neuroticism were direct predictors of happiness and self-confidence, while psychoticism and extraversion were direct predictors of loneliness. The effect of sex on happiness and loneliness was moderated by friendship and neuroticism, and by neuroticism and psychoticism, respectively. Extraversion was also a significant predictor of general confidence and social interactions which directly influenced loneliness whilst psychoticism was a direct predictor of loneliness. Self-rated school performance was the only direct predictor of happiness whereas general confidence and social interactions were related to adolescents’ self-reported loneliness.

A study conducted by O’Leary, et al., (2006) entitled “Self-Esteem, Confidence and Relationship Satisfaction of Men with erectile Dysfunction Treated with Sildenafil Citrate: A Multicenter, Randomized Parallel Group, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled Study in the United States”. Authors assessed the change in confidence, relationships and self-esteem, and its correlation with erectile function in men with ED treated with sildenafil citrate in the first United States based, double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial assessed by the validated SEAR. This 12-week flexible dose (25, 50 or 100 mg) trial determined change scores from baseline to end of treatment for the 5 SEAR components (Sexual Relationship domain, Confidence domain, Self-Esteem subscale [prespecified as the primary end point], Overall Relationship subscale and Overall score), and their correlations with the IIEF and event log data, as well as correlations between SEAR components and a general efficacy question at the end of treatment. Compared with the placebo group (125 patients, mean age ± SD 55 ± 13 years, mean years ED 3.8 ± 4.2), the sildenafil group (128 patients, mean age ± SD 56 ± 12, mean years ED 4.6 ± 4.3) had significantly greater improvements in all 5 SEAR components (p <0.0001) and all sexual function measures. SEAR component scores showed significant correlations with IIEF Erectile Function domain scores (r range 0.34 to 0.69, p <0.0001), other IIEF domain scores (p <0.0001), percentage of successful intercourse attempts (p <0.0001) and frequency of erection that allowed satisfactory intercourse (p <0.0001). In this study of men with ED, sildenafil produced substantial improvements in self-esteem, confidence and relationship satisfaction as measured by SEAR scores, which showed moderate to high positive correlations with IIEF scores. Relation to the study:

The study of Bisiacchi et al., (2010) entitled “Self-Perceived Skills Confidence: An Investigative Study of Chiropractic Students in the Early Phases of a College’s Clinic Program” revealed that pilot study surveyed students at early stages of a chiropractic college’s clinical curriculum, at the time when integration of patient evaluation and management begins to occur, for collecting data regarding perceived levels of confidence in their spinal analysis and adjusting (manipulation) skills. An online, cross-sectional survey based on students’ perceptions of their skills was conducted in a basic technique review class for 3 consecutive terms. Questions primarily focused on full-spine radiography (Gonstead-type) analysis, radiographic descriptive analysis, motion palpation analysis, and manual full-spine and diversified spinal manipulation. Of 226 eligible students, 108 participated. The respondents were overall more confident with their analysis skills in full-spine radiographs and descriptive listings than they were with their motion palpation analysis. Self-confidence with spinal manipulation skills followed a general pattern from confident to unconfident to unsure.

Students were most confident with prone thoracic spinal manipulation and least confident with seated cervical spinal manipulation. With lumbar and pelvic manipulation, confidence levels varied between side posture pushes, side posture pulls, and prone setups. Considerably more than half of the respondents were confident enough with their skills to feel comfortable beginning the clinical experience. In this study the students is confident enough on their first clinical experience they are more on analysis than their skills. Students should balance whether it is academic or more skilled work. Through this it can develop your confidence. It also has a relation to our study through building confidence in terms of your skills. The study of Wichman et al., (2010) entitled “Doubting One’s Doubt: A Formula for Confidence”. Said that people feel, think, and act differently when doubt rather than confidence is accessible. A traditional perspective on the accessibility of doubt holds that multiple sources of doubt activation should lead to increased levels of uncertainty. In contrast, we find that under some conditions two sequential sources of doubt activation result in decreased levels of uncertainty.

We suggest that this follows from a meta-cognitive process in which people come to “doubt their doubt.” In Study 1, individuals with chronically accessible uncertainty who were further exposed to an uncertainty manipulation paradoxically reported reduced uncertainty. In Study 2, participants were first primed with doubt or certainty and then exposed to a manipulation associated with either confidence (i.e., head nodding) or doubt (head shaking). Supporting the idea that people can either trust or doubt their own doubts, head nodding (vs. shaking) accentuated (vs. attenuated) the impact of the initial doubt vs. certainty manipulation. These findings advance the literature on meta-cognition, self-doubt, and embodiment, and may have clinical applications. Having doubt also bother yourself because you can’t express what you want because you are not confident yet. You cannot trust your doubt because it also leads you to a wrong way. In our study it also shows on how to develop self-confidence through the help of our parents on how they raise us since we were born confidence can develop but not inheritance.

A study conducted by Woodman et al., (2010) entitled “Self-Confidence and Performance: A Little Self-Doubt Helps”. The study aimed to test the hypothesis that a decrease in confidence on a well-learned task will increase effort and performance. Expert skippers’ (n = 28) self-confidence was reduced via a combination of task (i.e., change of rope) and competitive demands. Performance was the number of skips in a 1-min period. On-task effort was measured via the verbal reaction time to an auditory probe. The group × trial interaction (F (1, 26) = 6.73, p < .05, η2 = .21) supported the hypothesis: Post-hoc tests revealed a significant decrease in self-confidence and a significant improvement in performance from practice to competition for the experimental group only. No significant effort effects were revealed. Some self-doubt can benefit performance, which calls into question the widely accepted positive linear relationship between self-confidence and performance. As effort did not increase with decreased confidence, the precise mechanisms via which self-confidence will lead to an increase or a decrease in performance remain to be elucidated.

This study shows that a person who has doubt in their selves can decrease their confidence which can cause damage or ashamed of in their performance. Having trust and self-confidence in yourself, you can perform it very well. So, it also relate to our study because it also test thus their confidence increase or decrease through their performance. The study of Davis et al., (2011) entitled “The Self-Reported Confidence of Newly Graduated Midwives Before and after their First Year of Practice in Sydney, Australia”. Said that graduates from a new, 3-year Bachelor of Midwifery program joined those educated through the 1 year, postgraduate route (for those already qualified as nurses) for the first time in New South Wales (NSW) Australia in 2007. Many hospitals offer transition support programs for new graduates during their first year of practice though there is little evidence available to inform these programs. To establish the new midwife’s confidence in working to the 14 “National Competency Standards for the Midwife”1 and the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM) Definition of a Midwife and to explore whether the new midwife’s confidence changed over the new graduate year.

In particular the study set out to determine whether there were any differences in the confidence of new graduates from undergraduate or postgraduate programs. New graduate midwives rated their level of confidence (1–10) in working to the 14 National Competency Standards for the Midwife and the ICM Definition of a Midwife during their first weeks of employment and after the completion of their first year of practice. Midwives prepared through the undergraduate and postgraduate routes commenced their first year of practice with similar levels of confidence. The confidence of these midwives increased modestly over the first year of practice. Those from postgraduate programs were significantly more confident than those from undergraduate programs on four competencies after the first year of practice. Participant’s self-reported confidence in working to the ICM Definition of a Midwife was low.

Our profession and community need strong, confident midwives and it is in all our interests to look to ways we can best achieve this. While the findings of this study should be treated with caution, this study suggests that there is room for improvement in the way we support newly graduated midwives to build their confidence over their first year of practice. Further research is needed to identify the needs of newly graduated midwives and how best we can support them to develop as strong and confident practitioners through their first year of practice. This study is related to our research work because it also study on how those students rate their confidence, how they strong enough to face their real life after they graduate and how they build their confidence through their first year of practice.

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