We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy

Reactions of butanols with hydrbromic acid

essay
The whole doc is available only for registered users OPEN DOC

A limited time offer! Get a custom sample essay written according to your requirements urgent 3h delivery guaranteed

Order Now

In this experiment, 1-butanol or 2-butanol will be converted to the corresponding alkyl bromide with HBR, while using sulfuric acid as a catalyst. The sulfuric acid will accelerate the chemical reaction with being consumed in the process, it will increase the concentration of the protonated alcohol, which then can form an alkyl bromide by either an SN1 or SN2 reaction.

The reaction for both mechanisms depends on the concentration of protonated alcohol and the catalyst should increase the rate of the reaction. This could increase the amount of alkyl bromide produced, but it could increase the side reactions as well which would reduce product yield. Therefore this experiment will test different ratios to determine the best cost ratio.

Procedure:

Reaction:
1. Assemble an apparatus for heating under reflux using a 50-mL round-bottomed flask, a water cooled reflux condenser, and a gas trap containing 1 M NaOH. The gas trap can be omitted if you under a fume hood.
2. Weigh 72.0 mmol of your assigned alcohol (1-butanol or 2-butanol) into the round-bottomed flask.
3. Cool the flask in ice water and under the hood cautiously add 10.0 mL (89 mmol) of 48% aqueous hydrobromic acid. Then add your assigned volume of concentrated sulfuric acid.

4. Drop in some boiling chips and heat the mix under reflux for one hour from the time the solution starts to boil. Separation:
5. Codistill the alkyl bromide with the water present in the reaction mix, using a simple distillation apparatus (no additional funnel) with a graduated cylinder as the receiver.\
6. Stop the distillation when the distillate is no longer cloudy and the organic layer no longer increases in volume over a period of 5-10 minutes.
7. Add 10 mL of water to the distillate, shake the mix in a separatory funnel, and separate the layers cleanly. If you’re not sure which is the organic layer, test a drop of each layer with a drop of water.
8. Cautiously wash the organic layer with 5 mL of cold concentrated sulfuric acid and save the top layer.
9. Then wash it with a 10-mL portion of water followed by a 10-mL of saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate, saving the bottom layer each time.
10. Dry the alkyl bromide with a little anhydrous calcium chloride.
11. Decant and weigh the product at this point, and report the crude yield. Purification and Analysis
12. Purify the alkyl bromide by simple distillation from a 25-mL boiling flask (small-scale distillation apparatus can be used).
13. Collect the product over a 3-4° range centered around the expected boiling point.
14. Measure the mass of the purified product.
15. Obtain infrared spectrum.
16. Turn in the product

Related Topics

We can write a custom essay

According to Your Specific Requirements

Order an essay
Get Access To The Full Essay
icon
300+
Materials Daily
icon
100,000+ Subjects
2000+ Topics
icon
Free Plagiarism
Checker
icon
All Materials
are Cataloged Well

Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email.

By clicking "SEND", you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy. We'll occasionally send you account related and promo emails.
Sorry, but only registered users have full access

How about getting this access
immediately?

Become a member

Your Answer Is Very Helpful For Us
Thank You A Lot!

logo

Emma Taylor

online

Hi there!
Would you like to get such a paper?
How about getting a customized one?

Can't find What you were Looking for?

Get access to our huge, continuously updated knowledge base

The next update will be in:
14 : 59 : 59
Become a Member