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Quality Manual for Ice Cream

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I. Introduction
A quality manual should outline the structure of the food safety and quality management system for a food production or processing organization. It will also provide a central point to identify all the associated procedures, policies and forms. The manual should be made available to all relevant staff either electronically as a read-only file or in paper form integrate fully with the HACCP food safety plan and associated documentation define how the organizational structure and associated personal responsibilities have been developed to ensure food safety and compliance with defined product quality and process criteria have an issue date issue number and be formally authorized i.e. signed off describe how the manual will be updated if there is a need to change a statement in the manual and who is authorized to undertake the amendment and also authorize the changes before re-issue reference the scope of the food safety and quality management system i.e. how much of the business is addressed by the manual.

And reference any quality or food safety management system standards that the manual has been designed to comply with e.g. BRC Global Standard, ISO 9000, ISO 22000 and any sections of the system standard that are not applicable and why the organization feels that they are not applicable. Training programs must be in place and be effective to ensure that all staff understand their part in food safety and quality management and the parts of the manual that are applicable to their work responsibilities.

II. Objectives
* To maintain an effective Quality Assurance System complying with International Standard ISO9001 (Quality Systems) . * To achieve and maintain a level of quality which enhances the sweet potato ice cream reputation with customers. * To ensure compliance with relevant statutory and safety requirements.

III. Quality Management System

The Quality Assurance System applies to all activities of the Company, and has been developed in accordance with ISO9001. The Quality Assurance System is fully documented and structured in 3 levels: Level 1: Quality Manual

This document details the corporate quality policy and structure of the Company and references appropriate Operating Procedures. Level 2: Operating Procedures
These documents describe the actual process, and controls applied, to all activities concerned with the attainment of a quality assured contracting service. A list of Operating Procedures is given in the Index Section of this Quality Assurance Manual. Level 3: Quality Planning

As the Company operates a standard type and range of services, customer satisfaction and quality are achieved by operation in accordance with the documented quality system. Specific customer requirements are identified and documented during the contract review process, allowing these requirements to be communicated and achieved, ensuring satisfaction of all customer declared needs. IV. Experimental Procedures

A. * Mixing bowl
* Electric mixer
* Rubber spatula
* Saucepan
* Measuring cup
* Measuring spoon
* Strainer

* Whisk
* Stainless stock pot
* Plastic container
* Top loading balance
* Wooden spoon
* Plastic cups
* Thermometer
Materials and Equipment Used

B. Ingredients

Item| Measurement used| Equivalent weight in gram| Brand| Sweet potato(kinerots)| | 100 grams| |
All purpose cream(heavy cream)| 2 cups| 400 grams| Nestle all purpose cream| Evaporated milk(whole milk)| 1 cup| 205 grams| Alaska evaporated milk| Brown sugar| ¾ cup| 107 grams| Camia sugar|

Large egg(yolks)| 5pcs.| 100 grams| Paquete’s egg|
Salt| | 3 grams| Lasap iodized salt|
Vanilla| 2 tsp.| 10 grams| Macormick|

C. Procedures
1. In a medium saucepan, mix1 cup of the cream with the milk, sugar, and a salt. 2. Warm the cream mixture over medium-high heat, stirring occasionally, until the sugar dissolves and tiny bubbles begin to form around the edge of the pan, 3 to 4 minutes. 3. Prepare a brine-chilling by filling a large bowl with several inches of ice water and salt. Set a smaller metal bowl (one that holds at least 1-1/2 quarts) in the ice water. 4. Pour the remaining cup of cream into the inner bowl (this helps the custard cool quicker when you pour it in later). Set a fine strainer on top. 5. Whisk the egg yolks in a medium bowl.

6. In a steady stream, pour half of the warm cream mixture into the egg yolks, whisking constantly to prevent the eggs from curdling. 7. Pour the egg mixture back into the saucepan and cook over low heat, stirring constantly and scraping the bottom with a heatproof rubber spatula until the custard thickens slightly (it should be thick enough to coat the spatula and hold a line drawn through it with a finger), 4 to 8 minutes. An instant-read thermometer should read 175o to 180oF at this point. Don’t let the sauce over heat or boil, or it will curdle. 8. Immediately strain the custard into cold cream in the ice bath. 9. Press firmly on the strainer with the spatula to extract as much flavor as possible. 10. Cool the custard to below 70oF by stirring it over the brine-chilling. Stir mashed sweet potato, vanilla extract into the cool custard. 11. Refrigerate the custard until completely chilled, at least 1 hour. Then mix again by the electric mixer to incorporate air for additional volume. 12. Transfer the ice cream to an air-tight container, and freeze for at least 2 to 4 hours or overnight for best result.

D. Standard and Specification

Process specifications
The processing factors that most affect quality in the ice cream industry are:
* Time
* temperature
* contamination
* hygiene and sanitation
* equipment and methods
* packing for product appeal
* correctness of fill

Aging time is one of the most important factors in manufacturing ice cream. The mix is then aged for at least four hours and usually overnight. This allows time for the fat to cool down and crystallize, and for the proteins and polysaccharides to fully hydrate. Aging provides the following functions: Improves whipping qualities of mix and body and texture of ice cream by providing time for fat crystallization, so the fat can partially coalesce; allowing time for full protein and stabilizer hydration and a resulting slight viscosity increase; allowing time for membrane rearrangement and protein/emulsifier interaction, as emulsifiers displace proteins from the fat globule surface, which allows for a reduction in stabilization of the fat globules and enhanced partial coalescence. Another important factor is the time of freezing and mixing. It is a necessary process to make the mix incorporate with air.. This gives the product its characteristic lightness. Without air, ice cream would be similar to a frozen ice cube. 150kg/h continuous freezer is used, 0oC for 30sec in continuous freezer or 15min in batch freezer. (See table 1. A set in-process standards and specifications needed to follow to create good quality ice cream.)

The temperature of aging, mixing & freezing and storage should be 0oC~4oC, 0oC and -13oC, respectively.

The product can be contaminated in a number of ways during processing, for example by dirt, water, lubricating oil, unpleasant odors and flavors, and hair. In order to avoid such contaminations, some necessary measures should be taken. For example, keep the equipment clean before contacting with food stuffs, the operators should wash their hands before working, and wear protective clothing.

Hygiene and sanitation:
Ice cream is a food, and must be handled hygienically. The containers and those will contact with ingredients should be sterilized to make sure they are hygienic. For example, every time before we use pasteurization, it should be cleaned properly..

Equipment and methods:
Stainless steel stack pot that receivemixture, with or without the measurement and testing of the mixture received. It is also used rapid blenders without heating or pump-type mixers (tri-blenders) with funnels for the addition of liquid and ice-cream mixture circulation systems. The equipment combines homogenizing, sterilizing and CIP as a continuous working unit special for ice cream processing functions. Continuous ice-cream freezers that can be equipped with double pumps for ice-cream mixture and air injection.

Packing for product appeal:
The eye appeal and finish of the product is important. The packaging should include the following requirements: * The product packaging label should give a picture of the product inside, by adding a photo of the product on the package. * The color of the package and label should be tempting; the font used to describe the product on the label must be attractive. * They are made of strong and unbreakable plastic. The packaging material should be nonreactive to ice cream and recyclable, e.g. PET. The appearance of the packaging should be oval shaped. * The box should be sealed automatically by the equipment and easy to be open. * The label should have the information including product name (highlighted), company name, ingredients, allergens, nutritional composition, shelf life, net weight or volume, vegetarian sign and storage information. (See table 4. A set requirements for packaging and labeling for ice cream.) Yield and efficiency:

The efficiency of the process is important factor affecting profitability, and responsibility for these in the larger firms usually falls on production and method study staff, but in small firms the job may conveniently be combined with QC. Maximum yield and high efficiency depend on close supervision of such things as machine settings such as the speed of homogenizer. (See attachments table 6. Product cost analysis and production yield and its suggested retail price.)

Table 1.In-Process standards and specifications
In this table show the in-process set standards and specifications needed to follow to create a good quality ice cream. (See attachment # 5. Process flow monitoring form.)

Processing Step| Parameters| Specifications|
Boiling| Equipment used| Stainless steel stockpot|
| Cooking time| 15-20 minutes|
| Cooking temperature| 100oC|
Mixing| Mixing time| 30 seconds|
| Equipment used| Stainless steel stockpot|
| Mixing temperature| 32oC|
Simmering| Equipment used| Stainless steel stockpot|
| Simmering time| 3-4 minutes|
| Simmering temperature| 75o-80oC|
| Mixing speed| Manual speed (1rev./sec.)|
Mixing| Mixing time| 2-3 minutes|
| Mining temperature| 60o70oC|
| Mixing speed| Low speed (1rev./sec.)|
Pasteurization| Pasteurization time| 4-8 minutes|
| Pasteurization temperature| 79o-82oC|
| Mixing speed| Manual speed (2rev./sec.)|
Brine-chilling| Cooling temperature| 70oF/21.11oC|
| Mixing speed| Medium speed (2rev./sec.)|
| Brine chilled time (cream)Mixing time| 20-25 minutes8-10 minutes| | Brine chilling temperature| 10o-15oC|
StrainingAnd Mixing| Equipment used| Stainless strainer with small holes| | Mixing speed| Medium speed (2rev./sec.)|
| Mixing temperature| 15o-20oC|
| Mixing time| 3-4 minutes|
Fillingand Capping| Filling time| 3-5 minutes|
| Filling temperature| 10o-15oC|
| Filling volume/weight| 75mL|
| Filling height| ¾ ht. of cup|
| Head space| 1/8 ht. from the top of cup|
Ageing| Ageing time| 60 minutes/1 hour|
| Ageing temperature| 5o-10oC|
Freezing| Freezing time| 2 hours|
| Freezing temperature| -2oC (below)|

Table 2.Finished Product Specification
In this table show the details and specifications/standards for finish product for its physical, microbiological, chemical, and sensory characteristics. (See attachment #6. Finished product monitoring form.) Details| Specification|

I. Physical examination * Packaging condition * Net head space * Net volume average * Storage II. Microbiological examination * Total bacterial count * Total coliforms * E. coli * S. aureus (coagulase- positive) * Salmonella * L. monocytogenes * Moulds and yeast III. Chemical examination * pH * TSS * Shelf life IV. Sensory evaluation * Color * Aroma * Texture * Flavor * Taste * General acceptability| Clear, clean no pinholes1/8 inch75mLFreezer(-13oC)<150.000cfu/g<10cfu/gAbsent in 1 gAbsent in 1 gAbsent in 25 gAbsent in 1 g<10cfu/g6.0-7.035% brix3 monthsYellow-orangeRight blend of sweet potato and milkSoft and smoothRight blend of sweet potato, creamy and sweetnessSweet and creamyLike very much|

Table 3.Raw Ingredients Standards and Specifications
In this table show the set requirements for a supplier of raw ingredients for ice cream to produce a good quality product. (See attachment # 3. Receiving of raw ingredients form.) Details| Specifications|

Sweet potato| |
Variety| Kinerots|
Color| Yellow-orange|
Size| Medium|
All purpose cream| |
Color| White cream|
Texture| Creamy|
Total fat| 36%|
Evaporated milk| |
Color| White cream-light cream|
Moisture| 75%|
Fat| 7.5%|
Proteins| 6.5%|
Total solids| 25%|
Sugar| |
Color| Brown|
Molasses| 10%|
Moisture| 1.6%|
Egg| |
Size| Large|
Type| Broiler’s egg|
Salt| |
Type| Iodized salt|
Color| White|
Appearance| Granulated powder|

Table 4.Packaging and Labeling Requirements
In this table below show the set requirements for packaging and labeling for the ice cream products for best appeal. (See attachment # Details| Specification|

I. Packaging materialName of the cupType of the plastic cupSize of the plastic cupCup conditionColor II. Standard cup measurementCup thicknessCup diameterCup height III. Labeling requirementsProduct nameManufacturerNet volumeIngredients| Plastic salad cupsPoly propylene plastic3.5 ozClear, no pinholesWhite0.5 cm7 cm5.5 cmSweet potato ice creamRootcrops Cream Coolers Incorporated75mLSweet potato roots, all purpose cream, evaporated milk, sugar, egg, vanilla extract, salt|

V. Defect Prevention Program

Table 5. Classifications of defect
In this table below show’s the classifications of defects and its sources. Defects| Source of Defect| Classifications of Defects|
Coarse/Icy Texture| * Insufficient total solids (high water content). * Insufficient protein. * Insufficient stabilizer or poor stabilizer. * Insufficient homogenizing pressure (due to its effect on fat structure formation). * Insufficient aging of the mix (stabilizer hydration, also fat crystallization and development of resulting fat structure). * Slow freezing because of mechanical condition of freezer. * Incorporation of air as large cells because of physical characteristics of mix or type of freezer used. * Slow hardening. * Fluctuating storage room temperatures. * Rehardening soft ice cream. * Pumping ice cream too far from continuous freezer before hardening. * Fluctuating temperatures during storage and distribution – the most likely cause! See discussion of ice cream shelf life.| Critical| Crumbly body| * High overrun together with large air cells. * Low stabilizer or emulsifier. * Low total solids. * Low protein.| Major| Fluffy Texture| * Incorporation of large amount of air. * Low total solids.

* Low stabilizer content.| Minor| Gummy Body| * Too low an overrun. * Too much stabilizer. * Poor stabilizer.| Critical| Sandy Texture| * hardening the ice cream quickly * maintaining low storage room temps. * preventing temperature fluctuations.| Major| Weak body| * Low total solids. * High overrun. * Insufficient stabilizer.| Minor| Curdy Melt-Down| * High acidity (protein coagulation). * Salt balance (protein coagulation). * High homogenizing pressures (fat coagulation). * Over-freezing in the freezer (fat coagulation).| Major| Does not Melt| * Over emulsification. * Wrong emulsifier. * High fat. * Excessive fat clumping in the mix due to homogenization at too low a temperature or single-stage homogenizer. * Freezing to too low a temperature at freezer.| Critical| Colour Unnatural| * Wrong shade of color used for flavoured ice cream. * Too much yellow coloring used in vanilla ice cream. * Grayish color due to neutralization.| Critical| Shrinkage| * Freezing and hardening at ultra low temperatures. * Storage temperature. Both low and high appear to contribute. * Excessive overruns. * Pressure changes, for example, from altitude changes (lids popping when shipped to high altitudes, shrinkage when returned to low altitudes).| Critical|

Ishikawa Diagram

Ishikawa diagram are product design and quality defect prevention, to identify potential factors causing an overall effect. Each cause or reason for imperfection is a source of variation. Causes are usually grouped into major categories to identify these sources of variation.


Poor stabilizer

Poor quality raw ingredients
Too much high

Not proper monitoring
Mixing speed
Mixing time
Freezing temp.
Do not follow process standards and specifications
Lack of information

VI. Process Flow Chart
1) Preparation of Raw Material
Preparation of raw ingredients, including measuring/weighing and washing.

2) Boiling
Boiled sweet potato for 15-20 minutes
3) Mixing
Mix milk, all purpose cream, sugar, and salt.

4) Simmering and Mixing
Simmering cream mixture, mix cream mixture to egg yolks, and mashed sweet potato. 9) Storage
In the freezer at -13oC
8) Ageing and Freezing
Age the mix for minimum 1 hr. in the fridge at 5o-10oC. Freeze for 2 hours at 0oC 7) Packaging
In plastic cup, headspace 1/8 ht. from top

6) Brine chilling
Brine chill for 15-20mins, for all purpose cream 8-10mins.
5) Pasteurization
Pasteurize the mix for 4-8 minutes.

Explanation in every process steps in process flow chart:
1. Preparation of raw materials:
All necessary things shall be prepared, from raw ingredients, washing of equipments, and measuring/weighing of ingredients.

2. Boiling:
Sweet potato should be the first to boil. Boil the sweet potato for 15-20 minutes

3. Mixing:
The liquid ingredients of the ice cream are milk and all purpose cream; cream, milk, sugar and salt are mixed together with constant stirring.

4. Simmering and Mixing:
In this step the ingredients are blended together. This is performed at room temperature. The dry ingredients are added into liquid ingredients and simmering.

5. Pasteurization:
In this process, the fat droplets in the mix are reduced to a uniform size, so that the final product is also uniform. The average size of the fat droplets would be around 1μm or less.

6. Brine chilling:
In this step may help the custard cool quicker when you pour it in

7. Packaging:
The finished product is immediately packed in plastic containers and stored in freezer. Headspace should be 1/8 ht. from the top of the cup.

8. Ageing and Freezing:
The pasteurized mix then is aged in the fridge for minimum of 1 hour at 5o- 10 oC. The purpose of ageing is to provide time for the fat, protein, and formation of ice crystals that improve the body and the texture of the ice cream. It is very important to prevent the formation of large ice crystal from water during freezing, freeze for a minimum of 2 hours at 0oC.

9. Storage:
Ice cream has to be stored at low temperature; the optimum temperature for storing the ice cream is between -18oC to -23oC. The product should be stored immediately packed & stored because if it melts and is then frozen there will be formation of large ice crystals.

Literature cited

* Bacteriological Quality of Some Dairy Products in Alexandria Omar H Baraheem, Hoda A El-Shamy*, Wafaa M Bakr*, Naglaa F. Gomaa** * http://www.foodsci.uoguelph.ca/
* http://www.defectmanagement.com/defectmanagement/minimpact.html * http://www.foodcsi.uoguelph.ca/dairyedu/grading.html
* http://www. foodcsi.uoguelph.ca/dairyedu/icstructure.html * http://www.quality.co.uk
* Ice Cream: Regulations and Standards, Manufacturing Methods [ONLINE], [Accessed 05 July 2011]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1563089/pdf/amjphnation01054-0058.pdf * http://en.wikipedia.oro/wiki/Camotes_Islands

* http://thehumanimprint.typepad.com/the_human_imprint/2008/04/food-safety-and.html

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