Mortar Adhesive from Mollusk Shell: Mussel Shell and Oyster Shell
- Pages: 14
- Word count: 3327
- Category: Science
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Mortar Adhesive is a very expensive construction material commonly used in building houses, parts of the house and other infrastructures like buildings, etc. Mortar is a very expensive ingredient that bonds bricks, stones, tiles, and concrete blocks into a structure. On the other hand Mollusk Shells specifically Mussel Shells and Oyster Shells are commonly consumed as food or used in pearl production. But once the meat of the shell is eaten or the pearl is removed, these shells become a non-usable waste products that adds up to our rapidly increasing pile of garbage, that is becoming a very huge problem for us. Nowadays, even landfills where we throw our garbage is becoming very crowded and too occupied with all of our garbage. These shells serves no useful purpose once their meat is eaten, and yet they require so much effort on removal as garbage. (http://www.investigatoryprojectexample.com/science/mollusk-shell-based-adhesive-as-mortar.html 6/28/12)
Adhesive is essential in joining two different materials together. It is important in industrial and housing construction. It bonds two materials together by initiating a chemical reaction that causes the two materials to connect such as a tile and the concrete of the structure. There are several types of Adhesive Mortar used in bonding which also depends on the location of the materials as well as the situation. The level of the substrate will determine what type of mortar should be applied. Either it will be thin layered or medium layered. Universal mortar is the most common adhesive mortar used by contractors since it is mixed with water to bond to any surface. The mortar usually sets in 6 hours. It has the capacity to retain water and it allows adhesives to hydrate. The setting of the adhesive mortar depends on its thickness. There are mortars that need a setting for 24 hours especially for the sloping substrate. Mortar is the most common used adhesive due to its flexibility and capacity to hold a material in place. However, polymers are applied to improve the adhesion of the mortar. It serves to protect mortars and tiles from loosening due to freezing temperatures and seeping water. (http://www.fromplattoplace.com/finishing/69.html 6/12/12)
Mollusk also known as Sea Shells is the common name for members of a phylum of soft-bodied animals that are usually protected by a hard external shell. Familiar of mollusks includes clam, oyster, snail, slug, octopus, and squid. The mollusk phylum is the second largest in the animal kingdom, after the arthropods. (http://www.allthesea.com/Sea-Shell.html 6/28/12)
Mussel Shell, commonly known as “Tahong”, is a familiar of mollusk. It is commonly consumed as food, same as Oyster Shell commonly known as “Talaba”, which is also a familiar of mollusks. We consume this shells as food, as we eat the meat inside them. But not only the meat is the usable part of these shells, in fact the shells itself is very useful. These Mollusk Shells (Mussel and Oyster) may look non-usable once the meat inside is eaten, but these shells actually has a potential to be used as a base of an expensive construction material.
Many Environmentalists, Non-Government Organizations, and other concerned groups and people promotes the Three R’s Campaign (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) to help reducing the waste and garbages we people throw every day. This research is basically perfect for this campaign. The success of this research will reduce our waste products by reusing the non-usable Mollusk Shells: Mussel Shell and Oyster Shell, to recycle to a more usable product in the form of mortar adhesive.
The researcher decided to pick this study considering the abundance of Mussel Shells and Oyster Shells in the Philippine coastlines. This study aims to discover more uses of these sea shells (Mollusk Shell: Mussel Shell and Oyster Shell). Since one of the biggest problem our country is shouldering right now is the shortage of landfills to place our wastes and garbages, reusing what seemed to be like a non-usable shells (Mollusk, Mussel and Oyster Shells) will lessen the trash and produce a more valuable product out of it. And also the success of this product will lead to the various developments in different fields. The first will be the discovery of a cheaper construction material based mainly in sea shells. Second will be the creation of a good source of revenue and employments, the development of this research will lead to another source of livelihood. And lastly, the third which will be the lessening of the garbage disposed on landfills because the researcher will be using recycled materials. (http://www.investigatoryprojectexample.com/science/mollusk-shell-based-adhesive-as-mortar.html 6/28/12)
The success of this research would then lead to various developments. First is the discovery of a cheaper construction material in the form of Mortar Adhesive from Mollusk Shell: Mussel Shell and Oyster Shell. And second, the lessening of garbage, by recycling these shells. (http://www.investigatoryprojectexample.com/science/mollusk-shell-based-adhesive-as-mortar.html 6/28/12)
Mortar is, quite literally, the building block of society. It is the material used to bind construction materials together and fill the gaps between them. From building a brick wall to a building, you’ll need to know how to make some form of mortar to make a reasonably sturdy structure. It has been used since ancient times by civilized people to build buildings and walls and more. If ancient people can make mortar, why can’t you? (http://thearmageddonblog.com/how-to-make-mortar/ 07/30/12)
Statement of the Problem
This research aims to find a way to reduce garbage, reuse non-functional materials and recycle the things which seemed to be non-usable materials for others’ eyes. This research aims to answer these questions: 1. Does the combination of Mollusk Shells: Mussel Shell and Oyster Shell a good base for a Mortar Adhesive? 2. Will recycling Mollusk Shells, Mussel Shells and Oyster Shell, lessen the rate of garbage disposal? 3. Is Mortar Adhesive from Mollusk Shell, Mussel Shell and Oyster Shell, an effective one mortar adhesive? 4. Will the success of this research help create a source of revenue and employment?
Statement of Hypotheses
1. The combination of the two Mollusks Shells: Mussel Shell and Oyster Shell
is a good base ingredient in making Mortar Adhesives.
2. Recycling these Mollusk Shells: Mussel Shell and Oyster Shell would probably lessen the garbage disposal.
3. Mortar Adhesive made from Mollusk Shell: Mussel Shell and Oyster Shell, is an effective mortar adhesive.
4. The success of this research will help create a good source of employment and boost the revenue.
Significance of the Study
Because of the abundance of Mussel Shells and Oyster Shells in the Philippine coastlines, the researcher decided to pick this study to discover more uses of these sea shells (Mollusk Shell: Mussel Shell and Oyster Shell). Since one of the biggest problem our country is shouldering right now is the shortage of landfills to place our wastes and garbages, reusing what seemed to be like a non-usable shells (Mollusk, Mussel and Oyster Shells) will lessen the trash and produce a more valuable product out of it. And also the success of this product will lead to the various developments in different fields. The first will be the discovery of a cheaper construction material based mainly in sea shells. Second will be the creation of a good source of revenue and employments, the development of this research will lead to another source of livelihood. And lastly, the third which will be the lessening of the garbage disposed on landfills because the researcher will be using recycled materials.
Scopes and Delimitations
This research study will be responsible in studying the Effectivity and the Feasibility of Mollusk Shells, Mussel Shells and Oyster Shell as the base in making a Mortar Adhesive. The success of this research study may help on lessening the expenses of building an extension for the school, for it offers a cheaper construction material in the form of a Mortar Adhesive from Mollusk Shell: Mussel Shell and Oyster Shell.
Definition of Terms:
Mortar. A mixture of lime or cement with sand and water, used as a bedding and adhesive between adjacent pieces of stone, brick, or other material in masonry construction. Lime mortar, a common variety, consists usually of one volume of well-slaked lime to three or four volumes of sand, thoroughly mixed with sufficient water to make a uniform paste easily handled on a trowel. Lime mortar hardens by absorption of carbon dioxide from the air. Once universally used, lime mortar is now less important because it does not have the property of setting underwater and because of its comparatively low strength. It has largely been supplanted by cement mortar, commonly made of one volume of Portland cement to two or three volumes of sand, usually with a quantity of lime paste added to give a more workable mix. Cement mortar, besides having a high strength, generally equal to that of brick itself, has the very great advantage of setting or hardening underwater (http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Mortar 3/12/12) Adhesive. A substance, such as paste or cement, that causes two surfaces to stick together.
Adhesives are made of gelatin or other substances, such as epoxy, resin, or polyethylene. (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/adhesive 3/13/12) Mortar Adhesive. It bonds bricks, stones, tiles, and concrete blocks into a structure, it’s also a form of construction material commonly used in building houses, parts of the house and other infrastructures like buildings
(http://www.investigatoryprojectexample.com/science/mollusk-shell-based-adhesive-as-mortar.html 6/28/12) Mollusk Shell. Mollusk also known as Sea Shells is the common name for members of a phylum of soft-bodied animals that are usually protected by a hard external shell. Familiar of mollusks includes clam, oyster, snail, slug, octopus, and squid. The mollusk phylum is the second largest in the animal kingdom, after the arthropods. (http://www.allthesea.com/Sea-Shell.html 6/28/12) Mussel Shell. Any of several marine bivalve mollusks, especially the edible members of the family Mytilidae and in particular Mytilus edulis, a blue-black species raised commercially in Europe. Mussels are often found attached to rocky surfaces or the sides of ships; Any of several freshwater bivalve mollusks of the genera Anodonta and Unio, found in the central United States, that burrow in the sand or mud of lakes and streams. (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/mussel 3/13/12) Oyster Shell. is a familiar of mollusk, commonly consumed as food.
(http://www.allthesea.com/Sea-Shell.html 6/28/12) CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES
A. Mollusks Shells
Mollusk Shell – Based Adhesive as Mortar
This research aims to determine the feasibility of using feasibility of Mollusk Shell-Based Adhesive as a substitute for Mortar.
The Mollusk-Shell Based Adhesive was made from combining powdered Mollusk Shells and tackifier in an elastomer and toluene mixture. Different adhesives were made using variated concentrations of the two tackifiers (sodium silicate and polyvinyl acetate) and two elastomers (neoprene WHV and neoprene AG). Randomly chosen samples from each combination were tested for shear strength at the Standards and Testing Division of the Department of Science and Technology (STD, ITDI, DOST Bicutan).
Mollusks are consumed as food or used in pearl production. But once the mollusk meat is eaten or the pearl removed, their shells become a non-usable waste product in abundance. They serve no useful purpose, yet require removal as garbage.
The success of this research would then lead to several developments. First, the discovery of a cheaper construction material in the form of mollusk-based adhesive. Mortar is the very expensive ingredient that bonds brick, stone, tile, or concrete blocks into a structure. Second, the creation of a source of revenue and employment. Third, the lessening of garbage. This makes the mollusk a potentially valuable and readily available source of raw material. (http://www.investigatoryprojectexample.com/science/mollusk-shell-based-adhesive-as-mortar.html)
Mollusk Shell Microstructures and Crystallographic Textures
X-ray diffraction is used to characterize textures of the aragonite layers of shells from monoplacophoras, bivalves, cephalopods and gastropods. Textures vary in strength, pattern and through the thickness of the shells. The texture patterns exhibited in the studied taxa, which can be quantitatively described by a limited number of parameters, are compared with the microstructure types observed with scanning electron microscopy. Whereas for simple crystallite arrangements, such as nacres, there is a good correspondence between texture and microstructure, this is often not the case in more complex microstructures such as in crossed lamellar layers. Morphologically similar microstructures may have different crystallographic textures, and the same textures may be found in microstructures with different morphology. These two kinds of measurements are shown to be complementary since they provide non-redundant information for many taxa, which suggests that they may be valuable phylogenetic indicators.
The investigation of mollusk shell microstructures, built of complex calcite and/or aragonite layer intergrowths, is of interest in many fields of science. In geology, since shells are the most commonly preserved parts in fossils, they are used to determine the phylogenetic evolution and specify the stratigraphic age of geological formations. Palaeontology has largely relied on scanning electron microscopy for a precise description of shell microstructures. Nacre is significant in medicine. Maya Indians of Honduras already used nacre for dental implants 2000 years ago. In modern orthopedic medicine, aragonite of Pinctada maxima stimulates bone growth by human osteoblasts. Natural processes driving biomineralisation of calcium carbonate are still enigmatic, though much progress has been made, linking shell formation to protein substrates and templates.
Microstructural properties of mollusk shells were investigated extensively by means of thin sections. Among the microstructural characteristics, the orientation distribution of crystallographic axes (texture) dominates the anisotropic properties of aggregates. However, only few papers consider the aggregate properties of shells. Mutvei hypothesised about the crystallographic properties of nacre tablets, but his conclusions have been at least partly refuted by recent investigations.
In order to use the microstructural information in phylogeny, one has to explore if all the components of the microstructure (crystallographic textures and grain morphology, grain sizes and boundaries) are not redundant. We investigate the relationship between texture and the morphological elements (as seen with a scanning electron microscope (SEM)) of mollusk shell microstructures. Two questions that arise are: 1. whether the microstructural elements are simple crystals, that is whether textures reflect the geometry of the structural elements; 2. whether there is a one-to-one relationship between textures and microstructures and a given microstructure always has a specific texture pattern, or if a given texture pattern only occurs in one microstructure type. This work is part of an on-going systematic analysis of mollusk shell textures to build a new character set for phylogenetic analysis, equally applicable to extant and fossil taxa. (http://www.ecole.ensicaen.fr/~chateign/pdf/JSG22_1723.pdf) B. Oyster Shells
Potential Use of Oyster Shells in Ceramic Production
This study focused on the possibility of replacing silica in ceramic production with oyster shells. Powdered oyster shells were used instead of silica in the production of ceramics. The texture, color and durability of the ceramics were compared to those made with silica. Six kilograms of Vigan clay and 2.5 kg of ball clay were mixed and soaked inwater overnight. The following day, the mixture was kneaded again and filtered. The mixture was placed over Plaster of Paris for the water to be absorbed. The solidified mixture was then rolled and compressed to let the air escape from the spaces inside the solidified mixture. After this, the mixture was molded, air dried for four days and fired in a furnace.
Three trials were made at different temperatures – 900 degrees Celsius, 950 degrees Celsius and 1000 degrees Celsius. The finished products were compared in terms of texture and color to those made using silica. Ten evaluators from the staff of the University of Northern Philippines – Ceramics Research, Training and Development Center rated set-ups in a scale of 1-10 with 1 being the lowest rating and 10 the highest. It was found that the texture of the experimental set-up is better than the control set-up. It was also found that the color of the experimental set-up is comparable to the control set-up. Tests on durability of the ceramics, which were done at SLU College of Engineering Laboratory, revealed that the experimental set-up is more durable than the control set-up. This proves that oyster shell can be utilized in the production of ceramics. It also affirms that ceramics made using oyster shells are better than those produced using silica in terms of texture and durability.(http://www.scribd.com/doc/35336917/Investigatory-Project)
Oyster Shell as a Cloth Stain Remover
Naturally, people especially children lose their poise when they eat so they tend to get stains from the dropped foods they eat. Moreover, they can get stains from dirt when they perform a certain activity. Stains such as blood, catsup, chocolate, ink, and mud are the most common stains that are hard to remove. This is one of the problems of common housewives. In order to solve this, many of them prefer to use a commercial stain remover like chlorine. Chlorine is a good cloth stain remover that’s why it is present to commercial detergents. But it is not as environment-friendly as we expect to be. “It reacts with organic material to trihalomethanes like chloroform which is well-known carcinogen. It is also a respiratory irritant because of its pungent odor.”
Pounded oyster shell, a highly cultivated American and Eastern oyster shells which can also be found in the Philippines has the feasibility to be a material for cloth stain remover. We refer to the shells of the oyster we usually eat. Its scientific name is “crassostrea viriginica”.
Based on the research of some of our young inventors, more than 95% of an oyster shell is calcium carbonate that helps to produce chalk which is known to be one of the contents of detergents. Hence, if the oyster shells are pounded, they produce a whitish powder in which based on the report conducted at ITDI, each 50 g of pounded oyster shell has 0.44% of extractable chloride which can remove stains and 82.95% of calcium carbonate which has special white color as coating pigment that offsets stain. Scientist also found out that it has amino acids that could absorb large amount of liquids, as based on other researchers; oyster (crassostrea virginica) shell can be used also as a water cleanser.
The investigators of this study aimed to discover and promote substitutes for stain remover in removing common cloth stains particularly blood, catsup, chocolate, ink and mud; only from the production of pounded oyster shells without using or mixing any other chemicals in the samples. They prepared set-ups for each kind of stain with four treatments. In Treatment A, each stained cloth was soaked in 150 ml distilled water. In Treatment B, each stained cloth was soaked in 150 ml distilled water with 10 g of pounded oyster shells. In Treatment C, each stained cloth was soaked in 150 ml distilled water with 20 g. of pounded oyster shells. In Treatment D, each stained cloth was soaked in 150 ml distilled water with 10 g of chlorine. The results were observed and recorded after an hour. At the end of their experiment, the investigators found out that pounded oyster shells have a promising potential as a material for stain remover especially when they used greater amount to remove stains to some extent. (http://solevillamor.wordpress.com/2009/06/01/oyster-shell-as-a-cloth-stain-remover/)
C. Mussel Shells
Use of Limestone from Mussel Shells in Acid Soils of Galicia
Galicia (NW Spain) is currently the main mussel producer in Europe and the second producer in the world after China, the production in 2007 was 208186 tonnes. This production provides the raw material for the cannery industry and this activity generates a large volume of waste due to the mussel shell represents 31-33% of the total mussel weight. The existence of these residues is recognized by industry as a serious problem.
The shell is a composite biomaterial, of which the mineral portion, calcium carbonate, accounts for 95- 99% by weight and the remaining 1-5% is the organic matrix (Marin and Luquet, 2004), and small amounts of other elements: nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium.
In Spain mussel shells have been used as an animal feed additive, for the production of mortars, a liming agent and constituent in fertilizers. In Galicia, several studies have been performed using mussel shells as a liming agent, for the recovery and the formation of soils and the recovery for mine tailings.