Japan Foreign Policy
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There are hundreds of states in the world, and each one of states has its own policy that they conducted within the country. However states will have to confront or associated with another states thus there must be foreign policy for a country that should be conducted toward the other country. A country might have a lot of different policy toward many others countries. A foreign policy is (Damerow 2009) “the relationships which central governments have with other countries, their central governments, and international organizations, both intergovernmental and non-governmental”. And two of the countries that their foreign policy has been experiencing with lots of changes toward one another are Japan and the United States. United States (Indexmundi 2011), is one of the most powerful countries in the world in many aspects including security and economics. United States is a country with fifty states and in third in term of population and area. Its government type is a strong democratic thus meaning that all the citizens of a nation together determine public policy, the actions of their state and the leader as well. The U.S. economy is the world’s largest national economy, with an estimated GDP of $14.1 trillion. Moreover, the United States has also been known for its strong and high technology military as well.
The United States is country that has many relations with many countries, with a range of liberalism, realism, mercantilism and others according to the circumstances. As for social, the United States is a melting pot which has many kinds of races living in the country but its main religious is Christianity. Whereas, Japan is country with the government of constitutional monarchy, that has a parliamentary government. Also its economy has a GDP of (2011 est.) $5.855 trillion which pale into comparison with the United States. Japan is also known for its renowned fast and rapid growing technology and stable military’s security as well. As for society, Japan is a country with the main religion which is Buddhism. These two countries have been enemy and allies through many occasions, there foreign policy in all aspects have been changing quite often too. Thus, this essay will point out the relationships of both countries so far. Than establish foreign policies approaches for Japan in many areas toward the United States and at the end select the one that best suited for Japan.
Both of the countries have involved through many diplomatic foreign policy against one another. Probably two of the famous ones were during the World War 2. First was the famous attack on Pearl Harbor in which Japan infiltrated the United States the Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. The attacked had resulted in the loss of about two thousand people but the worse effect was that the United States decides to begin war with the Empire of Japan thus led to a war between the two countries. Japan was already losing the war. However, another controversial problem (Freeman 2006) during 1945 occurred, in which the United States used two atomic bombs on Japan, toward its two major cities, (Hiroshima and a few days later another bomb was dropped on Nagasaki) which cause thousands of deaths and a commotion of why the United States would bomb Japan. There were many answers to this act, but one of the most main reasons is that United States wanted to show its power and prevent Japan from being influenced by Russia. As can be seen this was a period when the two countries had its conflicts between one another during the World War 2.
Vice versa, after the World War 2, the (usembassy n.d.)United States has archived its alliance with Japan in order to maintain its security role in South East Asia. The alliance gives the United States an opportunity with the deployment of about 53,000 U.S. troops and other U.S. military assets in the Asia-Pacific, thereby allowing U.S. national security strategy in the region. For Japan, the alliance with the United States provides Japan the ability in dealing with its neighbors, particularly China and North Korea.
Later on, the during Bush administration, the United States established a significant strategic cooperation that encourage Japan to assume a more active international role. In 2005 the United States and Japan announced another milestone new agreement in which aim to strengthen military cooperation. The plan is for the United States’ forces to be realigned its military force in South East Asian, whereas Japan took on a more active (non-combat) role in maintaining regional and global security. However after mid-2007, with the political turmoil and divided government in Tokyo has also effected the agreement by slowing or stalling some of its progress in security relations. But in a turn of events, Japan changed of government party to Democratic Party of Japan’s (DPJ) landslide victory in August 30, 2009 elections for the Lower House of Japan’s legislature had an helped boost the alliance between the two countries because most of Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) members are pro-Japan-U.S alliance thus the agreement that was made in 2005 has begun to move its progress onward. From this paragraph, the development of alliance of both countries has begun to grow.
In term of economic, (usembassy n.d.) Japan is one of most crucial economic partner for the United States. The United States biggest and largest both import and export are Japan followed by United States’ biggest partner which is China. In addition, Japanese firms are the United States’ second-largest source of foreign direct investment, and Japanese investors are the second-largest foreign holders of U.S. treasuries, which also help to finance the U.S. deficit and reduce upward, pressure on the United States’ bonds interest rates as well. Bilateral trade friction has decreased in recent years, partly because U.S. concern about the trade deficit with Japan has been replaced by concern about a much larger deficit with China. Bilateral trade between the two countries has decreased in recent years, part of the reason is due to U.S. concern about the trade deficit with Japan has been replaced by concern about a much larger deficit with China. Economically, Japan and United States has a strong bond, both rely on one another, United States secured its role of economy in South East Asia through Japan while Japan open its market to the world through the United States.
Another important aspect is that because of the two countries’ combined economic and technological impact on the world, the U.S.-Japan relationship has become a scope for the globe. The United States and Japan alliance has achieve a broad range of global issues, including development assistance, combating communicable disease such as the spread of HIV/AIDS and alleviate others sickness as well, and protecting the environment and natural resources. Both countries also collaborate in science and technology in such areas as searching the human genome, research on anti-aging products, and international space exploration. As one of Asia’s most successful democracies and largest economies, Japan contributes irreplaceable political, financial, and given of a huge moral support to U.S.-Japan diplomatic efforts. In addition, The United States also consults closely with Japan and the Republic of Korea on policy regarding North Korea.
The United States works closely with Japan and Australia under the auspices of the Trilateral Strategic Dialogue and the Security and Defense Cooperation Forum to exchange views and increase coordination on both global and regional operations. In Southeast Asia, United States and Japan cooperation is vital for stability and for political reform. Outside Asia, Japanese political and financial support toward the United States has substantially improved the U.S. position on a variety of global geopolitical problems, including the Gulf, Middle East peace efforts, and the Balkans. Japan, which was a member of the United Nations Security Council for the 2009-2010 terms, is an indispensable partner in the UN and the second-largest contributor to the UN budget. Other than that, Japan has broadly supports the United States on nonproliferation and nuclear issues as well. So from this, it can be seen that their relations not only helped economically but also helped its place in the global aspect as well as the well. And also accommodate its politic roles, aids in scientific researches, humanity acts and many others roles as well which benefits the both countries.
Thus from the historical backgrounds of both countries and their encounters, foreign policy in many areas of Japan toward United States can be discussed. According to the relations the two countries had so far, it would be best if in many areas of Japan foreign policy would use the multilevel and multidimensional approach toward with the United States. Multilevel and multidimensional approach is the uses of foreign policy making by using various major theories of International Relations. In this approach, it will consider the others major theories and changed according to circumstances. However, this might be the most common one for most of the areas but some different areas might have different approaches and theories as well. The first area is economic, Japan as mentioned before is United States’ second largest import and export. Also the United States helped the Japan to open its market to the world as well. In this method economic, Liberal approach would be more appropriate due to many reasons which are the mutual benefits that both countries get.
For instance, by being liberal toward the United States, the United Sates would benefits so will Japan because would be able to continue exporting its products which help to increase Japan GDP and help the economy of the country as well. Considering that United States is the country with the largest economy power, thus an investment from the United States would help the economy of Japan to function more effectively and efficiently. Moreover by investing and opening up firms in Japan, United States would help to produce employment for Japan at the same time. In addition, the liberalist approach would help Japan to open up its markets to others countries outside of Asia as well. Thus, economically, it can be seen that the best suited approach here is a liberalist approach toward the United States. The second area is Strategic or military, as shown above the countries have had their controversies conflicts using forces as well. The United States can use its military power to gain its self-interest which make it becomes a mercantilist.
The United States use its military power to set base in Japan just so it won’t lose its role in South East Asia. As for Japan this is also a great opportunity to use the United States forces to its advantages, by U.S forces staying in Japan, it helped Japan to gain security against others countries like South Korean and China. However, for this area, it would be wise for Japan to use a realist approach toward the United States due to many reasons. One of which is that, it is not certain of what the United States will do, even though they are alliance, the United States might use its mercantilist power to control over Japan sooner or later. Thus if Japan would realize this and take a realist approach, Japan would firstly let the United States forces stayed in Japan, but Japan would not to aid the United States in its goal to gain security toward the South East Asia. But in contrast, Japan would takes United States forces for granted and uses the forces to strengthened Japan’s own military forces.
Thus Japan would look out for its self-interest while seemingly looks likes it is cooperating with the United States. Therefore, if Japan took this approach it will surely help the country to be more secured and looks out for its own interest as well. The Third area is Development, as both countries are well known for their high technology and human resources. Japan would again take liberal approaches toward the United States. By taking a liberal approaches, Japan would gained a huge benefits from this approach, for instance, if Japan wants to find a new technology that cure AIDS, with the combined technology and human resources, the speed of the research would be much faster thus will lead to faster development. Development in technology, with their combines strength, they would break new boundaries which would benefits Japan so much more. Moreover, Japan will receive aids to develop others aspects as well even including military; those aids would include money or others. Of course, in a liberal approach both countries will gain the benefits, thus the United States will have its fair share of benefits as well. Considering the developments Japan would get, liberal approach would be best in this area. The last area is the social, even though the two countries have two contrasts religions between Japan and the United States.
However, Japan is a country that has faced many natural disaster including frequent earthquakes. In that incident, the united States have provided a great amount of help toward Japan in time of crisis. But in return, Japan also helped the United States with many humanitarian aid as well, for instance the Hurricane Katrina, Japan aided the United States with many supplies and donates as well. Here we can see a two side benefits from both Japan and the United States. Not only has that, the United States and Japan also joined ventures to help raise many humanitarian act to make the world a better place as well. Again, from these many examples, the appropriate and best way to approach this area are most believed by people is a liberalist approach. Not only the United States will helped Japan in crisis, many great acts could be hosted together in order to help the world.
All in all, the backgrounds of both countries have shown that they are both powerful countries. In addition, both of these countries have encountered many interactions against ones another. Japan was a foe of the United States than later on become an alliance with the United States. As can be seen from the above, it would be best for Japan to use the multilevel and multidimensional approach meaning that Japan will use varies of theories under the circumstances. For economy, Japan would use liberal to open its market and raise its economy. In contrast, for military, Japan would need to use realist theory so they can secure their country and gain self-advantage for its own country.
Thirdly, Japan uses liberal for its tactics in order to develop its country but at the same time helped the United States to develop as well. Lastly, for social, a liberal will aid Japan in times of crisis and other humanity acts. Personally, I think the best theory and approach toward the United States would be a liberalist approach due to the reason that United States is a powerful country in almost all aspects, even though Japan would give of some benefits to the United States as well, however considering the Security and benefits Japan will get, it would be best if Japan would take a liberal approach and become ally with the U.S, Japan would gain a huge beneficial for its country.
Damerow. faculty. 2009. http://faculty.ucc.edu/egh-damerow/US%20Foreign%20Policy.htm (accessed April 7, 2012). Freeman, Robert. Common Dreams. August 6, 2006. http://www.commondreams.org/views06/0806-25.htm (accessed April 7, 2012). Indexmundi. July 12, 2011. http://www.indexmundi.com/ (accessed June 10, 2012). usembassy. n.d. http://aboutusa.japan.usembassy.gov/e/jusa-profile.html (accessed June 10, 2012).