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History of Turkish Education System

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The Outline

  1. Introduction
  2. Hun Turks and Education
  3. Göktürks and Education
  4. Uighurs and Education
  5. Conclusion
  6. References


Inside the extent of instructive sciences, the short definition for education as a term is introduced as; ‘The way toward making changes in the conduct of a person inside the ideal heading by methods for his own life’ and furthermore ‘Education’, as the satisfied form of education, is perpetual social changes which are leaded from the cuts of life encounters of oneself. For this situation, we can guarantee that education is increasingly composed in an intentional manner, and in addition seen in sorted out structures.

Education is generally seen in conditions, for example, increasing new practices or stopping the past ones went with maturity. However, essentially understanding and alluding from the expressed terms, we can raise the possibility that education and educating has consistently been shadowing the mankind since its first appearance on planet Earth.

At the point when education and educating is being talked about for the Pre-Islamic Turks, the main known Turk social orders will ring a bell. As moving profoundly back ever, the Turks, which have assumed significant jobs in old mankind’s history particularly in the Asian locale, had an appreciation of education and had experienced changes all through the procedure.

As an impression of the progressions done by the Turks, the name ‘Turk’ had been begat and introduced in sixth century BC because of changing movements. So intelligently, the name as well as their importance and approaches towards education had unquestionably experienced some change also.

Well education is for the most part done so as to prepare a person forever, holding on to be lived with other people and attempts. In addition we can even run over certain researchers putting education as the existence itself. As it were, rationale of education can move from century to century, society to society. With the nearest definition to the intrigued period, education is being reasonable and good to the general public’s motivation and the acknowledgment of expectations for everyday comforts inside a characteristic environment.

With these separated definitions and viewpoints towards education, explicitly the Turks in the Pre-Islamic period taught their people towards their necessities, ways of life and essentials. As a matter of fact while talking about a period wherein ‘composing’ is as really a major factor in mankind, it is very difficult to get profound data thinking to the absence of sources.

In any case, perusing from Chinese and Indian compositions’ and Turk landmarks we can somewhat think of derivations about the education of those days. Extra stories, sonnets, stories and precepts from the principal Turk social orders give us slight data about the education of Turks.

However it isn’t sure that there were sorted out, formal procedures of education, like how it is led today. For the most part anticipating the basics of education in the Pre-Islamic Turks; family, social condition, affirmed customs and convictions were put. Notwithstanding, the rules and to be specific Turkish conventional law ‘Töre’ can even be viewed as a method for education. Briefly expressing, Töre is rules of law which manages the social request between the principles and the governed ones by convincing the different sides in act. Especially in the Hun Turks, Töre’s effect on education is seen plainly.

Additionally, as a general concurred highlight of education inside the Pre-Islamic Turks; process being formed inside the ways of life, youngsters developing quick in view of expectations for everyday comforts and greatest strategic as growing up, kids should be deferential to guardians and virtues being compelling; are the watched common parts of education.

By concentrating on the most significant three states found by Turks in the Pre-Islamic period, introducing the Hun Empire, Göktürks and Uighur State’s association of education with its effect and acts in development of human advancement is the principle point of this paper.

Hun Turks and Education

Hun Turks (B.C. 220-A.D. 455) are known as the oldest Turk state, which revolved around the Selanga River and Ötüken, being acknowledged as a blessed area for the Turks. Huns, which were assembled of numerous social orders and furthermore having a composed development, are a center Asia people group.

A large portion of the center Asia people group were living on chasing or farming, and transcendently traveling method for living was seen. Besides, investigating the nature, utilization of crude material mud and iron, and furthermore fabricating the tent in a method for engineering were additionally the recognized attributes of the Huns. In agreement with their life, education was molded in a general sense on military, animal farming, custom and religion.

Being warriors and wanderer, the education of war and controlling was a need for the Huns, likewise being settled right close to China was a significant factor too. Their adversaries were additionally wanderer networks, so as to get less harm at a startling assault, the open had to know; what to do, how to give up, who might take care of the kids and ladies, so these inquiries are just to be replied with education.

However, progressively sorted out highlights of education were viewed too, for instance, Mete extending its military’s ponies in vivid contrasts with different strategies in the front line give us that the Huns have experienced decent education of war and military service.

Understanding from this, managing the Chinese have educated and carried one of a kind highlights to the Huns contrasted with its period. Yet additionally, a drawn out association of education was likewise being led, for instance raising an individual kind called ‘snow capped mountain’, which means bold, saint and wise.

In the Pre-Islam Turks religion was likewise in the methods for education. ‘Society convictions’ and ‘state religion’ were very unique in relation to one another; general public convictions were essentially worked around enchantment, spell and fix while the state religion was expanding upon an agent of god which was the ruler. Middle people got Şaman were giving out lessons and driving the general public in different points for fix, so for this situation they can be viewed as predominant teachers.

Notwithstanding, factors which had formed Töre were influencing the progression of education. Building up a world state and controlling the world with opportunity and strength had consistently remained as a perfect for the Turks, including the Huns these central convictions were given to next ages with Töre. So for this situation, Töre can be given for instance to predominant education.

Living between lands generally on horse backs with the status of war, and furthermore the financial methodology of chasing was the truth of the Hun’s way of life as well as the truth of their education. Alluding from the expressed data about the Hun’s war and military information as per their roaming way of life, we can legitimately associate with the rationale that every one of these procedures were finished by raising creatures, particularly ponies all through their strides ever.

It is frequently for us to go over such colloquialisms as ponies being the wings of the Turks. In any case, by alluding from their relations with their creatures, we can likewise very reach to the way that Huns additionally halted by plants and development.

As a kind of perspective, Chinese sources have expressed Turks living by following plants and water system channels. Nevertheless, with examines led on the Huns and the Pre-Islamic period, water system diverts were found in the Altay locale, thought to be built by the Huns, which were formed with impression of an informed strategy to be taken a shot at.

The education in the Hun Turks as in a table can be quickly introduced as;

-Public Education:

  • For a dynamic and prepared wanderer network.
  • – Ideal living for opportunity, braveness and solidarity.
  • – Ideating the favored land for the new ages.

-Military Education:

  • – Ready for outer dangers.
  • – Conducting a solid military.
  • – Giving each reasonable Turk military education, and preparing the general public for war.
  • -Religious Education: – Using strict inspiration for the presence of the force.
  • – Aiming to instruct the general public with the hand of strict functions.

-Vocational Education:

  • Processing on creature items.
  •  Enriching professional preparing on mineral/mine and satisfying the need of the military, for example, arrow and swords.

Göktürks and Education

After the breakdown of the Hun Empire, Göktürks proceeded as the continuation and inheritor. The Göktürks have acquired Hun’s education association too; consequently very new data or separated methodologies about the Göktürks education can’t be anticipated. We can say that the instructive methodology of the Hun time frame has proceeded on.

However, having their own 38 lettered letters in order and furthermore putting a composed landmark until today, the Orhun landmarks, separate Göktürk’s setting in education. The Orhun landmarks are the most significant residuals originating from the Pre-Islamic period, referencing political, practical, organization and network parts of those days.

Today, they are in the outskirt of Mongolia close to the waterway of Orhun. Composed by Yolluğ Tigin, the three landmarks were developed for Kül Tigin, Bilge Kağan and Tonyukuk. Returning to state funded education of the Göktürks, they were likewise given by the Töre. Use of the Göktürk letter set and illuminating about the steppe life were likewise in light of a legitimate concern for education and educating. We can likewise find out about the Göktürk lessons and education from the monuments.

Moreover, the landmarks can even be endorsed as education apparatus, the base of this contention originates from the substance data we have about the landmark. In the deal, referencing about what the Turk rulers ought to accomplish for its general public and nation, giving data about the Turks want of free living and including data, for example, Turks expecting to live connected with solidarity; are the bases of needing to advise, show the peruser ones with messages.

Other than the landmarks, numerous different compositions, for example, headstones, planned decorations, little house materials venture their different works. Since managing works, the possibility of Göktürks having a sorted out proper education for lettering and language comes up. In any case, contrasted with the Huns, Göktürks were increasingly rehearsed on working professional work and education, for instance having rich gold and iron mines around the Altay Mountains allowed them the chance to take a shot at and improve their industry of guns.

Well since education is shadowing every one of these activities, the improved and extreme financial life is worked with education in its key for a composed circle. Regardless of all these expressed solid tittles for education, structuring and utilizing the twelve creature schedule were likewise done in the Göktürks.

They had propelled data about space science. Deciphering different strict writings demonstrated their connection with different societies; this likewise expressed their enthusiasm to different societies too. So other than simply formal or academic education, the Göktürks had been occupied with such interests that even required proficient education.

Uighurs and Education

After the breakdown of the Göktürks in 745 the Uighurs got the force close by. Practically following a century later, in 840, with political clashes, influences of Manichaeism and China’s troublesome approaches the Uighurs lost their freedom. Uighur period is the development time frame in Turk education association. We can guarantee this period as the start of organization in education.

In its setting up period, the state was utilizing the Göktürk letter set, anyway later on raised an own letters in order. With use of own letter set, with utilization of paper and print machine the Uighurs have a recognized spot in the Turk education association. Well on the opposite side, above all we can guarantee that the Uighurs deserting the traveling way of life and settling down had influenced them from various perspectives.

Education was one of the most influenced ones inside the settlement procedure by making them ready to institutional education. Directly on the theme, a Uighur precept: ‘Give your child to an educator, than to the spot’ demonstrates us the significance of education and education at that time of time. So with these expressions of the Uighur’s we can comprehend that formal and sorted out education was acknowledged and trusted in its effect.

Likewise in this period, wherein strict ministries were satisfying as a general public teacher, asylums were utilized as libraries and spots of education. Manicheist churches, much the same as the Buddhist pastorates, were making an interpretation of their strict attempts to Turkish for the publicity of strict sakes. Besides the purposeful publicity strict developments, much the same as different Turks, education the youngsters from age to age about the ruler and its relationship with maker was educated.

This educating was in a customary Turk organization of; ‘the ruler is a person and it has obligations to complete for the God’. Breaking down the close to different societies has enhanced the Uighur’s methodologies towards education also. For instance, getting the Soğdak letter set from Transoxania and building up a special Uighur letters in order from its effect. With this lettering, numerous books on writing, craftsmanship and religion were composed by the Uighurs, and had been copied with print procedures.

With this developing scholarly pattern in the Pre-Islamic period, clerkship, counsels and delegacy was getting consideration inside the Uighur highlights which are being taken care of upon education. As the subsequent development of level in information and culture, the Uighurs had lived upon counselors, agents, representatives and interpreters inside the Turk and outside states. This caused them to develop with multi societies.

Quickly, with formal and composed methodology of education, recently meet societies with introduction of different ways and printings, the profoundly lived development at that timeframe was without a doubt built on instructive and social procedures. Be that as it may, in any case, much the same as each change noticing is without a doubt great.

Contrasted with its period and past states, the developing ascent in education and culture could be viewed as the all around done piece of the Uighurs. Then again, as given spot by teacher Ögel, the Arap sources were naming the change as; ‘by getting Manichaeism the Turks picked up modesty for their valiance and penance, picked up education and craftsmanship for their administration and ruling.’


In the Pre-Islamic period, driving from the traveling society of way of life; craftsmanship, design, economy and education was formed inside these conditions. Be that as it may, generally, as a developing and across the board basic factor, education was legitimately or by implication laying under each part of development.

When going to the association of education, the rationale was for preparing to the existence itself. Now, an actual existence where endurance on mountain and pony tops for chasing and battling were the principle objective to prepare taught and for.

Later on, with the slight utilization of composed letters in order and its stream to making a totally different letters in order brought a wide new viewpoint for education in the Turks. Göktürks utilizing lettering and Uighurs creating it are higher than ever simply changed the game in the Pre-Islamic period.

The new settled way of life of the Turks got advancement workmanship, engineering, etc yet removed the warrior character and left a messed up military education. From the Hun Turks to the Göktürks and Uighurs, the Turks had been influenced by and furthermore influenced different societies in the Pre-Islamic period.

What’s more, last yet not the least, education was consistently with the Turks in this ‘warmth’ process, a sorted out conventional education was not generally with them, yet the rationale and ‘for what reason do we instruct?’ question was constantly replied by them for the intensity of education.


  1.  HALİ Servet, RENCÜZOĞULLARI Selcan, Education of Turks In the Pre-Islamic Period, 21. Yüzyılda Eğitim ve Toplum, volume 6, number 17, p. 429, 2017
  2.  ÖGEL Bahaeddin, “Turk States in History”, V. I, Ankara, 1987, p. 10
  3.  ÜNALAN Sıddık, ÖZTÜRK Hakan, The Education and Instruction in the Turks before Islam, Faculty of Theology Journal, 13(2): 89-109, 2008
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