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Food and Nutrition

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1. Which water-soluble vitamins does Brian have too much or too little of?
Brian’s unhealthy eating habits have caused his body to either be receiving inadequate amounts or a surplus of water-soluble vitamins. Brian is taking in to much Thiamin or Vitamin B1 because the Recommended Daily Amount (RDA) is 1.2 mg/day, the Daily Intake Value for adults is 1.5 mg and he is consuming 3.18 mg. He is also taking in to much Riboflavin or B2 because he is consuming 3.29 mg, his RDA is 1.3 mg/day and his Daily Value for adults is 1.7 mg. Brian is also taking in to much Niacin or B3 because his RDA is 16 mg NE/day, the Daily Value for adults is 20 mg and he is taking in 45 mg/day.

He takes in 2.41 mg of Vitamin B6, which is too much, compared to the RDA of 1.3 mg/day and the Daily Value for adults, which is 2 mg. He also takes in too much Folate of Folacin since the RDA and Daily Intake Value for adults is 400 mcg/day and Brian is consuming 472 mcg. Another water-soluble vitamin that Brian might be consuming too high of an amount of is Vitamin B12, where he is taking in 5.2 mcg and his RDA is 2.4 mcg/day. However, according to the Daily Value Intake for an adult is 6 mcg, making the amount of Vitamin B12 Brian consumes acceptable. Lastly, the one water-soluble vitamin that Brian is not consuming enough of is Vitamin C. His RDA for Vitamin C is 90 mg/day and he is only taking in 51.5 mg.

2. Would you recommend that Brian take supplements for the vitamins he lacks in his diet? Why or why not? Yes, I would recommend that Brian take supplements for the vitamins that he is lacking, especially being that Vitamin C and Vitamin E are two of the vitamins that he is lacking. Vitamin C and E are two of the more powerful antioxidants in the body. Vitamin C is so versatile it not only acts as an antioxidant but also as an oxidative stress protectant from free radicals, helps iron absorption, is a cofactor for collagen formation and help with overall disease prevention. A common and notable sign of Vitamin C deficiency is gum bleed.

The gums will bleed easily around the teeth due to spontaneous breaking of the capillaries underneath the skin or gums. Either cleaning up his diet by including more Vitamin C rich foods such as fruits and vegetables or adding a Vitamin C supplement to his diet will help to resolve this problem. If he were going to begin taking a supplement however I would recommend visiting his doctor first and discussing it with him. Although, I would recommend to him that supplementing with Vitamin C is a possibility I would express to him the benefits of receiving the needed nutrients through food. Obtaining nutrients through a healthy diet is always going to be the best option.

3. Why does Brian have trouble sleeping, especially when he restricts his diet? There are a few different reasons to why Brian could be having trouble sleeping based on his diet. One of the reasons could be that because he consumes so many calories on some days that because he’s so full he may be suffering from heartburn, uncomfortably full or sleep apnea. When Brian fasts he is not taking in any carbohydrates that is one of the main cofactors, which helps tryptophan and serotonin, reach the brain.

These two hormones are responsible for help an individual sleep. Another cause to Brian’s insomnia would be due to his alcohol consumption. When a person drinks alcohol, especially before bed, it can mess with your sleeping patterns. A person can fall immediately into NREM sleep, deep sleep, bypassing REM sleep causing the person to come out of a sleep cycle sooner thus being more easily awakened. Alcohol may help a person fall asleep quicker but it does not help them get restful long periods of sleep.

4. What can he do to stop his gums from bleeding so easily?
There are a few things in which Brian can do to help his gums from bleeding so easily. Bleeding from the gums is a common sign of a Vitamin C deficiency; therefore, by increasing his Vitamin C consumption can eliminate this problem. Brian can go about increasing his Vitamin C intake by including more fruits and vegetables in his diet, including a Vitamin C supplement in his diet or both. Receiving adequate amounts of nutrients through your diet is always the optimal choice, however, because of advancements in our society we now have the option of taking certain nutrient supplements. It is important that before you partake in consumption of any supplements, you consult with your family physician first.

5. How might Brian’s alcohol intake be affecting his nutrition status? Brian’s alcohol intake may be affecting his nutritional status in a number of ways. First of all, 18% of his total kcalorie intake is from alcohol. Alcohol provides virtually no healthy or useable nutrients which means 18% of Brian’s total intake is empty kcalories. Alcohol also enables you to consume the amount of nutrients that your body needs in a couple of ways such as; it displaces nutrients from the diet and interferes with the body’s metabolism of nutrients. Alcohol displaces nutrients from the body by using the empty kcalories in the alcohol before using them from nutrients because it can be absorbed quicker through the stomach than food can through the small intestine. Alcohol interferes with the metabolism of nutrients, most dramatically with the B vitamin folate. It causes the liver to be unable to retain folate and increases the rate at which the kidneys excrete it.

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