Exploring Reliability and Validity
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This paper will focus on the types of reliability and validity used in the Values and Motives Questionnaire. Also this writer will be investigating areas of concerns and strengths as it relates to the Values and Motives Questionnaire, well as formulating an opinion of the test (VMQ) with the material presented. This writer will further conveying information concerning the sample size, nature of population that could possibly effect constructs tested by the test.
Exploring Reliability and Validity
The Values and Motives Questionnaire also referred as Value and Motives Inventory examines a person’s motivation as it relates to their activities, and values. There are three areas in this inventory which include, interpersonal, intrinsic, and extrinsic. These three areas contain 12 topics of concern for testing purposes. This test can be used for a variety of reasons but most commonly used in the workplace and can also be used as guidance tool. There are two relevant subjects when exploring the Values and Motives Inventory. First, when probing reliability a working definition needs to be applied, “reliability refers to the consistency of such measurements when the testing procedure is repeated on a population of individuals or groups.” (Whiston, 2012, p. 40) Further, Whiston points out the different types of reliabilities which include alternate parallel forms, test- retest and of course internal consistency. When examining the reliability in regard to the Values and Motives Inventory, the internal consistency reliability was utilized in this inventory. Internal consistency reliability, “divide the instrument in different manners and correlates the score from the different portions of the instrument.
Thus, these forms of reliability examine the instrument internally to determine its consistency or lack of error.” (p. 47). The most popular measure in the internal consistency is the Cronbach’s Alpha which will be explored further in conjunction with validity. Secondly, when examining the validity of the Values and Motives Inventory we are shown that historically there have been three different types of validity. The content related validity, criterion related validity, and construct validity. Criterion validity “concerned the extent to which an infinite was systematically related to and outcome criteria. With criterion related validity, we were interested in the degree to which an instrument was a good predictor of certain criterion.” (Whiston, 2012, p. 59) While researching the VMI it appears construct validity was applied along with criterion validity. Areas of concern and strengths concerning VMI are as follows, the alpha coefficient was used in conjunction with the construct validity. According to the VMI the coefficients ranged from .52 through .83 which makes all coefficients over .5 but they had various ranges.
According the VMI, “if the items on this scale have high interest correlations with each other, and with a total scale score, and the coefficient alpha will be high.” (“Values and Motives Questionnaire: The Technical Manual”). Since the coefficients had such various ranges could this possibly indicate a problem regarding errors? Also the manual for the VMI does acquiesce to the estimate for SD being acceptable but the infrequency scales fall somewhat short of ideal. (“Values and Motives Questionnaire: The Technical Manual”). If this is the case what will be considered ideal in their estimate. The sample size was 159 MBA and psychology students. The population that was sampled is not indicative of the general population. In the general population not everyone has been afforded the opportunity to have an achievement such as completing your MBA. The population sampled due to its specific nature i.e., college students, and college graduates would need to be contemplated in regards to the testing results as it is offered as a depiction of the general population.
Largely, the entire test proved thought provoking as this was a subjective test. Meaning everyone’s values are not the same, everyone is not driven by the same motives. This could be problematic in obtaining valid results. It has given this writer cause to carefully examine assessments that are being administered clients. Reliability and validity have a great importance in how counselor should utilize assessments and can assist in finding appropriate instruments in order to be more effective with clients.
Values and Motives Questionnaire: The Technical Manual (n.d.). Retrieved from the Liberty COUN 521 website: Psytech International. Values and Motives Questionnaire: The Technical Manual (n.d.). Retrieved from the Liberty COUN 521 website: Psytech International. Values and Motives Questionnaire: The Technical Manual (n.d.). Retrieved from the Liberty COUN 521 website: Psytech International. Whiston, S. (2012). Principles & Applications of Assessment in Counseling. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Coles Cengage Learning.