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Research in brain- based learning suggests that emotional health is fundamental to effective learning. The key ingredients for this are understanding, confidence, curiosity, intentionality, self-control, relatedness, capacity to cooperate. These traits are all aspects of emotional intelligence. Basically, a student who learns to learn is much more apt to succeed (Chamundeswari, 2013). For decades, a lot of emphases have been put on certain aspects of intelligence such as logical reasoning, math skills, spatial skills, understanding analogies, verbal skills, etc. Researchers were puzzled that while IQ could predict to a significant degree of academic performance and to some degree, professional and personal success, there was something missing in the equation.
One of the major missing parts in the success equation is EQ, a concept made popular by the groundbreaking book “Emotional Intelligence” by Daniel Goleman (1994). Emotional intelligence involves, being aware of our emotions and regulate our own emotional responses (Mayer & Salovey, as cited by Aquino, 2009). The leading of emotional intelligence believe that adaptive advantages of emotional skills are important in academic success with their careers, regulate more of their own behaviors, and provide for greater responsibility and work harder to accomplish their goals (Aquino, 2009).
Today, it is generally believed that procuring academic results are not only primarily determined by higher intelligence but also by the higher emotional intelligence of students. Research has demonstrated that an individual‘s emotional intelligence is often a more accurate predictor of success than the individual‘s IQ. No matter how intellectually intelligent someone is, their success is still governed by how well they communicate their ideas and interact with their peers. Emotional Intelligence has been found a reliable predictor of academic achievement than general intelligence. Research on emotional intelligence (EI) suggests that it is associated with more pro-social behavior, better academic performance and improved empathy towards patients (Chew, Zain & Hassan, 2013). Present education world is making all efforts to provide quality education for the students on today’s school.
For that teachers can improve some crucial emotional competencies among students such as emotional intelligence, intelligent quotient which describes the ability of one to use emotions effectively and productively (Preeti, 2013). College of Education students of Samar State University should be able to understand this concept since they will be teaching soon. As these students harness this kind of intelligence, they will be able to incorporate this conception once they undergo demonstration teaching or as anticipated when they become a proficient teacher someday. This study will test the College of Education Students that brings them in certainty of successful academic achievement that it is highly important to develop their personality with emotional intelligence including stress handling instincts. It would not only make them competent but also be able to analyze the reasons of failure.
People and college students with higher emotional intelligence show more positive social functioning in interpersonal relationship and are regarded by peers as pro social, less antagonistic and conflictual. These improved social competence and quality relationships could facilitate cognitive and intellectual development leading to better academic performance. In a more direct way, EI facilitates prioritizing of thoughts, behavior regulation and appropriately adapted lifestyle choices which benefits academic performance (Chew, et. al, 2013)
Whatever the job, understanding how to cultivate these abilities is essential for a successful career. These emotional traits have little to do with what you were told was important in school, college or other institutions; academic abilities are largely irrelevant to these new standards. Today, it is taken for granted that you have adequate IQ that is, the intellectual ability and the technical know-how to do your job. The focus, instead, is on your EQ: personal qualities such as initiative, empathy, motivation and leadership.
This study is imperative for it will give us the notion that emotional intelligence will help students to accommodate their learning. This will help us to understand that there will be a big possibility of success in a certain fields of study if there will be a higher emotional intelligence in an individual.
Statement of the Problem
This study attempts to determine the emotional intelligence in relation to academic performance of the students of the College of Education, Samar State University, Catbalogan City during the School Year 2014- 2015.
Specifically, this sought answers to the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the student- respondents in terms of the following variates:
1.2 degree program;
1.3 academic performance?
2. What is the level of emotional intelligence of the student- respondents based on the Daniel Goleman’s behavioral model on Emotional Intelligence? 3. Is there a significant relationship between the student- respondents profile variates and the level of emotional intelligence? 4. Is there a significant difference in the level of emotional intelligence between the respondents as grouped according to: 4.1 sex; and
4.2 degree program?
This study will test the following hypotheses:
1. There is no significant relationship between the student- respondents profile variates and the level of EI? 2. There is no significant difference in the level of EI between the respondents as grouped according to: 2.1 sex;
2.2 degree program.
This study is primarily anchored on “Emotional Intelligence Theory” by Daniel Goleman (1995). The behavioral model of Daniel Goleman which focuses on concept that Emotional Intelligence is a collection of skills and competencies that motivate leadership performance. His model outlined the following constructs: 1. Self- Awareness- the ability of reading one’s emotions and recognizing its impact while using gut feelings in guiding decision- making; 2. Self- management- involves the control of personal emotions and impulses and adaptability in changing scenarios and circumstances; 3. Social awareness- the ability of sensing, understanding and reacting to other’s emotions while figuring out social networks; 4. Relationship management- the ability of inspiring, influencing and developing others while resolving conflict.
According to Goleman (1998), the ingredients for outstanding performance require only that we have strengths in a given number of these competencies, typically at least six or so, and that the strengths be spread across all five areas of emotional intelligence. These emotional intelligence capacities are: independent, makes a unique contribution to job performance; interdependent, draws to some extent on certain others; hierarchical, the emotional intelligence capacities build up one another; necessary but not sufficient, having an underlying emotional intelligence ability does not guarantee people will develop or display the associated competencies, such as collaboration or leadership; and generic, different jobs make differing competence demand. This scheme summarizes that these competencies are keys to be competent academically and emotionally.
Students should be able to become accustomed about social and personal aspects in order to induce their emotional intelligence and be able to achieve learning performance through these competencies. Goleman affirmed that bullying, disciplinary problems, violence and drug abuse are reduced in schools with a high EQ. With a solid basis in emotional intelligence, academic performance — as well as behavior — improves. There is an obvious connection to Goleman’s third, motivational component: learning stimulates curiosity and promotes feelings of satisfaction, even joy, when students immerse themselves in the process of assimilating new information. This theory will have an impact on this study seeing as the prime funder of the result of the level of the emotional intelligence of the students will be based on this theory. The categories being highlighted in this theory will determine the ability of the students to perceive things as they are related to responsiveness of emotions.
Show in Figure 1 is the conceptual framework of the study which guides the researchers in conducting the study. At the base of the schema is a box representing the research environment which includes the students of College of Education of Samar State University which serves as the respondents of the study. The lower box is connected to the bigger frame enclosing the three boxes containing, the two boxes at the left side containing the profile and the level of emotional intelligence of the respondents and these two boxes which serve as the variables in relating emotional intelligence to academic performance are connected to the box at the right side as the correlation of the emotional intelligence to academic performance.
The big frame containing the three boxes is then connected to the next upper representing the results are recommendations of the study and the study after analysis. This box is again connected to bottom box which serves as feedback mechanism in order to attain the ultimate goal of the study, which is to develop higher emotional intelligence of the College of Education students.
Significance of the Study
Inasmuch as the study seeks to determine the emotional intelligence of the College of Education Students, this study will be of significance to the Dean and the Teachers of CoEd of Samar State University, Catbalogan City. Students. The students are the ones directly benefited from the result of this study in the sense that they will gain knowledge on their level of achievement in their general education subjects and how it is influenced by their emotional intelligence. In this respect, they will be able to envelop their achievements towards their academic performance. Teachers. The teachers are the indirect beneficiaries of this study. The result of this study will make them aware of the level of emotional intelligence of their students.
This study will also make them realize how the emotional intelligence of their students will have impact on students’ academic performance. Guidance Counselors. This study leads to discover their feelings and understand thoroughly as they enable put them in positive perspective in life. It serves as a guide in drawing concrete plans and strategies in dealing with emotional intelligence. They will be inspired to become aware and knowledgeable to the relevance of emotional intelligence with the performance of the college students, come up with the activities, and make a new program to strengthen the emotional intelligence of the students which will also help them get a higher achievement academically. Administrators. They are tasked to lobby for policies which will provide benefits to enhancing quality of education. As much, the results of this study will give insights of the emotional intelligence of the students; the Dean should use this data for improving instruction in the College of Education.
The Dean is directly involved in the affairs of the COEd in terms of monitoring activities and supervision of performance both the teachers and students in school. The result of this study will provide baseline knowledge on the level of emotional intelligence of the COEd students how certain factors influence it towards their academic performance. Future Researchers. This study will help future researchers to become knowledgeable of the new model of emotional intelligence. This awareness will help them make recommendations for a new program in the school settings to achieve good academic performance.
Scope and Delimitation
This study is a correlation analysis between the level of EI and the academic performance of the Third Year COEd students. The researchers will utilize all Third Year BEEd and BSEd students in the College of Education to acquire information on the emotional intelligence of the students. This study will be conducted during the School Year 2014- 2015. The data that will be covered in this study are limited to the level of EI and the result of the GWA as for academic performance of the students. Additional set of information were the sex and course. The questionnaire will be administered in determining the EI of the students. The researchers will be using the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire that is based on the Emotional Intelligence model of one of the popular proponents, Daniel Goleman.
Definition of Terms
Emotional Intelligence. It is the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions. It refers to the processes involved in the recognition, use, understanding and management of one’s own and others’ emotional state to solve emotion- laden problems and to regulate behavior (Salovey P., Brackett M., & Mayer J., 2004)
Academic Performance. This term refers to the status of the students with respect to attained skill or knowledge as compared with other students or school adopted standards (Good, 1973). In this study, it refers to the GWA of the Third Year Education students on their academic subjects. These are based on the General Weighted Average grades taken during the first semester School Year 2012- 2014.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The ability to express and control our own emotions is important, but so is our ability to understand, interpret, and respond to the emotions of others. Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to perceive, control and evaluate emotions. It refers to our ability to recognize the meanings of emotions and their relationships, to reason, and problem- solve on the basis of them (Salovey, et al., as cited by Compton, 2005). Emotions refer to the feeling-reactions a person has, often in response to a real or imagined relationship. Intelligence, on the other hand, refers to the ability to reason validly with or about something. Mayer and Salovey defined these specific abilities as the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth (Salovey, et. al, 2011).
One of the functions of emotion is, as a motivation in the learning process and determines the direction of the behavior (Roldan, 2003). Affection defines as the experience of being touched caringly, stroked lovingly, and embraced tenderly because one is worthy of being loved and cherished and the absence of this may result in retarded physical and mental development, difficulty in relating with people, fear of intimacy and insecurity (Kahayon & Aquino, 1975) Students’ academic performance is one of the biggest concerns that beset education, both nationally and locally (Lanzarrote, 2008). Educators and parents are searching the best way to boost student’s performance in the class.
Academic performance is a reflection of student’s accomplishments which is related to their school activities. Goleman (1998) believes that emotional competencies are not innate talents, but rather learned capabilities that must be worked on and can be developed to achieve outstanding performance. He believes that individuals are born with a general emotional intelligence that determines their potential for learning emotional competencies. Salovey and Mayer (1997) proposed a model that identified four different factors of emotional intelligence: the perception of emotion, the ability reason using emotions, the ability to understand emotion and the ability to manage emotions. A.) Perceiving Emotions: The first step in understanding emotions is to accurately perceive them. In many cases, this might involve understanding nonverbal signals such as body language and facial expressions. B.) Reasoning with Emotions: The next step involves using emotions to promote thinking and cognitive activity.
Emotions help prioritize what we pay attention and react to; we respond emotionally to things that garner our attention. C.)Understanding Emotions: The emotions that we perceive can carry a wide variety of meanings. If someone is expressing angry emotions, the observer must interpret the cause of their anger and what it might mean. For example, if your boss is acting angry, it might mean that he is dissatisfied with your work; or it could be because he got a speeding ticket on his way to work that morning or that he’s been fighting with his wife.
D.) Managing Emotions: The ability to manage emotions effectively is a key part of emotional intelligence, regulating emotions, responding appropriately and responding to the emotions of others are all important aspect of emotional management. The four branch model of emotional intelligence describes four areas of capacities or skills that collectively describe many areas of emotional intelligence. More specifically, this model defines emotional intelligence as involving the abilities to: accurately perceive emotions in one and others; use emotions to facilitate thinking; understand emotional meanings; and manage emotions (Salovey, et. al, 2004)
Today’s college students are less prepared for college-level work than their predecessors. Once they get to college, they tend to spend fewer hours studying while spending more hours working, some even full time. Stress management and socially competent students may reduce their trepidation towards their learning. Academic performance should be associated with emotional and social aspects in order to carry out students’ burden. Emotional intelligence moderated the relationship between cognitive ability and academic performance. In addition, pupils with high trait EI scores were less likely to have had unauthorized absences and less likely to have been excluded from school. Most trait EI effects persisted even after controlling for personality variance.
It is concluded that the constellation of emotion-related self-perceived abilities and dispositions that the construct of trait EI encompasses is implicated in academic performance and deviant behavior, with effects that are particularly relevant to vulnerable or disadvantaged adolescents. (Petrides, Federickson, & Furnham, 2004). Bar On (2007), based on his conceptualization, people who are emotionally and socially intelligent are able to understand and express themselves, to understand and relate well to others and to successfully cope with the demands of daily life. According to the model presented by Bar On, he looks at five core factors and fifteen sub components: 1. Intrapersonal – relates to self-awareness and self-expression, governing our ability to be aware of our emotions and ourselves in general, to understand our strengths and weaknesses, and to express our feelings and ourselves non-destructively.
It consists of sub factors including self-regard, emotional self-awareness, assertiveness, independence and self-actualization. 2. Interpersonal – relates to our ability to be aware of others’ feelings, concerns and needs, and to be able to establish and maintain cooperative, constructive and mutually satisfying relationships. It consists of sub factors including empathy, social responsibility and interpersonal relationships. 3. Stress Management – relates to emotional management and controlling our ability to deal with emotions so that they work for us and not against us.
It consists of sub factors including stress, tolerance, and impulse control. 4. Adaptability – relates primarily to change management i.e., how we cope with and adapt to personal and interpersonal change as well as change in our immediate environment. It consists of sub factors including reality testing, flexibility, and problem solving. These findings in the literature are necessary to have knowledge about emotional intelligence. From the emotional intelligence and to academic performance itself, the information is quite important to better understand that one of the predictors of academic success is to have higher emotional intelligence. Related Studies
According to Gulap and others (2011), in their study on the “Relationship of Emotional Intelligence with the Students’ Academic Achievement”, study showed that there is a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and students’ academic achievement. It was recommended that component of EI should be taught in schools and should be included in school curricula. Based on the study conducted by Wapańo (2011), she explored two things: what were the significant predictors of emotional intelligence and how are adolescents who are emotionally intelligent different from those who are less so. She conducted her study in Cagayan de Oro City, and involved 300 college students there.
After going through her seemingly technical and complicated study, she found out that the youngsters were deemed more emotionally intelligent when: Their parents used the authoritative parenting style; Adolescents tended to react less negatively to situations; and the youth are more willing to exert some effort in containing their emotional reactions before they fully express them. The study also found out that the Filipino adolescents who were judged to be more emotionally intelligent (have higher EQ’s) tended to: Feel that they are able to deal with their situations more effectively and they have a better sense of effectiveness in dealing with the circumstances that they confronted.
According to Lanzarrote (2008), in her study on the “Factors Affecting the Academic Performance of Education Students in State Universities in Samar Island”, that this study found out based on the data and after the analysis of the data that the grand mean on the attitude towards the course of the teachers and students were 3.75 and 3.51 respectively, interpreted as “favorable attitude “and there is a significant difference between the teachers and students’ perceptions on the student- related factors which she included the attitude of the students to the course. In the related studies mentioned above, emotionally intelligent and socially competent person is necessary to achieve success.
In their studies, similar results have been found that attitude and emotion content towards learning performance are correlated. We now have empirical evidence in the local setting that emotional intelligence or EQ is an important factor that leads to psychological resiliency and stress resistance. It means that if you are emotionally intelligent then you are academically competent. Researchers are keen to have this study for them to determine the significance of emotional intelligence to the workplace. Given these data will back up the researchers if emotional intelligence is one of the predictor of academic success and how the College of Education students are socially and emotionally competent and to bring these students to a higher expectations when they become a proficient teachers someday.
This study will use descriptive, correlational and comparative research design to determine the emotional intelligence of students towards their learning performance employed in the questionnaire.
Appropriate statistical tools will be used in the analysis of data such as frequency count and percentage, mean, weighted mean, Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test for independent samples. Instrumentation
This study will use a questionnaire, an Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire based on the model developed by Daniel Goleman, is a standardized test used to measure the level of emotional intelligence of the students and as the main data gathering instrument. The researcher will use a 5- point Likert scale with the following numerical and descriptive equivalent: 4.5 – 5 = Very High, 3.5 – 4.49 = High, 2.5 – 3.49 = Moderate. 1.5 – 2.49 =Low, and .5 – 1.49 = Very Low. Questionnaire
The questionnaire will serve as the primary tool in gathering data by the researchers. It is composed of two parts. Part I will determine the personal background of the student- respondents in terms of their sex, course and
academic performance. Part II will identify the level of emotional intelligence of the student- respondents. Each statement will be answered by the following: 5- Always; 4- Almost Always; 3- Sometimes; 2- Rarely and; 1- Never. Validation of the Instrument
The questionnaire will undergo the process of validation. The questionnaire will be drafted and submitted to the expert for comments and suggestions during the pre- oral. All comments and suggestions will be considered and incorporated in the revised draft. Sampling Procedure
The respondents in this study will be the Third Year students of College of Education, Samar State University, Catbalogan City. Such number of respondents will be obtained by using total enumeration. The researchers will personally administer the questionnaire to ensure complete retrieval of the accomplished questionnaire. After which, the data contained in the survey instrument will be tabulated and analyzed. Data Gathering Procedure
The researcher will secure a letter of proposal from the Dean of the College of Education to conduct this study. Once permission is granted, the researchers will solicit assistance of two subject professors/ advisers – one who handles BEEd and another one who handles BSEd. Statistical Tools Used
Once the data and information is gathered and obtained from the respondents, it will be tallied, organized and analyzed. Frequency Count and Percentage. This will be used to present the profile of the student- respondents as to the number of occurrence on age, sex year level, status, and course. Mean. This will be employed to calculate the averages where the measure is applicable like age. Weighted Mean. This will be used to express the collective perceptions of respondents regarding their emotional intelligence. Pearson Product Moment Correlation (Pearson r). This will be used to determine the relationship between two variables. t-test for independent samples. This will employ to determine the significant difference in EI of the College of Education students toward academic performance.
Cover Letter of the Questionnaire
Samar State University
College of Education
We the undersigned are fourth year BEEd students who are conducting a research entitled “Emotional Intelligence of the College of Education Students towards Academic Performance.” In this regard, you have chosen as our respondents, we would like to ask wholeheartedly cooperation in answering the attached questionnaire. This survey questionnaire is designed to gather data to measure the level of emotional intelligence of the students here in the College of Education. Please feel free in answering this questionnaire. Please do not leave any questions unanswered. All your answers will be treated confidentially. Thank you very much for your favorable and truthful cooperation to our research study.
Very Truly Yours,
REUSTIA JANE P. ABALOS
RUSTOM B. BERANQUE
DANZEL MARIE F. CABAEL
ALMERA V. DACUMA
DAMCEL Q. GALLARDE
Part I – Respondent’s Profile
Direction: Kindly provide the required information by putting a check mark (✓) on the appropriate space provided.
Sex: ( ) Male( ) Female
Course: ( ) BEEd ( ) BSEd
GWA (2012- 2014)
Part II – Emotional Intelligence Test
Direction: Mark check at the right column representing your best choice corresponding to the level of emotional intelligence of the students. Kindly rate the statements using the following scale.
Strongly Agree – SA
Agree – A
Unsure – U
Disagree – D
Strongly Disagree – SD
SA A U D SD
I can tell when a person is putting a brave face.
I can tell if a person is happy.
I can read facial expressions.
My feelings tell me when something is wrong.
I notice people’s body language.
I can tell when a person is putting on a false smile.
I am sensitive of how my feelings affect my behavior.
I can see if a person is disgusted.
I can see if someone is surprised.
I seldom notice other people’s emotional reactions.
REASONING WITH EMOTIONS
SA A U D SD
I get upset when I see people being treated unfairly.
I tend to ruminate about things.
I can usually predict how emotions will change.
I always admit mistakes.
I have sometimes had to lie.
I always tell the truth.
I empathize with people who are having a difficult time.
I don’t allow my emotions to affect my thinking.
I make decisions only after I have all the facts.
I think about what my emotions are telling me.
SA A U D SD
I know what makes people angry.
I sometimes change my feelings when I see how other people feel.
I listen to other people’s conversation.
I am concerned about others.
I consider my feelings in making a decision.
I know when a person is experiencing mixed feelings.
I read situations accurately.
I tend to know which emotions I am feeling.
I experience a wide range of emotions.
I usually know when a person is trying to manipulate me.
SA A U D SD
I am quite open about my feelings and emotions.
When I am thinking, I block out my feelings.
I stay open to comfortable things.
I keep a cool head in crisis.
I cope will with setbacks.
I share my emotions with my family and friends.
I often ignore my feelings.
I am emotionally stable.
I am not always what I appear to be.
I examine my feelings to help solve problems.
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B. Journals/ Periodicals/ Magazines
Abdullah M. C., Elias H., Mahyuddin.,& Uli J. (2004). Emotional intelligence and academic achievement among Malaysian secondary students.Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 19 (3-4)
Chew, B. H., Zain, A. M., & Hassan, F. (2013). Emotional intelligence and academic performance in first and final year medical students: a cross-sectional study. BMC medical education, 13(1), 44.
Gulap S., et al, (2011). The Relationship of Emotional Intelligence with the students’ academic achievement: Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business 994- 1001
Petrides, K. V., Frederickson, N., &Furnham, A. (2004).The role of trait emotional intelligence in academic performance and deviant behavior at school.Personality and individual differences, 36(2), 277-293.
Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1989).Emotional intelligence. Imagination, cognition and personality, 9(3), 185-211.
C. Thesis/ Dissertations
Lanzarrote M. G (2008). Factors Affecting Academic Performance of Education Students in State Universities in Samar Islands.(Doctoral Dissertation).Eastern Visayas State University, Graduate School.
Nacional, E. Q., (1995). Performance in Values Education/GMRC & Culture- related knowledge, attitudes & practices of Secondary School Students. (Master Thesis). Samar State University.
D. Other Sources
Chamundeswari S., (2013). Emotional Intelligence and Academic Performance
among students at the higher secondary level: International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Scxiences. Retrieved from http://hrmars.com/index.php/journals/papers/IIAREMS/v2-i4/126 Santiago A., (2010). Emotional Intelligence and Academic Performance of intermediate Pupils in CDLS: Academia.edu. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/3835706/