Development through the Life stages
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In this assignment I will be looking into Michael Jackson and I will have three learning aims which include the following; Know stages of growth and development throughout the human lifespan, understand potential effects of life factors and events on the development of the individual and to understand physical and psychological changes of ageing.
(P1, M1, D1)
For one famous individual, research and produce a fact file which includes relevant pictures, charts and diagrams to describe each stage of life they have already lived through, and the ones they will. For two of the life stages discuss the nature/nurture debate in relation to their development and evaluate the effects of both genetic inheritance and the environment, referring to the nature/nurture debate and providing a justified conclusion. Name: Michael Joseph Jackson
Nickname: King of Pop
D.O.B: 29th August 1956
Place of birth: Gary, Indiana
School: Gardner Street Elementary School
Secondary: Montclair College Preparatory School
Raised: in a small house in the suburbs.
Michael’s mother: Katherine Jackson
Michael’s father: Joe Jackson
Death: 25th June 2009 (aged 50 years old)
Place of death: Los Angeles, California
Marriage: Michael Jackson married Lisa Marie Presley, but in 1997 they divorced. In November 1996 Michael Jackson remarried to Debbie Rowe. Michael Jackson’s children:
As a child, Michael Jackson became a famous singer at the age of five and this lead to Michael Jackson being abused in his childhood years; he became a member of the Jackson 5. The evidence to support this is Michael Jackson says in an interview that ‘he use to practice his dance routines and his dad would have a belt in his hand and If you didn’t do it the right way, he would tear you up, really get you,”. Michael Jackson also stated that not only was he practicing he was ‘nervous’ as well, this is because he was nervous as his dad would sit there and make sure that everything was correct and if it wasn’t they would be a consequence. In the interview Michael Jackson was asked ‘how often his father would he beat you?’ And Michael Jackson replied ‘too much’. Michael Jackson also admitted that his father would use iron cords, or whatever he could find. he would pin you up the wall as hard as he could. His mother Katherine Jackson use to scream ‘you’re gonna kill him’. As well as this, while Jackson 5 was on tour; one night while Michael was asleep, his father climbed through the bedroom window, wearing a fright mask and then explained later that he wanted to teach his children not to leave the window open when they went to sleep.
This affected Michael physically and emotional because he will physically be scarred for life because his father frightened him just to teach him a lesson because he left his window open whereas, most parents would tell their children to keep their window closed when they go to bed. Michael will also be emotionally be affected because in Michael’s point of view his father is there to love and protect him not to frighten him and make him feel so scared of his own father because his father went to that sort of length just to teach him a lesson. In Michael’s adolescences years, his father and brother Joe would bully and tease him about his appearance. This affected Michael Jackson self- confidence because his parent and brother did not approve of the ways he looks. The evidence to support this is that his father once said to Michael Jackson ‘you didn’t get that from my side of the family, it must be from kate, kate” referring to Michael’s mother Katherine Jackson In adulthood, Michael Jackson aged 35 years old got addict to painkillers and Opiods which were given to him by doctors repairing scalp injuries suffered in a fire and during cosmetic procedures to make him look younger.
He got addicted to these for 15 years until he died at the 50. Opioids did not a role in Michael’s death and according to Los Angeles County coroner his death was ruled a result of an overdose of propofol.. This photo is evidence that was used in the trial to prove that Michael Jackson attempted to overdose himself instead of his doctor (Conrad Murry), supplying him with too much. Unfortunately, for the doctor this did not benefit in his behalf as the jury believed that the doctor (Conrad Murry) did indeed supplied him with too much propofol to help Michael sleep at night. As well as this, at the age of 21 Michael Jackson started to get plastic surgery. The very plastic surgery was Rhinoplasty; this is a nose job. Michael Jackson decided to get a Rinoplasty because he had an accident and broke his nose.
Michael Jackson told the papers that the reason why he has had a rhinoplasty is because ‘it will help him breathe easier and produce higher notes’. Michael then went on to have further plastic surgery, this includes; nasal surgery, he also went on to have his nose thinned, heavy- lined eyes, a cleft chin. Michael Jackson also bleached his skin because he believes he was ‘too dark’. Michael Jackson denies having plastic surgery expect from his nose. Michael Jackson may have had this plastic surgery to get his approval of his father and brother of his appearance so that they do not bully or tease him, this also could of boost his self-confidence as he believes in himself and feels better about the way he looks. Physical Development:
Birth and infancy:
Nine months after conception the baby will be born. The newborn baby has to take easily digestible food such as mother’s milk in the first week in order to grow. This also links to Michael Jackson as his mother would have either breastfeed or used milk powder to feed her son, A newborn baby does not have a fully developed brain but can usually hear sounds, tell the difference in the way things taste and be able to identify the smell of mother or career. Infants are born with various temporary and primitive reflexes. This physical development links to Michael Jackson, as Mrs Jackson will have carried Michael for nine months before giving birth to her son. As well as this, Michael would have been either breastfed or used milk powder; for example SMA. Childhood:
Children grow steadily at this time but less rapidly than during infancy. By the age of six, a child’s head will be 90 per cent of adult size, even though the body still has lots of growing to do. Reproductive system organs remain small until the onset of puberty. Children’s practical abilities continue to develop; at the age of two, children may be able to run and climb stairs (one step at a time). By the age of four, children may be able to kick and throw a large ball. By the age of six/seven, a child may be able to skip and ride a bicycle. Adolescence;
Puberty in girls often start between the age of eleven and thirteen, although it may begin earlier in some girls. Girls generally start puberty before thirteen but boys generally start puberty later, often between the age of thirteen and fifteen. Puberty is a development stage which prepares the body for sexual reproduction. It is triggered by the action of hormones that control sexual development. Both boys and girls may experience a ‘growth spurt’, where they grow taller at a faster rate than before. Girls’ sexual development during puberty includes the enlargement of breasts, the development of pubic hair, increased fat layers under the skin and the start of menstrual periods. Boys will experience the enlargement of their testes and penis, the development of pubic and facial hair and increased muscle strength. Boys’ voices also ‘break’ and become deeper in tone. These major changes mean that adolescents look and behave very differently from children. Adulthood;
Young adults are often at peak of their physical performance between the age of eighteen and twenty-eight. Most champions of highly active sport are aged between sixteen and thirty. Older adults generally tend to lose some strength and speed with age, although these changes are often unnoticed outside competitive sport. Exercise can help develop physical fitness and athletic skills. An older adult could easily achieve a personal peak of fitness at the age of forty and fifty, if they take up exercise late in life, there are a number of age-related changes that slowly become apparent as we grow older, during their forties, and many people find that they need to wear reading glasses, some people cannot wear high-pitched sounds so well during late adulthood. Many adults show a thinning of hair, with hair loss being common in men. Menopause:
Women are most fertile (able to conceive children) in their later teens and early twenties. The risk of miscarriages and pregnancy complications rises with age, between forty-five and fifty-five, fertility reduces and then comes to an end in a process called ‘the menopause’. It takes several years to complete. The menopause involves: the gradual ending of menstruation and a large reduction in the number of variable eggs in the ovary, An increase in the production of hormones called ‘gonadotrophins’ to try and stimulate egg production which can cause irritability, hot flushes and night sweats, A reduction in sex hormones (Oestrogen and progesterone) produced by a woman’s ovaries; resulting in some shrinkage of sexual organs and sometimes a reduction in sexual interest, Associated problems, such a s osteoporosis; which can be caused by a reduction in the production of sex hormones. Older adults in Britain often put on weight, ‘Middle-aged spread’ may happen because adults still eat the same amount of food as they did when they were younger although they have become much less active. Older adults are more at risk of disease and disability.
The sensorimotor stage; birth to a 1 ½ – 2 ½
Babies are born with the ability to sense objects, babies are also born with a range of reflexes such as the sucking reflex to enable them to feed; these reflexes lead to ‘motor actions’ controlling the body muscles. The sensorimotor stage is a stage when thinking is limited to sensing objects and performing motor actions. Piaget believed that a baby would not have a working system for remembering and thinking about the world until they were about 18 months. The pre-operational stage; 2-7 years
Pre-operational stage means pre-logical; during this stage Piaget believed that children could not think in a logical way; children can use words to communicate but they do not understand the logical implications involved in language. Piaget explained that pre-operational children cannot properly understand how ideas like number, mass ad volume really work. The concrete operational stage 7-11 years
Children in concrete operations stage can think logically provided the issues are ‘down to earth’ or concrete; in concrete operational stage children may be able to understand simple logical puzzles. For example, if you asked a question such as ‘Lucy is taller than Lewis, but Lucy is smaller than Ciaron so who is the tallest?’ you might find that a seven or eight year old has difficulty in mentally imagining the information in a way that will enable them to answer the question. But if the child can see a picture of Lucy, Lewis and Ciaron they might quickly point out who is the tallest. The formal operational stage 11+ years
With formal logical reasoning; an adult can solve complex problems in their head. Formal logical operations enable adolescents and adults to abstract concepts and theories in order to be able to gain an understanding of the world beyond their own experiences. Adults with formal operations can think scientifically; for example, an adult can use formal logical to reason why a car won’t start. They can work out that perhaps the car won’t start because the fuel is not getting to the engine or because there is insufficient air or an electronic fault; each theory can be tested in turn until the problem is solved. Abstract thinking enables us to think through complicated ideas in our head without having to see the concrete pictures. Emotional development:
Attachment stage, Infancy 0-3 years
Bowlby (1953) argued that infants have an in-built need to form an attachment with a career; the quality of this attachment may affect emotional development for the rest of the child’s life. Ainsworth et al (1978) and Marris (1996) argued that the quality of our early attachment influences the assumptions we make about our self and others, infants who are securely attached will grow up with the emotional resources needed to cope with uncertainty in life, infants who are insecurely attached may have a reduced ability to cope with stress and major life events, Understanding self and other, Childhood 4-9 years
Children use their imagination to begin to understand the social roles that other people play. Children begin to imagine a ‘me’ – an idea of self. Relationships with other family members and may influence how a child feels valued- a sense of self-worth. The way a child gets on with teachers and friends may influence their self-confidence. The child might develop a permanent sense of confidence or a sense of failure and inferiority. Identity, Adolescence 10-18 years
During adolescence this sense of self continues to develop. An adolescent needs to develop a secure sense of identity, identity theory was first proposed by Erikson (1963). A person needs a clear understanding of identity in order to feel secure when working with other people or in order to make a loving or sexual attachment , this may be a stressful time as self-esteem may depend on the development of identity. Adulthood, 19-65 years
Erikson argued that the key task of an early adulthood was learning to cope with emotional attachment to a sexual partner. This may involve not being too self-centred or defensive and not becoming emotionally isolated. Staying involved
Later on adults may face a risk of emotional ‘stagnation’ when they lose interest in social issues. According to Erikson, the development task is to stay emotionally involved with social life. Making sense of your life, older adulthood 65+ years
Erikson argued that older people need to develop a secure sense of self that enables them to cope with the physical changes associated with ageing and death; people who fail to make sense of their life might experience emotional despair. Social development
Interacting with carers, infancy 0-3 years
Infants appear to have an in-built tendency to interact with carers. By two months, they may start to smile at human faces. At three months, they will respond when adults talk. At five months, infants can distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar people. Infants make their relationships as they form an emotional attachment to carers. In the later stage of infancy, infants will pay alongside other children (parallel play). First social learning, childhood 4-9 years
Young children are emotionally attached and dependent on the adults that care for them. Children begin to learn social roles and behaviour within their family context. This is called first or primary socialisation; a family environment might provide a ‘safe base’ from which to explore social relationships with other children through play. Children will learn to co-operate with other children (co-operative play). As children grow older they will become increasingly independent and begin to form relationships based on a sense of mutual trust. Friendships become increasingly important as children grow towards adolescence. Children may begin to form social networks or ‘circles’ of friends who like and agree with each other. Secondary social learning, adolescence 10-18 years
During adolescence a person’s sense of self-worth may be more influenced by other adolescents than by the family. Adolescents will copy the style of dress, beliefs, cultural values and behaviours of their own network of friends. Historically, adolescences was seen as a time of ‘storm and stress’. Adolescents have to cope with the development of their own sexuality (the impact of sex hormones at puberty) and the social transition to full independence from the family. Recent research suggests that many adolescents experience a smooth transition to adult roles without serious conflict with parents. Adulthood 19-65 years
During early adulthood, friendship networks continue to be very important. For most people early adulthood is dominated by the formation of adult sexual partnerships and by the need to find employment/establish a career. For many people marriage and parenthood represents major social developments in their life. Many adults in their forties and fifties experience time pressures that may limit their social activity. Mature adults nay have to spilt their time between work, care if parents, other family commitments and wider social activities. Some mature adults report a reduction in the amount if social activity due to those pressures. Other adulthood 65+ years
Following retirement, older adults have more free time. However, many older adults may choose to increase their involvement with close friends and family rather than extend their network of social contacts.
For your chosen famous individual, research and explain the effect of five life factors on their development at two life stages; explain the influence of two predictable and two unpredictable major life events on their development.
(P4, P5, M2, M3, D2)
For your chosen famous individual, explain the effects of physical and psychological changes as they reach older age and discuss how those changes could affect their self-esteem and confidence.
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http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ab/La_Toya_Jackson_cropped.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/89/JermaineJackson2007%28cropped%29.jpg/190px-JermaineJackson2007%28cropped%29.jpg http://meetthefamily.online.fr/images/rebbie2.gif
http://auto.img.v4.skyrock.net/9737/85339737/pics/3116649181_1_7_vWBCS45l.jpg http://cdn3.cdnme.se/cdn/7-2/1091142/images/2009/biorandy_49242524.jpg http://capegazette.villagesoup.com/media/Common/17/15/1119722/tito%20jackson.jpg http://a3.files.biography.com/image/upload/c_fill,dpr_1.0,g_face,h_300,q_80,w_300/MTE5NDg0MDU0ODM1MzMyNjIz.jpg