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Construct Development and Scale Creation

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I picked self-confidence.

According to Brown (2004) self confidence is defined as one’s ability to rely on themselves, to assert oneself socially, regarding what one thinks and possessing the skills to work independently, based on one’s learning from personal experience and the ability to make use of prior knowledge. Self confidence measures include self efficacy, self esteem, knowledge and ability to work out problem situations and make informed and successful decisions, without relying on other individuals.

Scaling method for measuring Personal Self-Confidence will entail a survey consisting of 4 questions. Each question will aim at identifying the participant’s own knowledge of how confident s/he is and the degree of confidence they have on their knowledge and their comfort level with the preferred style of working independently, as a self confident person.

Select and list five items used to sample the domain.
The Survey:
I am comfortable in developing a strategy to solve a problem on my own, before I approach someone else with more experience or knowledge. Yes No I prefer working independently, so that I can work out the details of completing tasks to my satisfaction. Yes No

In case of confusion, I investigate the issue myself, and then make an objective assessment about it and only believe this investigated information. Justify whether this is an interview or self-report instrument.

The scale measuring aspects of self confidence is a self report instrument. It is designed to be filled in as a survey. And the measurement will lead to a conclusion, based on participants responses regarding how much s/he is confident of own self.

Part II: Analysis and Justification

The survey instrument is supposed to determine the level of self confidence in the participant. All five of the statements focus on one’s own self assessment regarding personal confidence and self-esteem. The statements measure the construct as defined. And has the robustness to capture the degree of confidence a person may have. Of course, much more detailed self confidence measuring scales and instruments have been developed before by researchers and scholars. But, for educational and practice purposes, the present scale will suffice to illustrate the purpose of the assignment i.e., apply the knowledge about scale development for research purposes. Several studies have investigated the impact of self-efficacy on consumer decision making and behavior , but none directly examines the role of Internet self-efficacy on attitudes and behavior intentions. Literature on self-efficacy also suggests that the construct has different meanings, depending on the context. For example, it may refer to a person’s trust in another, another person’s ability to perform a task, a person’s judgment about a future event, or even a belief in a person’s own ability (i.e., self-confidence) (Barbalet 1998).

The feeling of confidence in one’s own ability has been characterized as essential for any behavior to take place, because this belief serves as a form of self-assurance (Dequech 2000). With regard to using the Internet, personal confidence in an ability to understand, navigate, and content successfully should alleviate doubts and suspicions when dealing with user-generated content sites. In other words, people’s level of Internet self-efficacy should relate to their heightened beliefs about the networking sites they encounter online. These beliefs in turn reflect a consumer’s perceived capability to use the Internet accomplish tasks (Eastin and LaRose 2000). Then, “as Internet self-efficacy (i.e., beliefs) increases, then attitudes toward the object of those beliefs will also increase”. (Ajzen and Sexton 1999, p. 118). Eastin (2002) provides supporting evidence in a laboratory experiment, in which he identifies subjects with high levels of self-efficacy and assigns them a technology-oriented task, such as the electronic transfer of money, to identify whether they are likely to adopt such an online service. Those participants with higher levels of self-efficacy emerge as more likely to adopt and perform such an action.

Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that confidence in one’s ability to use the Internet positively influences the willingness to adopt and use SNS, because internal beliefs are associated with actual behavior. Nothing is more important in life than having positive self-esteem and a positive outlook on life. With positive self-esteem, a person can accomplish just about anything they put their mind to. Developing self-esteem starts from the day a baby is born and continues throughout their life, but unfortunately, this development is not always complete for some by the time they are adults. If we have low confidence in ourselves and our ability to succeed, it’s time to take another look at how we can build confidence. First of all, it’s important to recognize and believe that positive self esteem cultivates success. The greater our self esteem, the better equipped we are to deal with life’s daily challenges and stressors. Positive self esteem enables us to handle problems and bounce back from them quicker. Base on the self confidence survey, we can realize that a person’s level of self confidence recognizes that she/he is responsible for the decisions that she/he makes. If a person believes they can achieve something, then they will. But low esteem will pull them down and it will be difficult to achieve their goals.

2. Positive self esteem does not mean they must be perfect. No one is perfect. It simply means they are doing the very best job possible to accomplish their personal goals and objectives. Developing self esteem means striving for the best in their life and not comparing yourself to others.

3. Positive self esteem allows people to leverage and maximize all of their skills and talents to maximize their fullest potential. Developing self esteem requires that one inventory their abilities and figure out what they enjoy and what they are good at. Then take advantage of those things to move forward in their professional and personal life.

4. Positive self esteem also requires that they forgive themselves and others for any mistakes. Building self esteem and self confidence means recognizing that not everything is in their control and mistakes will happen along the way. Learn from them and forgive themselves when they fall short of their goals. Then try again!

5. Establishing personal expectations is an important part of building self esteem. It’s difficult to measure progress and success if they don’t know what their goals are. Having clearly defined expectations and goals will help them improve self esteem because they are working towards them.

6. Others cannot make they feel inferior unless they allow them to. The only way they can harm them is if they allow them to do so. People are allowed to have their own opinions but they are special and unique and you must always hold your head up high and believe in yourself. That’s the best way to build your own self-esteem.

In summary, by developing that survey we recognize self confidence. It can be reliable because the construct of the test is based one’s self confidence. In survey research, data collection instruments can be administered either as questionnaires in which there is no intervention between the data collection instrument and the subject or as an interview conducted by a human being. The intervention of a human interviewer between the survey instrument and the subject’s responses has both advantages and disadvantages. In particular, interviewer bias and interviewer effects can impact the quality of the data obtained from the subject.

However, interviewing techniques – in particular cognitive interviewing that employs probing or “think aloud” methodologies – can improve the quality of the data gathered in a survey. These methods also help survey designers develop better survey instruments and help researchers better understand and predict human behavior. When properly used, interviewing techniques can give researchers both a depth and breadth of information that cannot be gathered through other data collection techniques The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale is a tool for assessing global self-esteem. Psychologists and sociologists are common users for this instrument. Also, the instrument is a vital part of self esteem measurement in social science research and is mainly used for adolescents. RES exists in several languages – English, French, and Norwegian.


Brown R. P. & Zeigler-Hill V. Narcissism and the non-equivalence of self-esteem measures: A matter of dominance. Journal of Research in Personality Volume 38, Issue 6, December 2004, Pages 585-592.


Hermon L.W.; Borgen F. H.; Berreth J. M.; King J. C.; & Ward C. C. The Skills Confidence Inventory: A Measure of Self-Efficacy. Journal of Career Assessment, Vol. 4, No. 4, 457-477 (1996) http://jca.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/4/4/457


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