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Child and Young Person Development Persuasive

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Task 1 (1.1): Describe the expected pattern of children and young people’s development from birth to 19 years, to include: physical development communication and intellectual development social, emotional and behavioural development.

Answer to Task 1 (1.1):
Physical Development:
Age
Expected development
0-3 Months
When placed on their front, babies lie with the head turned to one side, the buttocks humped up and the knees tucked under the abdomen. Can turn from their side to their back.
Keep their head in a central position when lying supine.
4-6 Months
If lying on their back can roll over onto their stomach.
When held standing, do so with a straight back.
When held on the floor, bounce their feet up and down.
7-12 months
Stand holding on to furniture.
Are generally able to walk alone.
Move arms up and down together when excited.
1-3 years
Can kneel upright without support.
Can climb up onto furniture.
Can jump from a low step.
3-5 years
Can build towers of nine or ten cubes.
Enjoy climbing trees and on frames.
Have a good control over pencils and paint brushes.
5-8 Years
Use a variety of play equipment, including slides, swings and climbing frames. Can hop easily, with good balance
Are skilful in catching and throwing a ball, using one hand only. 9-12 years
Often enjoy participating in competitive sports.
Can skip freely.
Have an established writing style, usually with joined -up letters. 12-16 years
The head ,feet and hands grow to adult size first
The arms and legs grow in length and strength; finally
The trunk, the main part of the body from shoulder to hip, grows to an adult size. 17-19 Years
Will complete the process of physical maturation, usually attaining their full adult height. Will complete the maturation of secondary sexual characteristics, such as the size of penis and breasts. Communication and Language Development:

Age
Expected development
0-3 Months
Make eye contact and cry to indicate need.
Need to share language experiences and co-operate with others. Cry in more expressive ways.
4-6 Months
Squeal with delight.
Talk to them in a tuneful, sing-song voice.
Enjoy communicating with sounds.
7-12 Months
Imitate adult sounds, like a cough or a ‘brrr ’ noise.
Understand and obey the command ‘no’
Speak two to six or more recognisable words and show that they understand many more- babbling has developed into a much more speech-like form, with increased intonation. 1-3 Years
Refer to themselves by name.
Talk to themselves often, but may not always be understood by others. Enjoy listening to and making music.
3-5 Years
Still talk to themselves when playing.
Tell long stories, sometimes confusing fact and fantasy.
Are fluent in their speech and grammatically correct for the most part. 5-8 Years
Enjoy jokes and riddles.
Talk fluently and with the confidence.
Begin to understand book language and that stories have characters and a plot (narrative). 9-12 Years
Use and understand complex sentences.
Can read stories with increasing fluency.
Understand most common idioms.
12-16 Years
Have a fast, legible style of hand writing.
Communicate in an adult manner, with increasing maturity.
Understand abstract language, such as idioms, figurative language and metaphors. 17-19 Years
Are able to process texts and abstract meaning.
Understand punctuation and can use syntax effectively.

Intellectual / Cognitive Development:
Age
Expected development
0-3 Months
Explore using their senses and using their own activity and movement. Begin to repeat enjoyable movements, such as thumb-sucking.
Show an increasing interest in playthings.
4-6 Months
Understand the meaning of words such as ‘bye-bye’, ‘mama’ or ‘dada’. Show some understanding of the emotional state of their mother’s or main carer’s voice. Take an increasing interest in their surroundings.

7-12 Months
Can judge the size of an object up to 60 cm (2 feet).
Look in the correct direction for fallen toys.
Recognise familiar pictures.
Use trial-and –error methods to learn about objects.
1-3 Years
Know the names of parts of their bodies and can point to them when asked. Recognise that people may have different desires.
Are particularly interested in the names of people and objects. 3-5 Years
Understand the concept of ’one’ and ‘toys’.
Can sort objects into simple categories.
Can sort objects into groups.
5-8 Years
Are interested in reading and writing.
Recognise their name and attempt to write it.
Express themselves in speech and writing.
Begin to understand how to tell the time.
9-12 Years
Can deal with abstract ideas.
Can write fairly lengthy essays
Begin to devise memory strategies.
12-16 Years
Experience a major shift in thinking from the concrete to the abstract-an adult way of thinking. Approach a problem in a systematic fashion.
Use imagination when solving problems.
17-19 Years
Identify career goals and prepare to achieve them.
Develop new skills, hobbies and adult interests.
Understand abstract concepts and are aware of consequences and personal limitations.

Social Development:
Age
Expected development
0-3 Months
Smile in response to an adult.
Gaze attentively at the adult’s face when being fed
Turn to regard a nearby speaker’s face.
Months
Offer toys to others.
Smile at familiar people and strangers.
Show enjoyment at caring routines such as bath time.
7-12 Months
Still prefer to be near to a familiar adult.
Enjoy socialising at mealtimes, joining in conversations while mastering the task of self-feeding. Are closely dependent upon an adult’s reassuring presence. 1-3 Years
Play contentedly alone (solitary play), but prefer to be near a familiar adult or sibling. Are impulsive and curious about the environment.
Play more with other children, but may not share their toys with them. 3-5 Years
Enjoy family mealtimes.
Making friends and are interested in having friends.
Like to be with other children.
5-8 Years
Choose their own friends.
Form close friendships, mostly within their own sex.
9-12 years
Enjoy secrets and jokes.
Begin to display a sense of loyalty to a group.
Prefer to spend leisure time with friends and continue to belong to small groups of the same age. 12-16 Years
Are more independent but still like adults to be present to help them. Become more socially skilled and better at resolving conflicts. Tend to identify more friends and begin to separate from parents; they are less dependent on family for affection and emotional support. 17-19 Years

Are exploring their own sexuality.
Have more adult relationships with their parents.

Emotional Development:
Age
Expected development
0-3 months
The baby shows trust and security
The baby might show distress when his/her mother leaves.
Often imitate facial expressions.
4-6 Months

Show distress when their mother leaves.
Are more aware of other people’s feelings, crying if a sibling cries, for, example, or laughing when others do-this is called recognising an emotion; it does not mean that they are really feeling that emotion. 7-12 Months

Enjoy songs and rhymes.
Show definite likes and dislikes at meals and at bedtimes.
Are emotionally labile- that is, they are likely to have fluctuating moods. 1-3 Years
May easily become frustrated ,with occasional temper tantrums Are eager to be independent, for example to dress themselves (‘Me do it! ‘) Are beginning to express how they feel
3-5 Years
Show affection for younger siblings
Often develop fears, for example of the dark, as they become capable of pretending and imagining. Often show sensitivity to others.
5-8 Years
Show sympathy and comfort friends who are hurt.
Learn how to control their emotions-they realise that they can keep their own thoughts Private and hide their true feelings.
Are easily embarrassed.
9-12 Years
Are beginning to see things from another’s point of view, but still have trouble fully understanding the feelings and needs of other people Have a growing sensitivity and begin to realise that others experience feelings of anger, fear and sadness similar to their own. Often feel frustrated when unable to express themselves-about half of 2 year –old children have
tantrums on a more or less daily basis. 12-16 Years

Can experience wide emotional swings, for example fluctuate between emotional peaks of excitement and depths of moodiness. Tend to identify more with friends and begin to separate from parents; they are less dependent on family for affection and emotional support. 17-19 Years

The young person may become self-conscious or worried about physical changes. The young person often feels misunderstood.
May become self-conscious or anxious about their physical changes (too, short, tall, fat, thin etc.). Behavioural Development:
Age
Expected development
1.3 Months
Child responds to mother’s breast when hungry.
Offer them to child when they always they are upset or crying. 4.6 Months
During the bath time let the child play with the water.
Actively explores environment.
Distress if not with people that they know well.
7-12 Months
No understanding that toy or other objects may belong to others. Signs of temper and frustration.
Begin to explore the world around them by touching, tasting, looking and listening. 1-3 Years
Easily frustrated and may have tantrums.
Finds sharing difficult
Dislikes adult attention being given to other children.
3-5 Years
Follow simple rules by imitating other children.
Enjoy activities such as painting.
Enjoy being with other children.
Is able to communicate feelings and wishes
5-8 Years
Have strong friendships.
Can argue back.
Copies behaviour of other children.
Understands the need for rules and plays games that have rules. 9-12 Years
Awareness of consequences of behaviour and increased thoughtfulness. Ask a lot of question to get the information they need.
Be moody (especially in the older child).
12-16 Years
Thoughts and ideas that may be different to their parents’. Arguments with parents as young people start to become independent. Take the responsibilities of your own.
17-19 Years
Young people now responsible for their own behaviour, some beginning to question their families’ attitudes and beliefs. Arguments can develop quickly and there can be a lot of tension.

References:
1. http://www.jigsaw.org.nz/Site/Help/Development/ages_and_stages.aspx#top

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