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Chalk Made Out from Seashells

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Nowadays, people are getting to use to collect seashells for fun and for past time. They made decorations, even accessories for a doll out of it and most people collect seashells. Here in the Philippines, people made seashells for decorations and accessories. They made seashells into accessories for them to sell it. But don’t you know that aside from those things seashells can also be made into a much useful things. In addition, seashells are also used in making jewelry. These shells are made into smooth perfect spheres which, by themselves, could be mistaken to pearls.

We are aware that the education is the most powerful key to succeed. And to support this, we need some facilities and materials for us to make it easier and clearer. Of course, in our modern world today we know that we already have some modernized equipments to make it clearer but still for those hopeless countries and people who want to be sent in school. And the price of almost all commercialized or local products continuously increasing. And this is a big aspect to be considered in schooling. Some of the schools don’t have enough support from government and this thing brings difficulties for us students.

We already have whiteboards that just need markers and projectors for those modernized. But only the rich countries and people can afford it, how about the poor ones? It would be expensive for them.

So, researchers made some trials and errors from different raw materials to be made into a more durable and long lasting chalk. Until they found out that seashells is made up of calcium carbonate that can also be found in chalk.

The term seashells usually refer to the exoskeleton of invertebrate animals. Most seashells are commonly found at the beaches but in a variety of habitats it is also possible to find shells from freshwater animals. But what was known in these animals they are made up of calcium carbonate.

It will now be easy for the less fortunate country or people to afford a durable and long lasting alternative chalk. We also need to know the hardness and the texture of the chalk out of seashells.

Statement of the Problem
The study is conducted to ascertain the production of chalk from seashells. Specifically, this study sought to answer the following question: 1. Is there any significant difference between the chalk out from seashells and leading commercial one? 2. Is there any significant difference between the experimental chalk from seashells and the leading commercial one in terms of quality and durability? 3. Is the product is acceptable to the consumer in terms of availability and economic value?

Statement of the Hypotheses
Based on the aforementioned problems, the following hypotheses are advanced: 1. There is no significant difference between the chalk out from seashells and the leading commercial one. 2. There is no significant difference between the experimental chalk from seashells and the leading commercial one in terms of quality and durability. 3. The product is not acceptable to the consumer in terms of availability and economic value. Significance of the Study

This study is focused on the possibility of replacing commercialized chalk with seashells. This study opens another way for us people to be able to save and make chalk that is more durable with long-lasting use. The study was conducted as a remedy for the common problem of spending much in. It aims to help the less fortunate buying some expensive commercialized or local products.

Scope and Limitation
This study is focused on designing and producing alternative chalk. It also deals with the assessment of its actual advantages as compared to the commercialized one. The qualities and quantities data obtained in the testing of the product against the control were limited to 3 tests only.

This study will be conducted at the residence of the researcher in his residence at Panitan, Capiz.

Chapter II
This part presents the conceptual literature and related studies.

A seashell is the common name for hard, protective outer layer that was created by a sea creature or a marine organism. The shells are the part of the body of a marine animal, in most cases the exoskeleton. The word shell is often used to refer only to the shells of marine mollusk, mollusk shells but it can also be used to mean the shells of a wide variety of marine animals from different phyla. The composition of seashells have three distinct substances involved: the outer layer of the horny substance conchiolin, the intermediate layer of calcite, and the smooth inner layer composed mainly of calcium calbornate. The blood of a mollusk is rich in a liquid form of calcium. A soft outer organ called the mantle concentrates the calcium in areas where it can separate out from the blood, forming calcium carbonate crystals. The mantle deposits sheets of the crystal in varying thickness. The individual crystals in each layer vary in shape and orientation.

Most of the seashells are commonly found in beach drift, natural detritus that is deposited along strandlines on the beaches by the waves and the tides. Shells are very often washed up onto a beach empty and clean it’s because the animal has already died and the soft parts having rotted away or having eaten by either predators or scavengers. Empty seashells are often found by beachcombers and collecting these shells is a harmless hobby or study.

The majority of seashells which are offered for sales commercially have been collected alive and then killed and cleaned, specifically for commercial trade. This type of exploitation can sometimes have a strong negative impact on the distribution of rarer species and on local ecosystems. Apart from mollusk shells, there are other types of shells that can be found on beaches are those of barnacles, horseshoe crabs, and brachiopods. Some of these seashells came from annelid worms in the family of Serpulidae create shells made up of calcareous tubes cemented onto other surfaces. The shells of sea urchins are called tests and the shells of crabs and lobsters are called exuviae. But most of these seashells are external.

Seashells have been admired, studied and used by humans for many different purposes throughout history and pre-history. But seashells are not the only kind of shells. In a variety of habitats it is possible to find shells from freshwater animals such as freshwater mussels and freshwater snails, and it is also possible to find shells from land snails.

A chalk is a soft white porous sedimentary rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite. Calcite is calcium carbonate or CaCO3. It forms under reasonably deeps marine conditions from the gradual accumulation of minute calcite plates shed from micro-organisms called coccolithophores. It is common to find chert or flint nodules embedded in chalk. Chalk can also refer to other compounds including magnesium silicate and calcium sulfate. Chalk has greater resistance to weathering and slumping than the clays which it is usually associated. Thus, forming tall steep cliffs where chalk ridges meet the sea. Chalk hills, known as chalk down land, usually form where bands of chalk reach the surface at an angle and forming a scarp slope. Because chalk is porous it can hold a large volume of ground water, providing a natural reservoir that releases water slowly through dry seasons.

Chalk is composed mostly of calcium carbonate with minor amounts of silt and clay. It is normally formed underwater, commonly on the sea bed then consolidated and compressed during diagenesis into the form commonly seen today. During diagenesis silica accumulates to form chert or flint nodules within the carbonate rock. Ninety million years ago the chalk down land of Northern Europe was ooze accumulating at the bottom of a great sea. Protozoans such as foraminifera lived on the marine debris that showered down from the upper layers of the ocean. Their shells were made of calcite extracted from the rich sea-water. As they died a deep layer gradually built up and eventually, through the weight of overlying sediments, became consolidated into rock. Later earth movements related to the formation of the Alps raised these former sea-floor deposits above sea level.

Chalk is used to make quicklime and slaked lime, mainly used as lime mortar in buildings. In southeast England, Deneholes are a notable example of ancient chalk pits. Such bell pits may also mark the sites of ancient flint mines, where the prime object was to remove flint nodules for stone tool manufacture. The surface remains at Cissbury are one such example, but perhaps the most famous is the extensive complex at Grimes Graves in Norfolk. The traditional uses of chalk have in some cases been replaced by other substances, although the word “chalk” is often still applied to the usual replacements. Blackboard chalk is used for drawing on rough surfaces, as it readily crumbles leaving particles that stick loosely to these surfaces. Although traditionally composed of natural chalk, modern blackboard chalk is generally made from the mineral gypsum, often supplied in sticks of compressed powder about 4 inches long. Sidewalk chalk is similar to blackboard chalk, except that it is formed into larger sticks and often colored. It is used to draw on sidewalks, streets, and driveways, mostly by children, but also by adult artists. In agriculture chalk is used for raising pH in soils with high acidity.

The most common forms are calcium carbonate and calcium oxide. In field sports, including grass tennis courts, powdered chalk was used to mark the boundary lines of the playing field or court. This gives the advantage that, if the ball hits the line, a cloud of chalk or pigment dust can be seen. Nowadays the substance used is mostly titanium dioxide. In gymnastics, rock-climbing, weight-lifting and tug of war, chalk — now usually magnesium carbonate — is applied to the hands to remove perspiration and reduce slipping. Tailor’s chalk is traditionally a hard chalk used to make temporary markings on cloth, mainly by tailors. Nowadays it is usually made from magnesium silicate. Polishing chalk is chalk prepared with a carefully controlled grain size, for very fine polishing of metals.

Related Studies
Gallinero, Reymark A., et al. In his study about “Pulverizing Tuway Shells as a Potential Material for Chalk Production” there were three test in this study that were prepared. The tuway shells were burned to make one stick, wait until the shells brittle easily. A mortar and pestle were used to pulverized the shells. The amount of shells is half of the amount of Pbc grout that was put in the shells. The mixture were mixed and the mixture was put in the chalk molder. Then wait for 2 hours to make the chalk dry. After gathering data, they found out that the chalk from Tuway shells are not the same as the commercialize chalk in terms of color and texture but in terms of hardness the chalk from Tuway shells is more harder.

Chapter III
This part describes the research design that will be used in the study, enumerate the materials and tools that will be usedand presents the different steps on how the experiment will be carried out.

Gathering materials
In conducting this study, the researcher used seashells to puverized, 500 g of cassava, mortar and pestle to pulverized the seashells, oven toaster for boiling the seashells, grater and cloth is used to squeeze the juice from cassava, and a bowl as a container of the extract.

Under the sun and wait until it dries up and is ready to be used. In conducting the experiment the researcher followed the following procedure: Collect seashells from the sea shore or left-over shell viands, and cassava. Pulverized the shells until it becomes fine as powder and set aside in a container. Grate the cassava and squeeze its juice using cloth. Separate the liquid from its residue. Mix the residue of the extracted cassava and the pulverized seashells. Add a small amount of water at the right ratio of the quantity of the mixture. Mold the mixture into different shapes and sizes according to your desire. Place it under the sun and wait until it dries up and is ready to be used.

Procedural Design

Statistical Analysis
The statistical analysis that will be used in this study for the computations of the results were mean and analysis of variance. The mean was computed determine the acceptability of the product in terms of factors used in this study. The analysis variance was computed to test whether the particular chalk from seashells and the commercialized chalk are significantly different. Mean

Mean is also known as the arithmetic mean, a value that helps summarize an entire set of numbers. A set’s mean is calculated by adding the numbers in the set together and dividing their sum by the number of members of the set. Mean: μ=i=1NxiN

Table 1
value| remarks|
1-1.80| Least Desirable|
1.81-2.61| Desirable|
2.62-3.42| Moderately Desirable|
3.43-4.23| Highly Desirable|
4.24-5.0| Excellent|

* R = 5-4 = 4
* I = 5/4 = 0.80

Analysis of Variance
Analysis of variance is the analysis of the difference in the outcomes of an experiment and determines the factors that contribute to the variable. It is also the method of splitting the total variation of the data into meaningful components.

Sum-of-Squares Computational Formula
SST= i=1kj=1nx2ij-T2…nk

SST = total sum of squares
SSC = sum of squares for column means
SSE = error sum of squares

Table 2
Analysis of Variance for the One-Way Classification
Source of Variation| Sum of Squares| Degrees of Freedom| Mean Square| Computed| Column meansError| SSCSSE| k-1k(n-1)| s2=SSCk-1s22=SSEk(n-1)| s12s22| Total | SST| nk-1| | |

Definition of Terms
For the clarity and better understanding of this study, the following terms were defined: Cassava. Cassava is a shrubby tropical American plant widely grown for its large, tuberous, starchy roots. The root of this plant is eaten as a staple food in the tropics only after leaching and drying to remove cyanide. Cassava starch is also the source of tapioca. In this study, it is referred to the fruit to be used in getting its juice and to be mixed with the seashells. Extract. Extract is a concentrated substance obtained by first using a solvent to dissolve this substance when present in a mixture and then evaporating the solvent. In this study, it is referred to the juice obtained from the fruit of the plant which is the cassava and prepared into pure concentrations. Seashells. Seashell is a hard, rigid outer layer, which has evolved in a very wide variety of different animals, including mollusks, sea urchins, crustaceans, turtles and tortoises, armadillos, etc. Scientific names for this type of structure include exoskeleton, armour, test, carapace, and peltidium. In this study the seashells are the main subjects to be used for the experiment and to be made into a chalk.

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