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Business and Society

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General Motors has been called a “template for 21st century capitalism.” True False A business is any organization that is engaged in making a product or providing a service for a profit. True False Businesses and society are independent of one another. True False The stakeholder theory of the firm argues that a firm’s sole purpose is to create value for its shareholders. True False The instrumental argument for the stakeholder theory of the firm says that companies perform better if they consider the rights and concerns of multiple groups in society. True False The normative argument for the stakeholder theory of the firm says that the stakeholder view is simply a more realistic description of how companies really work. True False Nonmarket stakeholders are those that engage in economic transactions with the company as it carries out its primary purpose of providing society with goods and services. True False Market stakeholders include nongovernmental organizations and the media. True False Each stakeholder group has only one source of power in relation to a firm. True False

10. The interests of different stakeholders often coincide. True False 11. Stakeholders involved with one part of a company often may have little or no involvement with another part of the company. True False 12. Some scholars have suggested that managers pay the most attention to stakeholders possessing the least salience. True False 13. Urgency refers to the extent to which a stakeholders actions are seen as proper or appropriate by the broader society. True False 14. A stakeholder map is a useful tool, because it enables managers to see quickly how stakeholders feel about an issue and whether salient stakeholder tend to be in favor or opposed. True False 15. The external environment of business is static. True False

16. Which statement is not correct about the business-society interdependence? A. Business is a part of society. B. Business is separated from the rest of society by clear boundaries. C. Business activities impact other activities in society. D. Actions by governments rarely significantly affect business. 17. Which of the following examples best illustrates the boundary exchanges a company would encounter according to the general systems theory? A. An industrial company installs new equipment in its plant to comply with environmental regulations. B. A software company develops an application for a client. C. A purchasing department employee negotiates a price on parts from a supplier. D. All of the above. 18. Which of the following is the result of an inseparable relationship between business and society? A. All business decisions have a social impact. B. The vitality of business depends on society’s actions and attitudes. C. The survival of business is independent of society. D. Both A and B, but not C. 19. Which of the following statements is not true about the interactive social system? A. Business and society need, as well as influence, each other.

B. The boundary between business and society is clear and distinct. C. Business is a part of society, and society penetrates far and often into the business. D. Business and society are both separate and connected. 20. A firm subscribing to the ownership theory of the firm would mainly be concerned with providing value for its: A. Shareholders. B. Customers. C. Board of Directors. D. Community. 21. Corporations who run their operations according to the stakeholder theory of the firm create value by: A. Innovating new products. B. Increasing their stock price. C. Developing their employees’ professional skills. D. All of the above. 22. Which argument says that stakeholder management realistically depicts how companies really work? A. Descriptive argument. B. Instrumental argument. C. Normative argument. D. Fiduciary argument. 23. The instrumental argument says stakeholder management is: A. A more realistic description of how companies really work. B. More effective as a corporate strategy. C. Simply the right thing to do. D. Determined by the amount of stock owned in the firm. 24. The fiduciary duty of managers benefit a firm’s: A. Stockholders. B. Customers. C. Employees. D. All of the above.

25. A number of European countries require public companies to include employee members on their boards of directors, so: A. The employees are available to answer questions. B. Management does not have to attend the meetings. C. That their interests will be explicitly represented. D. They have more power than any other stakeholder. 26. Stakeholder groups can include: A. Stockholders. B. The media. C. Environmental activists. D. All of the above. 27. Which one of the following is considered to be a nonmarket stakeholder of business? A. Customers. B. Media. C. Creditors. D. Stockholders. 28. Which of the following is not considered to be a nonmarket stakeholder? A. Government agencies. B. The natural environment. C. Activist groups. D. Non-governmental organizations. 29. The phenomenon of a person or group holding multiple stakeholder duties is referred to as: A. Role sets. B. Primary Stakeholder(s). C. Ownership Theory. D. None of the above.

30. A stakeholder analysis: A. Creates equality among all stakeholder interests. B. Allows managers to examine two primary questions. C. Involves understanding the nature of stakeholder interests. D. All of the above. 31. The four types of stakeholders’ power recognized by most experts are: A. Voting, economic, political, and legal power. B. Social, legal, environmental, and political power. C. Social, regulatory, voting, and media power. D. Economic, media, legal, and political power. 32. Which of the following statements is (are) correct about stakeholder’ power? A. Different stakeholders have different types and degrees of power. B. Stockholders’ voting power is limited to the percentage of stock owned by the stockholder. C. It uses resources to achieve a desired decision or outcome. D. All of the above. 33. Customers can exercise economic stakeholder power by: A. Voting on a proposed merger for the company and a competitor. B. Boycotting products if they believe the goods are too expensive. C. Attending the company’s annual meeting. D. Applying for a job with the company.

34. Which of the following is not an example of stakeholders’ economic power? A. A toy manufacturer halts supplies to a customer that demanded very low prices. B. A social group protests a government’s decision to raise taxes. C. A local community boycotts a grocery store suspected of inaccurate weight scales. D. An equal rights group refuses to do business with a business that has a discriminatory hiring policy. 35. When a community group sues a company for health effects caused by unsafe toxic chemicals disposal, it is an exercise of a stakeholders’: A. Legal power. B. Voting power. C. Economic power. D. Political power. 36. What stakeholder group(s) can exercise legal power? A. Employees. B. Customers. C. Shareholders. D. All of the above. 37. What kind of power might a local community use to influence a company’s decisions? A. Publicizing an issue. B. Lobbying government policy makers for regulations. C. Challenging whether a business activity should continue to operate. D. All of the above.

38. Stakeholders have been able to form international coalitions more successfully through use of: A. Government regulation. B. Community involvement. C. Communications technology. D. Unions. 39. When something stands out from a background, is seen as important, or draws attention it is: A. Urgent. B. Salient. C. Powerful. D. Legitimate. 40. Stakeholders stand out to managers when they exhibit: A. Integrity, power, and legitimacy. B. Power, legitimacy, and urgency. C. Integrity, loyalty, and power. D. Legitimacy, loyalty, and urgency. 41. A stakeholder map is a useful tool because: A. It enables mangers to see quickly how stakeholders feel about an issue. B. It allows managers to evaluate what outcomes are likely regarding an issue. C. It helps managers discourage or dissolve stakeholder coalitions. D. Both A and B, but not C. 42. Departments, or offices, within an organization that reach across the dividing line that separated the company from groups and people in society are: A. Inter-departmental divisions. B. Geographical location areas. C. Boundary-spanning departments. D. Organizational maps.

43. Interactions between business and society occur: A. Within a finite natural ecosystem. B. Only during an environmental crisis. C. When business employees and the community are of similar cultural backgrounds. D. When legislation is passed requiring interaction. 44. Harnessing human imagination to create new approaches to the concerns of modern society is an example of: A. Personal identification. B. Networks. C. Business profits. D. Technology. 45. A successful business must meet its: A. Economic objectives. B. Social objectives. C. Economic and social objectives. D. Top executives’ expectations. 46. Describe how the general systems theory can be applied to a business.

47. Supporters of the stakeholder theory of the firm make three core arguments for their position. Define and provide examples of each.

48. Compare and contrast the relationships a firm may have with market and non-market stakeholders.

49. Discuss why a manager should, or should not, be considered a stakeholder.

50. Explain the process called stakeholder analysis. Include a description of its four key questions.

51. What is a stakeholder map? Why is it a useful tool?

52. Describe and give examples of the external forces that shape the relationship between business and society.

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