Basic composition of MIS
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Question: Explain the basic composition of MIS that can be explained in terms of different approaches. Answer : MIS is system where manager could access detailed piece of information instantaneously. For example, it also explains annexure and appendages of accounting system and financial summary statements. MIS can be defined as an integrated man-machine system that provides information to support planning and control function of managers in the organisation. MIS reveals clear planning targets to control operations and information of performances. The major purpose of MIS could be generalized as to sub-serve managerial functions, routine collection of information, support and review planning control decisions. The basic composition of MIS can be explained In terms of different approaches:
2)Information system functions
These five approaches mentioned above are explained in detail below: 1)Physical components: Physical components of MIS can be explained to a person interested in understanding structure of MIS in the organisation. The physical components are: HardwareRefer to physical computer equipment and associated devices such as CPU, monitor, keyboard, printer, discs, tapes and CD’s.
SoftwareIt is a broad word assigned to the instructions that direct the operations of the hardware. This can be further classified as a system software and application software.
Data BaseThis consists all data used by the application software and stored in files.
ProcedureRegular operating procedures like manuals also form a part of physical structure.
Operating Personnel like computer operator programmer, system analyst,
System analyst Technician System manager are users of information system.
MIS helps to assess internal sources, market research, government rules, publications, advertisement, external data and special analysis of information needed.
2) Information system functions: The information system could be explained in terms of its processing functions. i)Transaction: Information system process transactions. Transaction may be defined as an activity taking place in the organisation. It may be internal or external ii)To produce report: Many reports are produced on a regular basis which are termed as schedule reports. It may be adhoc or special reports. iii)To process inquiries: Data base information system is utilized for processing inquiry. They may be regular with a pre-defined format or adhoc inquiries. iv)To process interactive support applications: Various types of models are used for processing applications designed to support planning, analysis and decision making. The mode of operation is interactive with the user responding to questions and requests for data yielding immediate results. v)To maintain master files: Information system is used to create and maintain master files of an organisation. For example:
a) processing of pay slips
c) employee’s rate of pay
d) deduction etc.
3)Decision support: The basic structure of the MIS can be differentiated on the basis of its support in decision making in an organisation. This decision can be highly structured or unstructured. A structured decision is programmable and they are routine in nature. The information system support will differ for two types of decision and so also information system. Some decision will fit easily into this classification, but some decisions a are more or less structured and have elements that are programmable and some that
4)Management Hierarchy: MIS supports management activities in terms of hierarchy and they can be classified into three levels: a) Strategic planning level deals with long term consideration such as choice of business, market strategy, product mix, etc. b) Management control level has a nedium term planning horizon including acquisition and organisation of funds, programming work schedule, training personnel etc. c) Operation control level is generally short-term decisions, immediately operation like production level pricing, inventory are as a result of operational control. Therefore, information system will be different for all the three levels of management hierarchy even through the management activities and information processing for the 3 levels are inter-related. Eg.: Inventory control functions at all levels.
5)Organisational functions: MIS is essentially a federation of information systems that are designed to support the functions of sub-system of an organisation.
There is no set classification of functions but a designed group of functions are necessary in any manufacturing organisation which include production, sales, finance and accounting, materials, personnel, marketing and information systems. Each of the above function has unique information needs and requires specific information support.
A clear understanding of these approaches would be necessary to make a proper selection for development of MIS and to ensure proper implementation and running of systems. The following models are used for MIS development: 1.SDLC(System Development life Cycle) approach: In this approach, a system is visualized as a living organism with different phases of life such as birth, growth, maturity and death. The following are the phases of it:-Investigation
2.Prototyping approach: Prototyping approach is easy and convenient compared to SDLC since it is comprehensive and does not include all the requirements of the user. The process of prototyping includes:-Identifying the user’s basic information requirements.
Developing the initial prototype system.
Use of prototype system to refine the users requirement
Revise and enhance the prototype system.